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CO:i:. . _^1AL GTTi'^E. 

Consfsting of et 


! IN'; : Kiev TRADE ^ r\, ('111X;\. V 



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J^^^v ^«^'V 

Uingqiu'i new hong. 

New China Slreel. 

Freacb Hopg. 
Mingqua's Hong. 

Old Ckina St. touth 

Old China Si. 





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70 piccf. 

American hong- 

Paouahun hong. 

imp. rial or Ma-;iog. 

Sw«diah or Sui hong. 

Old Engliah. 


ParMnage Hog Lam. 

Britiah Factoriet. 


Ho|ig<'iDcnjianti' paeUtouseji, 

Whatever may be Ihe «i{e selected for Fac- 
tories liereafier, our hold on the present foreign 
quarter should not be given up, unless, it may 
be, iliat all <^anlun is destinnd to be a heap of 
_aahe8 shorli^- • ■" "^igh event the historian oL 


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The first edition of the Chinese Commercial Guide was published 
in 1835 by the author, John R. Morrison, who was then employed 
by the British mercantile community in Canton as their Chinese 
translator, and possessed peculiar facilities for learning all that could 
be ascertained respecting the foreign trade as then conducted by 
the hong-merchants. It is still valuable for its data respecting the 
Chinese trade as carried on twenty years ago, and furnishes much 
curious information upon the subject, and respecting the tortuous 
policy of the Chinese government in conducting the trade for its 
own advantage through the co-hong. 

On the conclusion of the war between England and China in 1842, 
and the publication of the new arrangements for trade according to 
the British, American, and French Treaties, the Commercial Guide 
was revised, to furnish all the information which could be obtained 
likely to be useful to the merchant, using whatever was found in 
the first edition that was applicable to the foreign commerce with 
China, or interesting to those engaged in it. The sailing directions 
for the coast of China, made chiefly by Capt. Collinson, r. n., were 
inserted in the same volume, and have proved very convenient to 
shipmasters. In this revised edition, which was issued in 1844, the 
name of the author of the previous work was retained, for the 
reasons given in the preface. In 1848, a third edition was printed 
almost without alteration. 

Eight years have now elapsed since the third edition was publish- 
ed, during which time the changes have been many and important. 
Shanghai, Fuhchau, and Hongkong have become centres of a large 
and growing trade, while the business of Canton and Macao has 
diminished, both relatively and absolutely. The opening of the 
tradp with Siam and Japan possesses sufficient connection with that 

ir FnEiAcr. 

of China, too, to warrant the introduction of the regulations now 
in force respecting them. The amount of new matter in this 
edition is much more than the increase of pages indicates, for 
a con»iderable portion of the last has become antiquated ; over a 
hundred pages of this arc entirely new, many of them in small type. 
It is believed that all will prove useful to the merchant or seaman 
engaged in business in these regions. 

In preparing the work, application has been constantly made tp 
merchants and others, who were familiar with the trade, for in- 
formation upon important points, which has been most willingly 
given in every case. The description of the various kinds of tea 
was furnished by J. Butt, Esq. of Canton ; and the articles on silk, 
treasure, and cotton were written by others well acquainted with 
them. The general remarks respecting the ports of Fuhchau, 
Ningpo, Shanghai, and Philippine Islands, were prepared by persons 
who had long resided there. Several new and useful tables have 
been introduced, some of them not before printed. All these sections 
can be relied on, and care has been taken throughout the work to 
make it accurate and complete. That it is absolutely free from 
errors is more than can be expected, but these are, it is hoped, of 
minor importance. 

s. w. w. 

August 26th, 1856. 




Sbct. 1. — Notices of places between Hainan and Amoy 1 

Sect. 2. — Sailing Directions from the Cape of Good Hope to 

Haetan Straits 23 

Sect. 3. — From Amoy to Cape Montague 42 

Sect. 4. — Sailing Directions for the River Min 64 

Sect. 5. — Navigation of the River Min 66 

Sect. 6. — Sailing Directions for the Pescadores 69 

Sect. 7. — Sailing Directions for the Port of Taiwan in Formosa 76 

Sect. 8. — Survey of the Chusan Archipelago 79 

Sect. 9. — Directions for the northern part of the Chusan 

Archipelago 98 

Sect. 10. — Sailing Directions for the River Tahiah 100 

Sect. 11. — Directions from Chinhai to Chapoo 101 

Sect. 12. — Directions from Square I. to Shanghai 104 

Sect. 13. — The entrance to the Yangtsz' kiang 106 

Sect. 14. — Macfarlane's remarks on the passage up to Shanghai 109 

Sect. 15. — List of places between Amoy and Saddle 1 113 

Sect. 16. — Directions from Shanghai to the Pei-ho 116 



Sect. 1. — Sailing Directions for Napa, Lewchew 123 

Sect. 2. — Oonting or Port Melville, Lewchew 125 

Sect. 3. — Sailing Directions for Simoda 125 

Sect. 4. — Sailing Directions for the Bay of Yedo 128 

Sect. 5 — Sailing Directions for Hakodadi 130 

Sect. 6. — Bay of Kagosima. 132 



.^ /? r/ c /, f: <? or r i: .1 n 1: n 1 r 11 c 11 / .v j 

Srct. I . — TaritF on Exports 1 34 

Skct. 2. — Tarifton Imports I'M 

Sect. 3. — Description of tlie principal articles of Import into 

China , 139 

SccT. 4. — Description of the principal articles of Export from 

China 164 



Sect. 1. — General Regulations for the British Trade 201 

Sect. 2. — Treaty between China and the United States of 

; America. 206 

Sect.. 3. — Ships arriving at Whampoa 214 

Sect.. 4. — -Details of business at Canton 221 

Sect. S.^Port of Hongkong 243 

Sect. 6. — Port of Amoy 245 

SRrT. 7.— Port of Fuhchau 245 

Sect. 8.— Port of Ningpo 247 

Sect.; 9.— Port of Shanghai 250 

Sect. 10.— Port of Macao 265 

Sect. 1 1.— Foreign Illegal Trade 268 

rn\PTER V. 


Sect. I. — American Treaty with Japan 273 

Sect. 2. — English Convention with Japan 277 

Sect. 3. — .'\dditional Sailing Directions for Straits of Sangar 

and Nagasaki 279 

Sect. 4. — American Compact with Lewchew 2b7 



Sect. I . — Chinese Currency 289 

Sect. 2. — Chinese Numerals 296 

Sect. 3.— Chinese Weights 298 

Sect. 4. — Chinese Measures of Capacity 299" 

CONTENT^. vli 

'Sect. 5.— Chinese Measures of Length 300 

■Sect. 6. — Chinese Land Measure 301 

Sect. 7 — .Japanese Moneys, &/C. . . * 301 

Sect. 8. — Cochinchinese Moneys, &.c 305 

SccT. 9. — Siamese Trade, Moneys, &-c 307 

Sect. 10.— Netherlands India 314 

Sect." M:- — Philippine Islands 315 

Sect. 12. — Malayan States, Singapore, &,c 317 

Skct. 12.— Burniah 318 

Sect. 13. — Indian Presidencies, Bengal, Madras, and Bombay 319 

Sect. 14. — Moneys in Ceylon 324 

Sect. 15. — English Weights and Measures 325 

Sect. 16. — Coins of the United States 328 

Sect. 17. — Russian Weights 328 

Sect. 18. —South American Weights •. . . . 328 



Sect 1.— Relating to Time^. 329 

Tab. 1. — Comparison of Christian and Chinese Years 329 

Tab. 2. — To find the number of Days from one Month to the same 

day in another 329 

Tab. 3.— To find the number of Days from Jan. let. to Dec. 3l8t.. 330 
Tab. 4. — Chinese Chronological Characters and Cyclic Table.. . . 331 
Tab. 5. — Comparison of Dates in Chinese and Christian Years. . . . 332 

Sect. 2. — Relating to Exchanges. 333 

Tab. 6. — Rates of Exchnngc at Canton for cvclen years 3.'i3 

Tab. 7.— Table for coiu'erting Tael^ into Dollars 334 

Tab. 8.— Table for converting Dollars into Taela 335 

Tab. 9. — Exchange Table of Rupees into Dollars 'SnVo 

Tab. 10.— Exchange Table of Dollars into Rupees 337 

Sect. 3. — Comparison of Weights 338 

Tab. 1 1. — For converting Chinese money weight into English troy 

weight a38 

Tab. 12. — Chinese, Indian, and English large weights compared. . 3.'i9 

Sect. 4. — Comparison of prices ... 340 

Tab. 13. — Table to ascertain the Cost of China Silk in Ix)ndon. . . 340 

Tab. 14. — Table showing the cost of Tea, with all Charges 349 

Tab. 15. — Comparison of the price of tea per pccul with the rate 

per pound in pence 3.52 

Tab, lt>. — Comparison of Canton and Bombay prices of Cotton. . . . 353 


Sect. 5. — Measurement of Cargo. 353 

Tab. 17. — Logarithma to accompany the mcsBuring rod 353 

7*1(6. 18. — Average Weights and Meaauretnenta of common Gooda 354 

Sect. 6. — Operations in Bullion 355 

Tab. 19.- -Showing the English and Chineae modea of stating the 

purity of silver 358 

Tah. 20.— Showing the chargea on Dollara bought in London 359 




Sect (on 1. 


The followinof paper was partly published in the Chinese Repository, Vol- 
v., pp. 337-3.>7. It has been carefully revised, and many additions made 
to it, the Chinese characters added to the names, and the whole rendered a 
general guide to the islands and places lying in that line of coast. It ter- 
minates at Amoy, and its design is chiefly to enable the navigator to identify 
the principal places mentioned on the charts through the native pilots or 
fishermen, by showing them the name in Chinese ; and care has been takeil 
to get the proper characters from Chinese topographical works or maps. The 
native names have, in many instances, undergone strange alterations on 
foreign charts; so that when a foreigner pronounces them, the sound affords 
no clue to the native pilot in pointing out islands, or showing the way to 
those places not in sight. Thas Samoan has been changed from Sam-moon) 
Lantao from JVam-tai-o ; Si. John?s from Shangckuen ; Macao from A-ma- 
ns^au ; Twt-litn san from Tiii-tneen-shan ; Lamma from JVam-a ; and others 
not quite so much transformed. The uniform pronunciation of the Chinese 
characters has not been attempted in this paper, but the names of plnce^ 
have been written as they are found on our charts. We purposely omit 
what is to be found in Horsburgh's Directory, as that work must be in every 
sailor's hands. . 

China presents to the sea a long range of coast, for the most part 
rocky, extending from the Gulf of Tungking in the SW., to that of 
Chihle in the NW., a distance of nearly 2000 miles. Along the 
whole of this extent, it is more or less exposed to the waves of the 
great Pacific ocean, which are only partially broken by the peninsula 
of Corea, and by the islands of Japan, Formosa, and 'Lewchew. 


Ske4ch of the Chintae Const. Four Lines of Const. Southern Line of CoasL 

Beyond the peninsula of Corea, thie coast of Manchu Tartary, belong- 
ing to Cliina. forms the eastern limit of an inland sea, called the sea 
ofJapin: but the coast there has scarcely been visited. Deeply 
indented by numerous bays, gulfs, and inlets, and skirted by several 
very large, and many smaller, islands, forming between one another 
and the main land numerous straits and harbors, China has, from the 
very earliest period, possessed an extensive coasting trade. 

It has been remarked that China (confiningthe name to the eigh- 
teen provinces, or China Proper,) is of a circular form, having but few 
interruptions, arising from projections and indentations. Its limits 
on the cast and south are almost everywhere washed by the sea, and 
are equal in extent to its northern and western boundaries, which 
are conterminous with Mongol Tartary and Tibet. Looking at the 
coast alone, and excluding from view its few irregularities of gulfs 
and promontories, we would say that the form of China is octagonal, 
rather than circular, and that the coast forms one half of the whole 
figure, comprising four nearly equal sides. Starting from the mouth 
of the Yuehnan kiang, 4^ ren ft! ^^ river of Cochinchina, which 
forms the limit between the Chinese and empires, if we 
draw a line of about eight degrees, in the direction of E. by N., with 
a slight curve to the southward, it will pass over the whole southern 
coast, excluding only the promontory of Luicinu ; which, stretching 
southward about 60 miles, is separated by a narrow Ftrnit from tlie 
island of Hainan. From Breaker Point, at which this line will ter- 
minate, we miy draw a second line of about six degrees and a qtiarter 
in aNE. direction, to the northern limit of the province of Fuhkien. 
This line will cut all the principal headlands of Fuhkien, and will 
terminate at a small group of islands, marked in some maps as the 
Kewsan islands. A third line of about five degrees and a half, drawn 
due north from these islands to the northern point of the embouchure 
of the Yangtsz', will pass outside of the whole coast, except Kitto 
Point, south of the river of Ningpo, cutting in two the islands of 
Chusan and Tsungniing. A fourth line, of seven degrees and a half, 
drawn from tlie mouth of the Yangtsz' to Tientsin, in the direction 
of NNW., will cut the promontory of Shantung at its widest part, 
running nearly parallel with the rest of the coast, at a short distance 
offshore. From the termination of the fourth line, the GulfofChihIe 
rims up northeastward between the narrow peninsula called the 
Prince Regent's Sword and the opposite coast of Chihle and Man- 
churia, about three degrees ; the Great Wall meeting it about two 
degrees from its northern extremity. 

The southern line of coast. The most western portion of the 
Chinese coast is the mouth of Annan (or Ngannan) kiang at the 
northern extremity of the Gulf of Tungking, or Tonking. This gulf 
was frequented by European ships, trading with Tungking, about a 
century and a half since ; but the trade has long been discontinued, 
and only scanty information is extant as to the navigation of the gulf. 
The gulf is about 35 leagues wide, having the coast of Tungking on 


Strailse of Luichiu. Capital of Hainan. Kerr's nautica Iremarks. jVow-chow. 

the west, that of Cochincliina proper on the southwest, witli the pro- 
montory of Luichau and the island Flainan on the coast, being open 
to the southeast. The western and northern coasts are said to be 
fronted by shoals and reefs, some of them projecting a great distance 
from the main land. A few streams flow into the gulf from the pro- 
vince of Kwangtung ; and at the mouth of one of these is situated the 
chief city of the department Lienchau fu ffi ^j'j [m- in latitude 
21° 38' 54" N., longitude 108" 58' 20" E. From the difficulty 
that we find in gaining any information respecting this place, we infer 
that its trade cannot be considerable ; and that it is probably carried 
on, for the most part, with Tungking and Cochinchina. Kin chau 
i^iC iH'l '^ *^® chief town of the district of the same name, and is 
situated on the river Kin, a few miles from its mouth in lat. 21° 54' 
N. The western coast of the promontory of Luichau '^ MJ»| 
is almost unknown. 

The strait that separates Hainan from the promontory is frequent- 
ed by junks, and has on its southern shore, Kiungchau fu, 
3® ')tI fir ^''^ capital of Hainan, and a place of considerable trade, 
situated at the mouth of the Lemoo. This river rises in the centre 
of the island, and running through a course of above a hundred miles, 
in a northern direction, discharges itself into the Strait, opposite to 
the southern coast of J^uichau. Kiungchau f'l is represented as 
a good harbor; it is in lat. 20' 2' 26" N., long. 110° 35' 40" E., 
and is much frequented by Chinese junks, and some of them are 
supposed to be not less than 400 tons burden ; it has forts on each 
side of the entrance; the passage up to the city, which junks take, 
is called tt -/j^ ^ Niuchi kiting. 

The following nautical remarks by Mr. Kerr, the master of II. B. 
M. S. Columbine in 1850, aflords some data for navigating this little 
known portion of the Chinese coast ; they commence further east 
than the Straits and reach to Aanam. 

Nuw-chow. — From Tyfung Kyoh (the outer island off Tien-pak) 
to Now-chow, i.s SVV. by W. 40 miles. Now-chow is about 300 feet 
high, and well cultivated : it is 9 miles long and 3 broad. Shoals 
off the Coast. — Strangers should not approach the eastern point of 
Now-chow by a course more southerly than W., or W. by S., to 
avoid the sandbanks on the northern shore. Shoal off N. Point. — 
The north point of the island is VV. by N., five miles from the east- 
ern, the coast between being full of rocks. Off this point is a dan- 
gerous horn of sand : it would therefore be advisable for strangers 
to get a pilot before proceeding further ; this can be done by stop- 
ping a fishing-boat, or by anchoring and sending to the town. Low 
water would be the best time to enter, as then the banks are visible. 
The toivn is situated on the western point of the island, which iSj 
SW. by S., six miles from the northern point. Anchorage,. — Very 
.snug anchorage will bo found off the town in a small bav. The^ 


Pusmge to Soulkward. Hongfutm. Hoihuu Bay. Camnue Cape. 

bottom is Tery irregular, Iiaving G.16, 17.5 and so on ; and close to 
the point 30 fathoms, over which you are obliged to pass, to avoid 
the sandbanks which border the nncliorage on the west side. The 
Columbine anchored with South Fort N. 57" E., South Point of bay 
S. '»!< ^ E. (Rise of tide nine or ten feet.) 

Passage to Suuthtoard has three dangers : these are — the Bar, the 
Fh :s, and the Narrows. Bar. — SW. by S., 2.J miles from the West 
l*oi:it of Now-chow, the passage is very narrow (not more than 4 
or 5 cables), and having only 2 A fathoms at low water. Flats. — 14 
miles south from the same point is an extensive flat with only 9 or 
10 feet on it at low water; it is from 2 to 3 miles broad, frequent- 
ly impassable from the heavy sea which runs on it when the wind 
is strong, it being exposed to the whole drift of the NE. monsoon. 
Here the Fury touched in 3 fathoms, only drawing 14 feet 7 inches. 
Narrows. — S. ^ W. 17 miles from the above Point, the channel is 
again very narrow, but with not less than 3J fathoms. This chan- 
nel is not dangerous, as the water is always smooth, being in the 
immediate vicinity of the extensive reefs with which the coast in 
this part is bounded. Anchorage. — Between the Narrows and the 
Bar, the Columbine and Fury remained at anchor two nights after 
unsuccessful attempts to cross the flats. From the Narrows, the 
channel is wide and free from danger. Coast. — The coast from 
Now-chow to Hongham is sandhills, with a well wooded country 
three or four miles inland. W. by S. from the flats is a small bay 
and town the only one visible. 

Hongham. — SSW. 25 miles from Now-chow is Hongham, a small 
village three miles west from the SE. Point of the peninsula of Lui- 
chau fu. Some junks were at anchor in the bay, but it must be ex- 
posed to the NE. winds. 

Kingchau fu, Hoihau Bay. — SW. J W., 19 miles from Hongham 
is Hoihau bay (formed by the estuary of two small rivers), on which 
is situated Kingchau fu, a first class city, and the seat of the prefect 
of Hainan and its dependencies. The Chinese here were very civil, 
sending us presents, &«c. Anchorage. — The bay and anchorage is 
protected on the NE. by a sandbank at the mouth of the above river. 
It is moderately well sheltered, being only 16 miles from the penin- 
sula of Luichau fu. The Columbine, Fury, and Phlegethon rode 
out a heavy gale from NE. by N. without any danger. The holding- 
ground is good. Bearings from anchorage as follows : — pagoda in 
the town S. 55 E. ; two remarkable hummocks (by which the bay 
will be recognized) S; 42 W. ; and a cone-like rock on the sand- 
hills at west extreme of bay, W. ^ S. — Plenty of wood, water, and 
refreshments can be procured, but the water gets brackish in the 
passage to the ships. 

Cammee Cape. — From Hoihau anchorage to Cammee Cape, the 
SW. point of the Peninsula, the course is N. 70 W. 30 miles, with- 
out any dangers. Off' this point, Columbine anchored in 12 fathoms, 
point bearing NE. by N. 4 miles. The pilots said there were rocks 


Hoosheak. Gui-e-chow J. Pak-loong Cape. Cow-tow-sluin I. JVorway Is. 

and a sandspit off the point. Coast. — From this the coast extends 
to N. by W. as far as we saw it (about 30 or 40 miles). 

Hoosheak. — 25 miles from the point is Hoosheak 11 ill (easily re- 
cognized, being alone) ; to the northward of this is a point with 
rocks off it. Pilots advised us to go no nearer than 6 fathoms. 

Cha-ytmg Island. — N. 50° W., 48'.5 from Cammee cape, is Cha- 
yung I. It is four or five miles long, and about 500 feet high ; it 
has no anchorage, but a small town iu a valley in the centre of the 

Gui-e-chow Island. — N. 66° W. 15 from Cha-yung is Gui-e-chow ; 
it is about 7 miles from E. to W., and 400 feet high, the western 
point being perpendicular. There is an excellent harbor on the 
southern side ; it has a small islet in the centre, but is otherwise 
clear, sheltered from all points, except from about SSE. to ESE. 
Columbine anchored with the islet on with E. point of harbor ESE., 
and the W. point of harbor (the perpendicular head as above) S. ^ 
W. As marked in the charts, there are two islands in this quarter, 
but Gui-e-chow is the northern one ; Ciu-muci-shan appears to be 

Pak-loong Cape. — N. 51° W., 58 miles from the point of Gui-e- 
chow is Pak-loong Cape (this is the Pelung cape of the charts), the 
east point of a bay in which is situated the town and harbor of 
Tukshan. Pak-loong-mi. — S. 5° W. 8 miles from point is Pak-loong- 
mi, a rock awash at high water. This rock makes the bay dan- 
gerous to approach during the night, as it is so far off shore. Pak- 
loong Anchorage. — Columbine and Fury anchored outside the shoals, 
with the Cape bearing NE. ^ E. distant 6 miles. Harbor is formed 
by shoals on the east, and a low point on the W. ; has 5 fathoms ; 
pilots may be obtained. 

Cow-to7o-shan Island. — S. 25° W. 40 miles from Pak-loong Cape 
is the S. point of Cow-tow-shan (the Pirate Island of the charts) ; 
on this course there are several islands with passages around them, 
but strangers should take the outside. On the western side of this 
island is a magnificent bay, many miles in extent, and apparently 
without any dangers. Village. — There are a few miserable huts in 
the bay where wood and water may be obtained. Chae Rocks. — S. 
65° W. 39 miles from Cow-tow-shan, is a large cluster of rocks, 
some of which are always covered. This course is also not free of 
islands. Columbine passed to southward of Wuulaun, and found a 
good p:issage, but only 1 J mile wide. We saw plenty of bullocks 
(apparently wild) on many of these islands. There is good anchor- 
age near "Fimg-yung, west 4 or 5 miles from Wunlaun. 

Norway Islands. — SW. 4 or 5 miles from the Chae Rocks, is a 
small group of islands, probably the Norway islands of the chart. 
Fie-tze-loong. — From the Chae Rocks to Oonong (a distance of 20 
miles) is a most remarkable bay of islets or rocks, of limestone 
formation (the New Macao of the charts). Here Shap-'ng-tsai is 
said to have secreted himself, as tiie water amongst the islets is deep. 


T\tshiiH b. Position of places in VtU/o/Ton^kinf^. Hainan J. and kills. 

Rof.k of Oonon/^. — From Chao RocTts to the outside nin<>piii off 
Ouiiong. is S. 85' W., 19.5. Sunken Rock. — W. by S. ^ mile from 
this is a cJaiijjerous suiiken rock, with only 11 foet on it at low wa- 
ter, and 8 fathoms close to it. Near this are Great and Little 
Oon«>ng, small bays with insijrnificant villages. 'I'ho Cochinchinesc 
villnijers were very civil. Columbine anchored with Great Oonong 
(theV. Bay) NK. by E., lA, aiul Nincpin K. ^ S. 

Tu.'ihnn Islands or Pearl Island. — From the rock oft* Oonong to 
S. point of Tushan islands, is S. ()'J' VV. 12.5. These islands are off 
the Tonquin river, which the Columbine, Tury and i'hiegethon en- 
tered in chase of the pirate Shap-'ng-tsai. The entrance is obstruct- 
ed by a bar, which we crossed at high water in 2.}, 2:f, and 3; 
inside the bar the water deepens, and the sliore is generally bold, 
except off the west side, where is an extensive sandbank. In the 
vicinity of our anchorage were two small towns — Ilwi'ifung find 
Cho-keum. Phh'.gethon visited latter, which is some miles up the 
river, and had deep water. Tide flows only once in 24 hours. 'i'Jie 
natives informed us there was coal in the vicinity, but their reports 
were so vague as not to authorize our remaining to get any. Plenty 
of w(X)d can be procured ; but little water or provisions. 

Return. — On our return we passed outside the Chae Rocks to 
the southward of Cow-tow-shan, and then shaped our course for 
Gui-e-chow, Cammee, and Hoihau, without any obstruction. 

West Point of Now-chow, 20° 51' 10" North Lat. 110° 32' 30" East Long. 

South Point of Luichau fii,... 20 25 00 „ „ 110 23 15 „ „ 

Hoi-hau Anch<irage, 20 7 00 „ „ 110 15 35 „ „ 

Cammee Point, 20 12 12 „ „ 109 44 50 „ „ 

Cha-yung Island, 20 4i) 00 „ „ 109 13 00 „ 

Gui-e-chow West Point, 20 55 00 „ „ 108 58 50 „ „ 

Pakloong Cape, 21 3118 „ „ 1U8 9 15 „ 

Cow-tow-shan, South Point, . 20 55 20 „ „ 107 42 15 „ 

Chae Rocks, 20 39 5 „ „ 107 14 24 „ 

Rock oir Oonon?, 20 37 12 „ „ lOti 54 15 „ 

SouUi Point of tushan lsland8,20 32 42 „ „ 106 41 33 „ „ 

T. KERR, Actins Master of H. B. M. S. Columhine. 
Hainan fi»| f-^ is a mountainous island, having however many 
level inland districts which are well cultivated, and on which are 
produced several tropical fruits that do not grow on the mainland, 
in particular the areca or betel nut; the coasts produce cocoa-nuts ; 
and sponges of a very inferior quality are sometimes collected by 
the fishermen. The mountains, calle<l the Li-inu shan, are covered 
with thick forests, the resort of the aboriginal inhabitants, a race 
similar, it is said, to the mountaineers of Kwnngsi and Kweichau. 
The Chinese inhabitants are chiefly descended of emigrants from 
Fuhkien, and are .<»poken of by Gutzlaff, during his stay in Siam, 
where he met many of them, in terms of hif[h parise. 'I'he island 
extends 55 leagues in a NE. and S\V. direction, and is about 35 
leagues in breadth. Its northwestern and western coasts are little 
known, but are said to be jined by shoal bunks, extending C or 7 


Yi^i-chav. y'ulm-kiang. Galong Bay. Livgshwui Point. 

leagues from the shore. The coast on the south and southeast is 
bold, and may be approached very closely, with deep water near to 
the headlands. There are several fine harbors on the south coast, 
affording good shelter from the northeast monsoon. These have 
been partially surveyed by captains Ross and Horsburgh. — In all 
these harbors, there seems to be a difficulty in getting free supplies 
of good fresh water. ._. .|| 

Yai-chau or Yait-chew, 11^ /tl is the chief town of the southern 
part of the island, and is situated a little way up the river, which 
falls into the bay that bears its name, in lat. 18° 21' 3(i" N., long. 
108° 43' E. The bay is described as having " some islets in it, and 
moderate depths for anchorage, but exposed to S. and SVV. winds." 
The town is on the north bank of the river, which runs into the hay 
in a westerly direction. Proceeding eastward, we pass Sychew bay, 
distinguished by a hill with a pagoda on it, and exposed to southerly 
and westerly winds. We next reach Sama ^^l^, Y ^^^ ^^^ called it 
's probable, from a fort of that name near by), which affords an- 
chorage for small vessels, inside a number of islets and rocks. A 
branch of the river at Yai-chau falls into it on the NE., and a wallr 
ed town, the residence of an officer, stands near the western bank 
of the river. ,^ . , ,^ 

Yulin kiiing f% ^vK ife (Elm-Forest rivulet), the bay of Yulin 
(or Yulin-kan), is separated from Sama by a narrow slip of land. 
It is in lat. 18' 10' 30' N.; is well sheltered, except towards the S. 
and WSW.; and was often, in former days, a wintering place for 
vessels driven off the Chinese coast in the NE. monsoon. To the 
northward of the anchorage, is a lagoon or inner harbor, well shel- 
tered from all winds, but affirding entrance only to small vessels. 
On the eastern shore arc a fort and several fishing villages. 

Galong Bay is separated from Yulin kiang by high land, between 
four and five miles broad, forming the southern extremity of Hainan ; 
the most prominent part of which is in lat. 18 10' N., long. 109° 
34}' E. The bay affords good shelter, except from southerly and S. 
W. winds ; and, if moored war/tr/owrs behind an island, complete 
shelter may be obtained. We are imable to find the name of this 
bny in any Chinese map. Horsburgh thus speaks of it : " Having 
been disabled in a tyfoon, in the Gunjivar, September 24th, 1786, 
we were obliged to take shelter under Hainan, and remained in 
Galong Bay until the 1st of April following; we walked inland at 
discretion and found the natives very inoffensive. 'I'he island 
abounds with wood fit for fuel, but none of the timber seems 
durable, or proper for ship-buildmg." 

most part inhabited by a class of people ready at any time to lay 
aside their peaceful occupations for the sake of plunder. In this 
neighborhood it is not difficult to procure a pilot, or to forward any 

Ling-shwui ji^" Jjj^ (Lieong-soy), or Tung-tse Point, j^ |J ^ 
variously named from two towns in its neighborhood, is distant about 


Tienjwng ffock. fyanchote. TSnInsa I. Coast of Reefs. People of Hainan. 

34 miles from Galong Bay, in lat. 18' 22.^ N., long. 110° E. The 
intervening coast is a continued curve, forming a considerable conca- 
vity, and having the town of Tungtse on the west, and that of Ling- 
shwui on the north. The latter is a place of some trade, situated 
near the head of a small lagoon, which is entered by a narrow and 
very >shoal channel from the anchorage near Lingshwui Point. This 
anchorage is very much exposed, an«i is safe only in the northerly 
monsoon. The surrounding country is well cultivated, forming a 
l)cautiful plain, with high land in the background. From this point, 
the eastern coast becomes more level, the high mountainous land 
being visible only in the distance. The land is better cultivated 
than on the south, and produces great numbers of cocoa nuts. 

About ten miles E. by N. from Lingshwui Point, is Tienfung 
^ lll^ about 18" 29' N., a cluster of large rocks, which, from one 
of them being higher and whiter than the others, has acquired the 
name of Sail Rock. It is thus mentioned in Gutzlaff's first Journal : 
*' On the lOth of July, we saw Tienfung, a high and rugged rock. 
'I'he joy of the sailors was extreme, this being the first object of their 
native country, which they espied. Tienfung is about three or four 
leagues distmt from Hainan." Beyond this, no place of shelter is 
met with on the east coast of the island, with the exception of a bay 
on the west side of Tinhosa island, in latitude 18° 46' N., longitude 
110° 29' E., or 3° 15' VV. from the Grand Ladrone. In the neigh- 
borhood of this island is Man chau, ^ JJi or Wan-chow, (the chief 

town of the district), of which an account is given us by Mr. J. R., 
a gentleman, supercargo in the Eisi. India Company's service, who 
was wrecked on the coast in a tyfoon, in the course of a voyage 
from Macao to Cochinchina, in 1819. He reached the land about 
twenty miles SE. from VVanchow. " The whole coast," he says, " as 
far as the eye could ascertain, was lined by a most dangerous reef 
of rocks, mostly high out of the water, and extending one league 
from the shore." It was hereabouts, to the westward of the Tayi 
Is., that the Sunda w:is wrecked in Oct. 1839. Proceeding along 
the coast, if the weather be calm, we find ourselves sailing among 
fi.shing-boats and stakes, until we have passed the island of False 
Tinhosa, the high mountain Tung-on, the Tava islands and Hainan 
Head ; the last in lat. 20" N., and 110' 57' E." 

Before finally leaving Hainan, we cannot refrain from subjoining 
a few remarks from Captain Ross, " From my own observations, 
(he says) when we were near the shore, and from the information 
of a very good Chinese pilot we had on board the Antelope in 
1810, it appears that the east coast of Hainan does not afford any 
place of safety for ships to anchor in, and the bottom was in many 
places mixed with coral rock. • * * In the few communications we 
had with the people of Hainan, they were found to be civil, and 
ready enough to part with refreshments when the mandarins were 
not present ; but whenever the latter appeared, they proved just as 


Fishery of Hainan. Chi-kan. jVowchow. Timber from Hainan. Ticnpih. 

arbitrary and rapacious as we found them on the coast of China. 
From what I observed, I am inclined to believe that a number of 
bullocks may be obtained on Hainan, as they appeared to be plentiful 
though small. There are numerous fishing-boats belonging to Hainan, 
that are built of a hard and heavy wood and sail fast : many of them 
every year go on fishing voyages for two months, and navigate 
seven or eight hundred miles from home, to collect the bicko-dt-mar , 
and procure dried turtle and sharks' fins, which they find amongst 
the numerous shoals and sand-banks that are in the southeast part 
of the China Sea. Their voyages commence in March, when they 
visit the northern bank, and leaving one or two of their crew and a 
few jars of fresh water, the boats proceed to some to the large shoals 
that are nearly in the vicinity of Borneo, and continue to fish until 
the e^rly part of June, when they return and pick up their small 
parties and their collections. We met with many of these fishing- 
boats when we were about the shoals in the China Sea." 

The height between Hainan Head and Tienpih hien, forming the 
eastern coast of the promontory of Luichau, is little known. Chikan 
^ jW? is a place frequented by Fuhkien junks on the northern side 
of the Straits, nearly opposite Kiungchow. Che-ting-fow, which 
has received the name of Nowchow, probably from one of the neigh- 
boring islands, is on one side of an estuary, into which flows a river 
of considerable size, and some inferior streams. Several miles up 
the larger stream is Hwachow '^ *j]\, and still further the city 
Kiuchau fu 0j ^"jj'l j^ On the eastern point of the estuary is 
situated the town of Wuchuen hien, ^ 111 {^^ or Ouchuen, said 
to possess a good but small harbor. Nowchow is described by 
Horsburgh, as a small port, dangerous to enter ; but when in it 
affording good shelter. He adds that it was a rendezvous of the 
pirates ; and that the "Maria," a Portuguese ship, went into the place 
for water, and was captured by them. It is in lat. 20'' 5S' N., long. 
110" 26' E. The native trade between Fuhkien and places west of 
Tienpih, appears to be of a very trifling nature, consisting chiefly 
of coarse soft sugar, the sugar of cocoa-nuts, ground-nuts, and somo 
other fruits, manure, &c., for which the people of Fuhkien give in 
exchange the coarsest of their manufactures. The timber of Hain m 
ia in a great measure appropriated by the emperor : but some of ihe 
finer kinds are brought to Canton, and wrought into articles of luxury 
and taste. The trade from Tienpih, at which we now arrive, 
consists almost entirely in salt, manufactured by evaporation on th^ 
mud flats of the bay, that are almost wholly dry at low water. 

Tienpih hien |^ ^ (H (or Teenpak) was at one time, we 
believe, frequented by European vessels as a place of trade ; and is 
said to be, even now, a place where more hospitable reception may 
be met with than in most other ports of the south coast of China. 

COM. GC. 2 


Bay qf T^enpih. Islands near it. Hading-shan. People apt for piracy. 

The usual anchorage for foreign vessels is under the islands which 
lie off the bay of Tienpih. Foongkyche |M ^ -f- lies about 
13 mile west of the fort and island of Paukpyah llli ^ ; and 
Lintoa im JJJa is at the entrance of the harbor, and on Chinese maps 
represented as an island. The Chinese harbor which lies at the head 
of a shallow bay near the town, and can be reached at high water 
in boats, through canals interaecting the muddy flats by which the 
bay is filled up. The bay is surrounded by high land on the north, 
east, and south : a rivulet flows into it on the northwest, and wears 
for itself a channel, which affords depth of water sufficient for 
Chinese junks. Taefung kioh, -j^ Jjkr ^ the outermost island 
in the roads, is in lat. 21° 22' 30" N., long. II T 13' E. The town 

is walled, and is tie residence of a magistrate: it is of considerable 

Leaving the Bay of Tienpih, we pass by a few unimportant islands 
and places, as Tychook chow ■ry >WJ or Bamboo I., Chinchow 
^ ||»| or Green I., Songyue Point '^ ^ or the Double Fish 
Head, Kaiipei chow ;|;^ jjSK |M4 and the Brothers, till we reach 
Haeling-shan. This is an island of considerable size, separated by 
a narrow channel from the main land on the north ; having on the 
west a safe, but confined, harbor ; and on the northeast an extensive 
shoal bay that has not yet been explored. The harbor of Ilaeliug-shan 
V^ P^ |lj (^^ Huiling san) is formed by a high point of land 
called Mt. Lookout, and two small islands called Mamee chow 
S I^ ^>| or Horse-tail Is., on the south ; by other high land on 
the island, it is sheltered from easterly and NE. winds, and by 
distant high land on the main, from westerly winds. .Haeling-shan 
is high and mountainous, but with some well cultivated places. One 
elevated peak is named Sugar-loaf hill. The main land in the neigh- 
borhood is mostly low, with high land seen in the distance. We now 
begin to perceive our proximity to the river of Canton ; and are 
entering upon the extensive archipelago, which lying off the em- 
bouchures of this river, is frequently the resort of pirates, and for the 
most part inhabited by a class of people ready at any time to lay 
aside their peaceful occupations for the sake of plunder. In this 
neighborhood it is not difficult to procure a pilot, or to forward any 
letters to Canton. There has been more than one overland journey 
from Haeling-shan to Canton, performed by shipwrecked Europeans; 
but from the constraint exercised upon them, they have gained but 
little information. The cases of the " Bee," captain Warden, of 
the boat's crew of the " Argyle," and the crews of the " Sunda " and 
"Castle Huntley," are among the best known of late years. 

The islands which extend from Ta-aou to the Canton river, 
form an almost unbroken chain, running nearly parallel for some 


talands west of St. John's I, Mart of Ktan^muv. Channel leading by it. 

distance with the coast of the main land, are separated therefrom by 
a channel, in some purts open and clear, in others nearly closed up 
by islands. Setting sail from the harbor of Haeling-shan, and passing 
among several little islands — the Mandarin's Cap, called Fanshik 
^. /^ ^^ Alum Rock, Nampang "^ ^^ or South Paps, Quoin 
(Lai-tau shan /B^ g^ |.L| or Ploughshare I.), Tywok ■j'^ ^ or 
Great Caldron, Neewok ^ ^m or Small Caldron, and others — 
we leave on our left the bluff headland of Ta-aou ^ ^ or Tai-o 
with its bay and fortified village, and enter the channel, which we have 
mentioned, on the north of Hachune "TC jjl (Hia-chuen, or False 
St. John's). As soon as we have taken a cursory survey of this 
channel, we will return and continue our course on the outside of 
this and the other islands. 

Soon after entering the channel, we find on our left the town of 
Wangkaou sze ^ i^ h| the residence of a civil magistrate. 
A little further, and nearly due north from Shang-chuen _[^ J|| 
or St. John's Island, is a village and the military town of Kwang- 
hai wei, ^ j^ \^ a place at which the Jesuit missionaries former- 
ly, on some occasions, landed, at a time when their entrance into 
the country received the sanction of the government. Between St. 
John's and the next large island are several smaller ones ; and north 
of these lies the; island Toonkoo or Toonko, which nearly blocks up 
the channel. A narrow strait between it and the main land, passing 
in the neighborhood of the town Changsha-tai, -^ V*|/ ]p brings 
us out again into broader and deeper water. We are now at one 
of the embouchures of the river of Canton, which leads us toward 
Kiangmun VX P'^ (Kongmoon or River's Mouth), the largest trad- 
ing town in the neighborhood of Sin-hwui hien SJt' 'W ^. Kongmun 

is situated at the point where the West river, flowing from the 
northwest under the walls of the city Sinhwui hien, unites itself to 
that arm of the Peirl river, which, leaving the main stream south- 
west of San-shwui hien (or the Three Streams), flows south and east- 
ward in a large stream through Sm-hwui and Shunteh, towards the 
sea. Nature and art have combined to join many parts of its course 
with the more eastern arm, which, passing by Hiangshan, discharges 
its waters into the * Broadway,' whither we now proceed in our 
survey. Kiangmun is an important entrepot at the mouth of tho 
river leading to Sin-hwui, and the largest on the coast; it is the 
resort for many of the junks which trade with the Indian Archi- 
pelago, and has constant intercourse too with Canton, Macao, and 
the intermediate towns. 

Departing from this place, we enter a narrow channel amon^ 
islands, and passing by the town of |iwang-U^ng too, ^a i^ ^8 


Count of ft^est River. Mjngchow I. Hachunt and Us town. St. John's I- 

where are many junks, we presently arrive in the Broadway, (part at 
least of which is called Haksha yeung S£ v'b j3b * Black sand sea,' 
on Chinese maps,) and find ourselves at the entrance of the 'Narrows', 
leading up to Hiangshan hien ^ |J[_| l^. The arm of the river 
which terminates here, leaves the main stream on the west side 
of Caaton. A little above the Bogue, their waters reunite, but only 
m part. Below the Bogue, also, the more western arm communicates 
m several places with the large estuary, over which the islands of 
the Canton River are scattered. The extensive and hilly island of 
Hiangshan forms an effectual barrier to any further union of waters, 
until their discharge a few miles west of Macao, at the place where 
we have now returned. Beating down the Broadway, we may either 
reach Macao by a short passage between two islands, or may pass 
out between Langpihtau, or Lampa<;au, and Montanha islands, when 
we shall find ourselves a few miles northwest of the Great Ladrone. 
We now return to the island of Hachune but we pass over the 
names and situations of the numerous smaller islands around it ; 
since should any one desire to burden his memory with their names, 
he will easily find them in the Directory. Mongchow *^ M^ , a little 
to the westward of Ha-chune, is the only island in that direction, 
which affords anchorage for ships. Hachune is elevated, and is about 
eleven miles in length, extending in a NE. and SW. direction. An 
anchorage on the west side of the island, where are two small bays, 
affording shelter for vessels of light draft, is called Hachune Road or 
bay. But what is regarded as the harbor, is on the south side of 
the island, in Narao, or Nan-aou chung EH vM -jS ' South bay.' 
A village at the bottom of the bay, and an islet which shelters it to 
the SE., have both also received this name, though primarily, as its 
signification testifies, it is the name of the bay itself. On the west 
and south, the harbor is sheltered by a long projecting point of land : 
the SW. end of the island, in lat. 21° 35' N. and long. 1 12^ 31' 30" 
E., has seven and eight fathoms water close to it. The high land 
which rises on the north and east shelters the bay on those sides. 
There is no harbor on the eastern side of the island. 

About fourteen miles east from the SW. point of Hachune is the 
south end of St. John's. Between these two, lies a group of islets 
called the Five Islands, i. e. Round I., Wongpu-chow ^ ffll ^ 
or Cricket I., Pepa-chow ^ ^^ yin, and two other smaller ones, 
which is the only interruption in a passage, free from all hidden 
dangers, and having from five to six fathoms water, on a soft ground. 
St. John's or San Joao, received its name from its first visitors the 
Portuguese, by a slight change of the Chinese name, Shangchuen. 
It is also called Sanshan. or as first written by Matthew Ricci, 
8an9ian. The island is five leagues in length, NNE. and SSW,, 


Shittoe Bay. St. John's. Islands east of it. Tyloo I. Lampa^ao I. 

and in coming from the east, appears as if separated in the middle, 
whence it has often been taken to consist of two islands. There 
are several bays on its NW. and western sides ; Shittoe or Sattye bay 
■)1/ fl^ is t^^ ^^^^ known. That of Sanchau-tang ^ j!j»|>[ ^ on 
the northwest appears to have been the one usually frequented by 
the Portuguese traders, and is the place where Francis Xavier was 
interred in 1552. It was then called according to Portuguese pro- 
nunciation, TamAo, that is, T^-ngao or Ta-aou, the Great Bay. The 
Portuguese first traded here in 1517. In 1521 they were expelled. 
They afterwards returned ; but before 1542, they appear to have 
almost deserted it for Lampa^ao, to the eastward. 

Leaving the navigator to draw his information respecting the 
other bays, and respecting the neighboring small islands, (as 
Wy-caup ;|^ ^ or the Mast-stock, Lieu-chew or Woochoo ^ ^ 
or Black Hog, the Wizard Rocks, E-kara — . -^ &c.,) from Hors- 
burgh, we will pass by Tykam, -j^ ^ Coucock^'^ or Drum 
Head (which affords anchorage and shelter from N. and NE. winds), 
Tymong, Tyloo, Sanchau or San^tsiu, ^ w until we reach the 
island Wongkum, -Jr ?^m ^^ Hwangkin, or Montanha. Tyloo 
y^ ^ is the island near which Peruvian ship "Caldera" was 
captured by pirates in 1854, for which act the town of Kulan was 
partly destroyed by the English ships. It was near this in 1841, at 
the village of Fi-sh4-tsiin, ^^ 'j^p ^ that the cutter " Louisa" was 
lost in 1841, with Capt. Charles Elliot and Commodore Sir Gordon 
Bremer on board. Between Montanha and San-ts.iu is the entrance 
to the Broadway, which we have before mentioned. 

Here we look in vain for the particular island, which, under the 
name of Lanipa9ao (Lang-pih-tsau y^ |^ ffi)' ^^^ once, for several 
years, the residence of many Portuguese merchants. None of the 
islands lying outside, between St. John's and the Montanha, afford 
sufficient shelter against all winds ; and we must therefore seek for 
it within the entrance of the Broadway. It is strange that a place, 
where there were said to have been 500 or 600 Portuguese inhab- 
itants in 1560, should now be entirely lost to the recollection of 
persons living no further from it than Macao, The island was 
occupied by the Portuguese in 1542; in 1554 the trade was con- 
centrated there; in 1557, Macao began to rise into notice; and 
1560 is the latest date at which we find a)iy mention made of Lam- 
pa(jao; but it was then, apparently, a flourishing place. 


The Broadway. Islands at its eti/rance. Ladronts and islands near them. 

The Broadway has sufficient depth to admit large ships a consider- 
able way up ; and may therefore be useful in a gale to vessels that 
have parted from their anchors, 'I'he Montanha, Mackarera, /K 
1^ 3^ with Ballast I. or Mongchow 5*^ V^Hj and the Lappa islands, 
with part of Hiangshan, bound it eastward: Santsaou, Paktang I. 
^ ^ ^ I. e. White Vine hill, and several other islands, westward. 
All these islands are elevated. 

We must pass rapidly through the well-known harbors and among 
the islands in the estuary of the Canton river, merely mentioning 
the names of the larger islands and places as we proceed. With 
Tyloo and Santsaou on our left, as we enter from the southward, we 
have on our right the Great and Little Ladrone, (called Manshan 
^ jjj or Lo Manshan ;^ ^ |1|. »• «• Oltl Ten-thousand hills,) 
and Potoe; and further east, a little to the southward, commences 
a line of rocks and islands, of which the Asses' Ears is the most 
conspicuous point. The first is called Gap Rock or Mamme chow 
ffi S ^jJjJ beyond which several rocks and islets occur, of which 
Mun chow 'j'X i^Ti °'" Musketo I., and Ping chow 3i J'H'i are the 
largest, leading easterly to Yunghoy |M ]^ or Yung-gai ^ 'iffi 
and Kaipong ^|| j^^, or the island of which the highest peak is the 
Asses' Ears (called Keemchung me 4tf rti jM i. e. Claw Pt.). The 
Lema Islands consist of three principal islands, the largest and most 
easterly (called Tamquan tow ||^ i^ ^S i". e. the Carrying-Pole 
Head) being inhabited; between the Grand Lema and Yachow .tjl *Jim 
is a channel called Yatmoon — * Pt i. e. First Passage, and between 
Yachow and Echow J^ im, is another channel called Emoon ^^ 
PH t. e. Second passage. 

The Ladrone, from its height and position, is the standard landmark 
for vessels entering by the Western Channel. Northeast of the Great 
Ladrone is Pootoy L ^j^ i^ i. e. Mat-grass terrace, and beyond 
that Great and Little Chookchow ^^ yliUJ or Bamboo I. NW. of 
Pootoy is Tongho or ffl *M Tung-o, sometimes witten ^^ 
Tong-ho), on the eastern side of which is Boddara's Cove, where 
one of the E. J. Company's ships drawing 21 J feet, once rode out a 
tyfoon safely. North of Tongho is L^ung-neet (or Leung-eep ^^ 
^fe I. e. Two Leaves) consisting of a larger and a smaller islet ; 
Wongmow or Wung-boo ^p" •nP* lies west of the latter, and still further 
west is Potoe ym ^ or Passage Islet, a flat sloping rock, lying in midi 


Islands east of Macao. Typo, Inner Harbor. Kumsing-moon. 

channel, bearing NW. by N. from the Little Ladrone. Proceeding 
northward, Tylow chow -^ ^# Jittj, Tylok -^ jp^, and Sylok 
^ K^ '• ^- Great and Little Rock, Pyramid L or Samcock ^^ y^ 
i. e. Three-peak L, and Chung-chow ^^ ywl called Water L on the 
charts, all lie nearly opposite Macao on the eastern side of the Great 
Western Channel. 

Facing it on the west, are Ko-ho jl -jM or Apomee ^^ ^ f^, 
fc Typa-quebradaor Tan-tsai vM j-?", the outer point of winch is 
called Cabareta Pt. or Kai-keng-tow |^ |^ |]| Cock's-neck Head. 
Between these two islands is the entrance to the Typa Anchorage, 
called Shaptsz' moon ~r ^^ M^ {. c. Cross-gates, which is between 
Typi L and Mackerara, looking northward on Macao. Macao Roads, 
called Sha-lek 'j'b r^" are wholly open and undefended ; the Inner 
Harbor is small and shallow, and the approach to it rather difficult, 
but it affords good shelter. The entrance to it is around the south 
end of Macao, passing inside of Pedra Areia, a rock under water 
off the Bar Fort. The vessels lie near the town ; on the opposite side 
is the Lappa or Padre L, called Tui-meen shan w [j^ ^J /. e. Op- 
posite hills (750 ft. high), where the Portuguese were formerly per- 
mitted to reside, and where are now to be seen remains of buildings. 
Monkey I. or Malow chow ^ B§^ ^pM lies off the Bar Fort, at the 
southern entrance, and Green L or Tsing chow pq* #j»j, at the north- 
ern end, of the Inner Harbor. The passage through to Casa Branca 
or Tseenshan HT jl| north of Lappa I. is too shallow for anything 
but small boats. 

Kumsing-moon ( "^ ^ ^^ i. c. Golden-star anchorage) is a fine 
bay on the eastern side of Hiangshan I., about twelve miles north 
of Macao, from whence it may be reached overland. It is screened 
on the east by the island of Kee-ow ^nL vM on which are some 
houses built by foreigners near the village. The entrance is deep 
close to the southern shore. Beyond this anchorage, the coast of 
Hiangshan island trends off to the NW,, till it meets the Broadway 
channel. The Nine Is., called Kow-chow -f]^ ^'W or Kow sing ^L, 
^ i. c. Nine Stars, lie off the Barrier (called K wan-chap ^^ jm]) be- 
tween Macao and Kumsing-moon. 

Lintin I. (called Lingting V^ ^ i. e. the Lonely One,) is a con- 
spicuous island in the bay above Macao; the anchorage is on the 
southwest side, and is safe only in the northeast monsoon ; it has 


Ltn/tn /. The Bogue. Second Bar Pagoda. ffkampotu Dane's I. 

not been frequented by foreign ships for many years. The Bogue 
or Bocca Tigris, (a translation of Fu-moon J^ ^^ or Tiger's Gate, 
the Chinese name,) is about 30 miles NNW. from Lintin. As you 
pass up the bay, the high main land on the east belongs to the district 
of Sun-can. Lankeet I., or Lung-ute h§ '/i^ i.e. Dragon's Cave, and 
Boat 1., or Sampan chow ^^ «^ ^^j lie on the left near the Bogue. 
Chuenpee St ^ (t. e. the Bored Nose, from a hole in a rock near 
by,) and Tykoktow T^ W Hll' '• *• Great. Horn head, are the first 
points on each side above Lankeet. The fort on the low point 
called Chuenpee Pt. is called Shakok pautoy, and guards the en- 
trance into Anson's Bay. Through this bay a channel leads up to 
Chunhow ^a fj an admiral's station behind Anunghoy Ft., where 
in 1839, Lin destroyed the opium delivered up by Captain Elliot. 

Anunghoy Ft. ^ ^ ^^ i. e. Girl's Shoe, is opposite Wangtong 
on the east. North and South Wangtong, *pi r^ t. e. Thwart- 
the-way, are admirably situated for defending the passage ; there is 
a station on North Wangtong where ships passing by report them- 
selves. Opposite and above Anunghoy is Tiger L, calied Taifoo 
"-h /^ Great Tiger L, and beyond it are E-foo and Sam-foo, or 
Tiger I. No. 2, No. 3. We are now fairly within the Choo kiing 
Hk in °^ Pearl river, one of the largest streams in Southern Asia. 
The reach from the Bogue to First Bar is called Sz'tsz' y^ng Itjjj 
Hp vM I. e. Sea of Lions, and the land on each side is low and well 
cultivated. Second Bar Pagoda is called Fow-leen tap "l^ ^H j^ 
i. e. Floating Lotus Pagoda; it is also known by the name of See-chee 
tap from the name of the Reach. The Bar is known as Ho-tun tseen 
t# ^ 7^ °^ Oyster-heap Shallows, from a creek of that name near 
by. Above First Bar, (called Tai-ho ^ ^) the Brunswick Rock, 
called Yu-tow shek "fi hM ^, or Fish-head Rock, occurs. Near it 
the ^ y21 Tung-kiang or East River, flows in from the eastward, 
having the large sugar and oil mart of Sheklung at its mouth. 

Whampoa anchorage "gg* jffi takes its name from a village at the 
south end of the island, having Danes I. or Ch6ung-chau a Am and 
French L ( jffi ^ 3^ pg Fat-lan-sai kong) on the southern face. 
Whampoa Pagoda, called Pa-chow tap ^ jljj J^ »'. e. Lyre I. pa- 
goda, stands in the middle of Whampoa I. or Lyre I. ; and Lob-creek 
Pagoda, called Chikkong tap TT [^ j^, is on Honam L, both of 
them conspicuous objects in going up the river. A fort, called 



fhrta above ffhampoa. Tooitkoo I. Kapshui-moon. Islands in it. 

Howqua's Folly, used to stand at the western point of Whampoal., 
but has been removed and rebuilt on the opposite side of Fidler'a 
Reach since the Barrier was filled in ; there are two forts on th© 
north shore near the Barrier at Leeptuk ^ ^^ village; Napier's Fort, 
orSun-sha-mepiutoi^ Yj]/J%'ii^'^ is opposite Howqua's Folly 
on the east end of Powder I., at Taishatow -J^ ^/p ^. From this 
point, we soon reach the Foreign Factories, passing by French 
Folly, or Tung pautoi ^ ^^ J »• <• East Fort, and then close to 
the Dutch Folly, or Hoi-choo pautoi ^ i^ ^ § »• «• Sea-pearl 
fort. — -We must now return to the Bogue. 

Proceeding in a SE. direction from Chusnpee, we pass by several 
islets in the bay off the district of Sun-oan ^|* ^ f^ of which 
Fansyak or Fanshek ^^ ^R" i. e. Alum Rock, and Mahchow 52 ^j\\ 
are the outermost on the west, and reach Urmston's Bay, a safe 
arichorage off Toonkoo I. ^ «)j^ i. e. Brass Drum ; nearly east of 
this spot lies the market town of Sai-h6ung, the port of Sun-oan 
city. Passing on, by Sawchow -^ ^jj'W or Basket I., we open out 
the Capsing-moon, or Kapshui-moon anchorage, south of Castle 
Peak. The opium ships formerly lay here in the summer season. 
The passage is much used in going from Macao to Hongkong, and 
is safe from all hidden dangers ; Chulocock "^ j^ ffl is a large 
island on which are granite quarries ; and beyond it eastward ar© 
the E. and W. Brother, (Shi§ung mo-toe J^ ^ J] ^°^ ^^* Mo-toe 
^K 1^ yl i. e. Upper and Lower Whetstore,) after which we 
enter the Kapshui-moon ^^ J^ rT t. c. Swift-water passage, and 
reach Hongkong bay. A small islet, called Makwan on the charts, 
and which may be the Ma-on ^ 2^ or Saddle L of one Chinese 
map we have seen, lies in th6 middle between Lantao and the mam. 
The passage north of it is called Kai-chap moon 1& ^ P^, and 
towards the northeast there is a bay protected by the island Chung- 
yue on the south, which affords good anchorage, is perfectly land- 
locked, and was the principal rendezvous of the pirates in the early 
part of this century, and has been an infamous place ever since. As 
you pass into Hongkong harbor, Wanchun chow /^ j^ ;|»Mil (also 
porrectly called Yeung-shune chow jflj ^^ '}j||l) lies on the nor- 
thern side, a red colored and barren islet, 

Lantao, the largest island in the estuary below the Bogue, is about 
16 miles long, and 5h in its greatest breadth; its peak is about 3000 
feet high, and the loftiest summit in thie region, but foreigners h*r% 


Lantao I. htands aoulh ofii. Lenui Channd. Hongkong Harbor. 

never been to the top. It has several villages on its shores, and a 
fort, called Sheksun pautoi /^ ^ n^ ^ on its SE. side ; the 
village Tyho -j^ yM on its eastern shore has given the foreign name 
to the whole island, which is usually called Tai-yu -^ (l^H i. e. Great 
Island, by the Chinese ; it was at Ty-ho that the steamers " Queen" 
and " Barracouta," destroyed 17 piratical junks, Nov. 5th, 1855. The 
town of Toong-chung vS vS on the northern shore, opposite 
Chulocock I., is the largest on the island. 

Lantao forms part of the northern bound of the Lnntao or Lema 
passage, the usual entrance for vessels from sea going up to the 
Bogue from the eastward. South of it, the sea is filled with islands 
of various sizes, few of which are inhabited, having, generally, safe 
passages among them. On the south side of the channel, at the S. 
W. of Lantao, are three large islands, the southernmost of which is 
called Laf-sam-e, or more correctly Lapsapme Jm^ 4ft ^ *■ «• Lum- 
ber tail; between the one NW. of it and Chungchow sye, is the 
passage Ngow-tow moon M^ SMP^ *• ^" ^'^■hsad passage ; this 
last island is also called Yungshoo tow jfc^ i^k ^M »■ e. Fig-tree 
Point ; but it is down on some charts as Chungchow sye, though 
probably incorrectly. E. and VV. Chichow ^ ^M or Hemp L (or 
Tsat chow -^ jjljj Seventh L,) lie on the south of the channel, 
and the Socko chow Is. yQ jl^ i«4 i. e. High Stone I., and A chow 
^ ^J»jj oi: Crow I., on the north side. ' • 

In the Lema channel on the south, between Lingting 1. (called 
Ngoi Lingting >([* |^ ^ or Outside Lonely One), and the Asses 
Ears, are the Samoan Is., corrupted from Sammoon j^T^ \\ ^^ Three 
passages ; and west of them is Ichow $^ ^^fl or Ai-chow,j. e. Low 1. 
On the eastern side, as we pass up by the Lamma channel to Hong- 
kong, the Lamma I. is the largest island ; its name is corrupted 
from Nam-a iS 'Y' * the Southern Fork,' through the similarity of 
the two sounds, nam and lam ; it is a large island, and contains several 
villages. On the western side, Cheungchow -^ 4^4 or Water I., 
containing a pretty large population, is the most conspicuous and best 
known. Northerly from it lies Nykoo chow F^ M^ 'Wi or Nun's I., 
and one or two other small islets, with Cow-ee chow >K? IS" ^1 
I. e. Arm-chak^I., which has sometimes given name to the channel. 
This leads us by Green I. again into the harbor of Hongkong, Pass- 
ing through this harbor, the barren jutting point of Tseemsha tsuy 
y^ •]'/ ift » t. Peaked-aand Beak, upon which are some huts, is 



Kowloon. Lyee-moon. Tytam. Pootoy. Waglan. Tathong-moon. 

the principal point on the northern side ; beyond this, the bay of Kow- 
lung ^/ M^ * Nine Dragons,' runs up inland, and when opposite the 
N. E. point of Hongkong, runs out in another point, the two form- 
ing the Lyee-moon ^W ^ H^ i. e. Carp Passage, through which 
vessels proceed to sea eastward, Tytam y^ tM. is the name of a 
hamlet and bay on the south side of the island of Hongkong, and 
Chekchoo "^ t£ or Stanley is a village west from it. On the S< 
W. side, there is a cove and a cascade, where ships used to water, 
named lliingki^ng ^ji ^ • Fragrant Streams,' which has given 
name to the whole island. — It may here be mentioned, that the 
Chinese give the name of chow ^i\{ islet, or shan Ml hill, only to 
small islands which can be taken in at one view; consequently, 
Hiangshan, Lantao, and Hongkong, are not called islands. 

Several islets are seen in the offing southward from Tytam Bay, and 
between it and them is a channel, called Singshee-moon on the charts, 
but which in Chinese books is called Sheungchoo moon ^ ^^ PH 
». e. Pair-of-chopsticks Passage. The principal of these islands is 
called Pootoy W^ ^ (a favorite term for islands hereabouts, as ther^ 
are three of that name) ; Lochow ^* vj]] is that nearest Tytam Bay, 
and due east of it are Sonkoo and Waglan ; the former of these is 
called Sung-keung ^ ^ in Chinese maps. We have now reach- 
ed the eastern limits of the estuary of the Pearl River; which from 
the bay of Haeling-shan extends along •the seacoast nearly a hundred 
miles. It is one of the most singular embouchures of any known 
river, and its numerous passages have always been the resort of lawless 
men, who have preyed upon its traffic, and opposed their government 
by force. — From this to the Cape of Good Hope, we shall only giva 
the Chinese names for the most important places. 

Tathong Moon (Tatung mun ^/^^ ^ f 4 Great Eastern passage, 
called on some Chinese maps Fuh-tang mun j'rfh ^ V^ or Budha's 
Temple pass,) is a passage between the east side of Hongkong, and a 
bluffpoint on the main land, off which is a small island named Tamtoou 
It leads from the southward into the Lyee-moon passage, east of 
Hongkong. A little northward of the bluff point is a small bay, 
which will afford shelter during a gale. Taking a fresh departure 
from hence, we bend our course northward, with but a little easting, 
the land now trending in that direction, passing by Wochow J& ^iJil 
andNinepin, and enter Typo hoi (Taping hai •4^ W^ -im.) or Mir s 
Bay. This is a deep bay, of which the southwestern shore ie but a 


Typo hoi or Mil's Bay. Harlem's Bay. Hunghai Bayl. Ptdro Branco. 

£ew miles to the NEL of Kowloon. The military town of Taping 
is not in this bay (to which it gives name), but on the other side of 
a narrow piece of land by which this bay is separated from a deeper 
gulf to the eastward. Mir's Bay affords good anchorage on its eastern 
shore, and shelter from all winds except those between SSVV. and S. 
Rounding the promontory which separates Mir's Bay from the 
adjoining gulf or inlet, we pass Single Island or Chuenchaw SS ^jn 
and To-neeang '^v ^^ on the west, Mendoza Island on the east, 
and enter the gulf. On the left, well protected by the promontory, 
is the town and harbor of Taping or Typoong; on the right, beneath 
an elevated point of land named Fokai Point, is the fortified town of 
t*iagbae ^ jf^ and a bay with a fine sandy beach, named Harlem'a 
or Pinghae Bay. At the bottom of the gulf are numerous villages, 
and an inlet called Fanlo kiang, at the head of which a fine town is 
situated. This last cannot be approached, the water being too shoal. 
Taping harbor yields perfect security to small vessels, and to large 
ones protection from southerly winds. Harlem's Bay affords protec- 
tion against a northern or northeast gale ; but cannot be considered 
safe in a tyfoon. 

Having rounded Fokai Point, passing by Tungteng ^ j^ and 
Saiteng f^ ^, we approach another bay, shoal towards the upper 
part. This is the bay of Hunghai, in the district of Haifung hien ^M 
S '^' pertaining to the department of Hwuichau fd. It is open 
to the south. On the east side is a town, Tai-sha-me, -^ ^fh ^L 
or Tysammee, and further in a village named Ma-kung. The an- 
chorage in the inlet of Taishame is confined, and the entrance 
shoal. Salt is prepared here in large quantities by evaporation. 

Off the western side of Hunghai Bay, distant 19 miles S. 42' E. 
from Fokai Point, and 49 miles eastward of the Great Lema, is a large 
white rock, named by the Chinese Tae-sing-chan 4r M ^, i. e. 
Great Star Pin, and by foreigners Pedra Branca. This name is often, 
from ignorance, written Pedro Branco, and sometimes also Pedro 

As we leave Taishame, we stand off a little from the coast to 
avoid the rocks which here line the shore. The sandy and sterile 
appearance of the coast is still almost everywhere retained. After a 
course of about 20 miles, we enter the bay of Khee-seak (Kiehsheih 
l§ /^ OT Ke-shek), having on our lef^ Shalung Point, with another 



Khte-seak. Bay and Town of Kupchee. Breaker Point. Ckinghai. 

headland, a little to the northward ; and on our right the rocky islets 
Seekat ^ it and Tungkat ^ i^^, (or W. and E. Kumquat,) and 
the fort and city of Kiehsheih, called by Horsburgh Ilieche-tchin. 
This is a naval station ; and here is a fleet of war junks, under the 
command of a vice-admiral. The bay has good anchorage, affording 
shelter^from westerly and northerly winds, and from the northeast 
inonsoon, but would not probably be often used. 

Leaving Kiehsheih, we proceed along a sandy and hilly coast, turn- 
ing a little to the northward of east. A point named Wootang 
(Ootong ]^ ^) projects a little from the otherwise unbroken beach, 
and on it is a fort. Beyond this the coast curves slightly around 
ffl J^ '/^ Tongmi Pt., and we find ourselves in the Bay of Kupchee 
or Kiihtsze 09 -^ "^y if to so slight a curvature we can apply the 
name of bay. An arm of a river here disembogues, and.on its banks, 
a short distance up, stands the town of Kiahtsze. " Cupchee," says 
Mr. Lindsay, when visiting it in the " Lord Amherst," "is a walled 
town of some magnitude, and the river admits the entrance of large 
junks. Three war-junks of the largest size were lying here. * * * 
The general appearance of the coast (he adds) is barren and arid 
in the extreme. Little or no rice is cultivated ; but the ground 
yields wheat, Barbadoes millet, various kinds of vegetables, and 
sugar cane. One of the principal productions appears to be salt, 
which is made by the evaporation of sea-water. Numerous s«lt-pan8 
are to be seen in the vicinity of all the towns along the coast ; they 
are laid out in plots of about fifty feet square, and paved with small 
red stones, which give them a neat appearance." 

Beyond Kiahtsze, as we approach Breaker Point, called we think 
on Chinese maps Lienhwa fung ''m xy^ |1(^ »• e- Water Lily Pt., we 
find an extensive sandy beach, slightly curved. At the deepest part, 
a small stream falls into the sea. On the left bank of it, a little way 
up, is Shin-tsiuen jrffl -^*<?- Divine-fountain, a large town, with nume- 
rous fishing-boats. A few miles further on, in lat. 22° 56' 45" N., 
long. 116' 31' 30" E., is a low and rocky point, having within it 
acme hummocks of black rock and red sand. The distance is about 
23 miles from Kiahtsze, and nearly 50 from the Great Lema. Thi3 
is Breaker Point. " The coast for several miles is here, " says Mr. 
Lindsay, " one continued mass of sand; two hills of peculiar appear- 
ance, and nearly 4U0 feet high, were half covered with the sand, 
which looks like drifted snow. ' 

Iflimediately after rounding Breaker Point, we pass a samll town 
named Ching-hai ^^ ^ or rather Tsinghai. This is not the dis^ 
t-ict town of Chinghai, which is farther to the northward, and is a 
large commercial place. It was neat this place, at the fortress of 


in A.waiigiuiig pru»iuct;, iia*e iiui uceii irfqueiiiea uy loreig 
The largest towns in this part are Kiehyang iS |ij[& Chii 
Ir ^' ^^^'y^g •/^l^.andJauping^^.Thetownof Kieli 

Cnpe of G}od Hope. Towns beyond Breaker PoirU. Chan/^in. Abmoft /. 

Tsing-h'i-so in the district of Hwuilii, that the boat's crew of H. 
B. M. steamer " Madagascar " landed Sept. 20th, 1842, after her 
destruction by fire, and were taken prisoners by the Chinese. A little 
north of Tsinghai is the entrance of a small river, named Hai-mun 
'M P^ ^'^ Haimoon; a naval station, and a place of some trade, 
which was visited several years ago by vessels engaged in the opium 
trade, but without success. The Cape of Good flope lies to the 
north»astwa-»l of this, :n lat. 23' 13 45" N., and long. 116' 50' E. ; 
this headland is, we believe, near to Kwang-gaou, or Kwong-o 
^ 7^1 °" Chinese maps, but on the charts it is called Ma-urh Pt. 
In the roadstead, protection can be obtained from northerly and 
westerly winds, and if close in, from easterly winds also. The cha- 
racter of the land from Breaker Point to this place is mountainous 
uid rocky. 

The various ports to the northeastward of the Cape of Good Hope, 
in Kwangtung province, have not been frequented by foreigners. 

is situated on an island, formed between two branches of a river, at 
a distance of several miles from the sea. Chinghai or Tsinghai is 
to the southeast of it, and is the chief town of a small district which 
the sea almost surrounds. Changlin, j^ jbt j. e. Camphor Forest, 
within the jurisdiction of Chinghai. is represented as one of the chief 
places where Chinese junks are built. Haiyang and Jauping are 
at nearly the same distance from the sea as Kiehyang, namely about 
25 or 30 miles, and are to the eastward of Changlin. 

The island of Naraoh, or Nan-gaou p^ yM. lies to the northeast- 
ward of the Cape of Good Hope, and to the southward of most of the 
places we have just named. It is thirteen miles in length, and three 
miles in average breadth, and consists of two high mountains of 
unequal extent, connected by a low isthmus, Namoh is a naval 
station. The civil jurisdiction is divided, the northern portion of the 
island pertaining to Kwangtung, and the southern to Fuhkien; but 
the whole naval force is under one officer, whose authority extends 
to both sides of the island. The chief town is Nantsze or Shin-ao 
i?8 vM» in a bay on the north side, near the eastern end, and here 
the naval officers usually reside. The eastern point of the island 
is in lat. 23' 28' N., long. 116' 59 30 " E. Off the eastern and south- 
eastern sides of Namoh lie several small islets and rocks. , The 
Lamock islands, or Nan-p5ng re| oj, and theChelsieuor Che-tsieii. 
(Tteihsing shan J^ M ^^ ) rocks, are the best known. 


Com Islet. Sugar Loaf. Swutow. St. JoachivCs Bank. 

Sectfon 2. 


Surveyed by Capt, R. CoUinson, C. B., R. JV. 

Cape of Good Hope. The Cape of Good Hope is in lat. 23' 14' N. 
and long. 116^ 47' E., forming the western extremity of the Bay of 
Namoh : it is 480 feet above the level of the sea — the highest part 
having the appearance of a dome. The eastern face of it is steep 
to, and in the bay to the north of it is a green islet, with a patch of 
rocks between it and the Cape. From it the west point of Nanftoh 
bears NE. by N. 14j| miles, and the S W. part of the Lamock islands 
S. 85'' E., 24A miles. 

Cone Isltt. North from the Cape, 2^ miles, is Cone Islet, which is 
distant from the main land five cables ; and S. by E. four cables 
from Cone Islet, a square rock, having a reef, which shows at low 
water, two cables to the westward of it. Rocks extend from the 
points on the main opposite to these two islets, and in the channel 
there are three fathoms at low water. 

Sugar Loaf. From Cone Islet the coast trends NW. by N. three 
miles to Sugar Loaf Island, from the NE. point of which there is lat 
reef extending one cable. 

River Han. From the Sugar Loaf the coast trends westward, 
being the entrance to the River Han, which has 2^ fathoms over the 
bar at low water. 

Intending to enter it, steer so as to pass two cables to the east 
of Double Island (which bears NW. by N. ^ of a mile from Sugar 
Loaf) ; having passed it, the course is west for the town of Shantau 
or Swatow, which is upon the north bank of the river and four miles 
from Double Island : half aniile to the SE. of the town, there is a depth 
©f 8 fathoms, and at low tide, the water is fresh in the roiny season.* 
The channel between Double Island and the main to the northward 
is five cables! wide, the mud extending six cables from that shore, 
which is low, 

St. Joachim's Bank. St. Joachim's Bank is an extension of this 
flat southeasterly. The southern edge in two fathoms bears east 
from Double Island two miles, and it turns to the northward when 
the Pagoda bears N. 27° E. A good guide to steer clear of it in a 
vessel of 14 feet draft, is to keep Brig Island open of the east end 
of Fort Island. 

* Shantau M-l S^ or Swatow, is the seaport ofChinh^i hien, from which 
it is distant about two miles. The country in this vicinity is very higLly 
cultivated, and large quantities of tobacco and stii^ar cane aro raited. Of l«t« 
years, many coolies have been taken from this place. 

t A cable is one tenth of a mile. 


Piagoda. West Entrance to JS/amoh. Brig I. Baylia Bauf. 

Pagoda. The Pagoda bears N. 8° E., lOA miles from the Cape 
of Good Hope. The land in its neighborhood is so low that whea 
tirst made, it appears like an island. 

Fort Island lies .NE. by E. two miles from the Pagoda. The fort 
is on the table land at its west extreme. 

Knolls at the lOestern entrance to Namoh. S. 68° E from the 
Pagoda, Ah miles, and with the west point of Namoh in line with 
Breaker Island bearing N. 36" E., there was formerly a shoal with 
only eleven feet at low water; at present (August 1844,) there are 
several knollf, none of which however have less than 13 feet. 

The following are their hearings. The west point of Namoh in 
line with Breaker Island is the mirk for three. The western upon 
that line bears from the Pagoda S. 56' E., and has a depth of 13 
feet at low water. Another bears S. 66" E. from the Pagoda, with 
17 feet. A third bears east from the Pagoda, with 18 feet. And 
with the Pagoda bearing N. 79" VV., and the west point of Namoh 
N. 21" E., there is a patch with 18 feet. Also with the Pagoda bear- 
ing west, and the west point of Namoh N. 23° W., is a knoll which 
has only 14 feet : all these are sand, and will probably be found to 
shift in consequence of the freshes from the mouths of the River Han. 

Brig Island. Brig Island (so called from a rock at its southern 
extremity, which appears like a brig when seen in an east or west 
direction), lays NE. by E. J E., 4 miles from Fori Island ; the depth 
of water varies from 5 to 2^ fathoms between the two, the most 
water being towards the former. 

Baylis' Bay. Baylis' Bay is the first bay on the north side of 
Namoh to the eastward of the west point, and has a Chinese fort on 
the ridge to the westward of it, and an outwork on the beach. 

There are three knolls off the Bay, bearing from the upper fort 
as follows : — 1st. N. 78" W., rather less than a cable from the fort 
point, having only five feet over it. — 2d. N. 43° W.. one cable from 
the point, and nine feet upon it at low water. — 3d. N. 36" W. 2^ 
cables from the same point; when upon this, Brig Island summit 
bears N. 40° W. and Fort Island summit S. 75' W. It has eleven 
feet at low water. During the northern monsoon, the opium vessels 
anchor off this bay, remaining here from October to May. In the 
other monsoon they lay 1.^ mile further to the east, as the swell 
setting round the point renders this anchorage inconvenient. 

From Baylis' Bay a bank com'nences, which extends 2.J miles 
along the NW. coast of Namoh ; the greatest distance from the shore 
is four cables, which is opposite to Stewart's house, off which is the 
summer anchorage : the lead gives no warnings, and there is only 
nine feet on the edge of the bank. The tide at springs runs at the 
rate of four knots, the ebb coming from the eastward. It is high 
on full and change days, at Jl o'clock, rise seven feet. These two 
anchorages must be considered piore as safe roadsteads than harbors, 
as from the velocity of the tide and the fetch from the sea, laden 
boats would frequently have much diflSculty in passing to and fro. 


Folkslont Rock. Pagoda Bay. Challum Bay. Entrance I. 

"Water may be procured with great facility, and there was no difficulty 
in obtaining fresh provisions. 

Folkstone Rock. — The Folkstone Rock has only five feet upon it 
at low water. The bearings from it are: — the Brig Rock in line with 
the NW. head of Fort Island 8.62° W. ; Coffin's Island, the largest 
of a cluster of islets three miles north of Brig Island, N. 44° W. ; and 
the flag-staff of Stewart's house in line with a whitewashed rock 
at the back of it bearing S. 11° E. 

The leading mark, Brig Rock, in line with Fort Island, will keep 
a vessel clear of the shoal, which extends nearly all the way from 
Brig Island to Breaker. The latter bears from the former N. 63° E. 
4.8 miles, and is a peaked rock, with several others about it, which 
must not be approached nearer than two cables upon their western 
side. Opposite to Breaker, the coast line of Namoh trends to the 
southeast, forming a deep indentation, which is shoal with two islets 
and several rocks in it. The land at the bottom of the bay is low, 
and it is only one mile across to the southern side of the island. 

Shoal east of Breaker. To the eastward of Breaker I., the southern 
edge of the shoal, from the north shore in three fathoms, bears east 
three miles from it. 

Pagoda Bay. Pagoda Bay is seven miles to eastward of Breaker ; 
there is a walled (.own at the bottom of the bay, which is the resi- 
dence of the magistrate of the district. Vessels drawing less than 
three fathoms may bring the Pagoda to bear E. by N., but during 
the northerly monsoon, Challum Bay will be found a more eligible 
anchorage, as with a northeasterly breeze there is a considerable 
swell into the former, and from Challum Bay you are able to avail 
yourself of the land wind, which usually draws to the northward in 
the morning. 

Challum Bay. To enter it, pass within"* mile to the westward of 
Middle Islet, which is a barren rock bearing N. 60" E. 5.3 miles 
from Breaker, or do not shut Back Bay Island in with Entrance 
Island, which will prevent your standing into less than 2^ fathoms 
upon the western shore. 

Entrance Island bears NW. 2.4 miles from Middle^Islct. Tlie 
anchorage is between the two, in from 3 to6fms. The bay north of 
Entrance Island is shoal, and there is a reef extending three cables 
from the SW. point of Challum Island ; the latter lays north l|f mile 
from Middle Islet. Should you pass to the eastward of Middle Islet, 
it must be within five cables, as there is an eleven feet patch between 
it and the Fort Head, bearing from the former N. 48^ E. 

Under Fort Head is a rock nearly level with the water's rd^e at 
high water, and also one in the bay between it and Point Difficult • 
otherwise the coast line here is steep to. ' 

Point Difficult. Point Difficult has a square fort upon the highest - 
part of the hills over it, and an islet to the eastward of it. 

Ternate Rock. The Ternate Rock, with one foot upon it, lavs ."V. 
78° E. 1.3 mile from the summit of this islet; on- which bearing it is 

COM, GU. 4 


Temate Rock, South Coast and Bay ofJVamoh. Crab I. Lamock Is. 

in line with the third and last sandy hill on the northern part of the 
range extending from Fort Head. The Pagoda Island in line with 
Namoh High Peak, will place you to the eastward of it. 

The north point of Namoh has a double peak over it, and forms 
the eastern boundary of the Pagoda Bay ; rocks extend from its 
northeast face three cables. The land then trends immediately to 
the southward. 

South coast of Namoh. The southern coast of Namoh runs from 
the west point nearly due east five miles, where there is a small bay 
with a pagoda upon its eastern point. This portion of the island 
corresponds with the bay opposite to Breaker on the northern shore. 

South Bay. South Bay lays four miles to the eastward of the 
Pagoda Bay, and will afford good shelter in the NE. monsoon. Rocks 
extend 1| cables southerly from the point. Vessels of 18 feet 
draught may run into this bay, until the end o( the point bears 

Crab Islet. Five and a half cables to the SE. of the point, is a 
low flat islet, called Crab Islet by the Chinese. The channel between 
it and Namoh has foul ground. One and three tenths of a mile to 
the eastward of South Bay Point is a bold bluff, with three tall chim- 
neys on it, which is the southern extremity of the island. 

Lamock Islands. The Lamock Islands are four in number, and 
two patches of rocks extending in a NE. and SVV. direction 7 J 
miles. The southwestern part of the group is two square rocks, 
about the size of boats, with several detached reefs between them. 
The White Rock lays NE. 1.4 mile from them, and is sufficiently 
large to afford shelter to the fishing-boats. Between the White Rock 
and the High Lamock, the distance is three miles, affording a safe 
channel, the depth of water varying from eight to fourteen fathoms. 
High Lamock Island is OoO feet above the sea, and thickly covered 
with brushwood. The channel between it and the next island is 
1.3 mile ; between the two is a rock, with a reef which shows at low 
water, extending southerly from it. 

The three northern islets lay close together; the northern one is 
without vegetation, and has a pyramid upon it. The course from 
the southern end of the Lamock to the west point of Namoh is NW. J 
W.,22i miles; and from the NE. end of them the east point of 
Namoh bears NW. 13A miles. From the same point the southeastern 
Brother bears N. 56° E. 25^ miles, and Jokakko Point N. 21" E., 
19^ miles. 

Between the Lamock Is. and Namoh are four islets, the northern 
of which is the highest, and from its appearance is called Dome Islet. 

The two southern islets lay nearly E. and W. of each other. The 
southeastern, or Reef Islet, has a reef of rocks extending southerly 
one mile from it, from the south end of which the Southwest islet 
bears N. oV 30' W. The western islet is lower than the others and 
flat ; its SW. extreme, open of the west end of Southwest Islet, is a 
good mark for avoiding the above reef. 


Sinta. YiT^konta. Dome I. Chelsieu. Dioyu. Chauan Buy. 

Sinta is a rock with two feet water on it, bearing S. 38° E. 4.4 
miles from Dome Islet. When on it the SW. extreme of Reef Islet 
in line with centre of West or Low Islet, bearing N. 67° 30' W., 
Southwest Islet summit bears N. 72° W.; east point of Namoh N. 
10° 30' W.; southern rock of the Lamocks S.28° E. ; north end of 
the Lamocks east ; and the highest point of the Lamocks is S. 71° E. 

Yingkonta is another rock, awash at low water, 4.^ miles to the 
north of Sinta. When upon it, the northern end of Crab Islet, on 
the south face of Namoh, is in line with the SW. point of Namoh, 
bearing N. 77° W., Dome Island bears S. 74' 30' VV.; Reef Island 
S. Sr 30' W.; High Lamock S. 37° E.; and the east end of Namoh 
N. 29° W. The north point of Namoh, seen clear of the eastern 
point, leads you north of it. 

Reef between Dome Island and Namoh. There is also a patch 
of rocks which show at half tide, between Dome Island and Namoh, 
bearing from the former from N. 12° to 27° E., one mile. 'I'he 
Chimney Blutf on Namoh bears N. 33° W. from them. They are 
rather more than a mile from the Namoh shore. Mr. Anderson, mas- 
ter of the " Sir Edward Ryan," also informed me of a reef which he 
saw when in command of the " Times" schooner, to the NE. of the 
Lamocks, which he described as being just awash ; the bearing 
placed it with all the Lamocks in one, and three miles from the 
northern rock. We, however, could not find it. 

Chelsieu. Chelsieu is a cluster of four rocks, which are always 
above water, bearing E. from the north point of Namoh seven miles. 

Dioyu. From them N. 35^ W. 3^ miles, is Dioyu, a reef which 
is just awash at high water. The pagoda in Pagoda Bay, in line 
with the Saddle Peak which overlooks the western side of Pagoda 
Bay in Namoh, bearing S. 63° W., will lead you to the northward of 
it, should high tides and smooth water prevent its being seen. 

Tides at the tastern extremity of Namoh. The flood tide enters 
at the eastern as well as at the western end of Namoh, but the tides 
in the neighborhood of Pagoda Bay are not so strong as they are at 
the western extremity of the island. 

General description of Namoh. Namoh is 12 miles from E. to W., 
and 5^ miles from north to south at its eastern extremity, which is 
its broadest part. Notwithstanding its barrenness it is exceedingly 
populous, the occupation of fishing affording a livelihood to the 
greater portion of the inhabitants. The peaks, of which there are 
three, rise to the height of 1700 and 1900 feet above the sea, form- 
ing the most prominent landmarks in the neighborhood. 

Six and a half miles ENE. of Point Difficult is a shallow bay, with 
a pagoda on an island within it ; the boundary of the provinces of 
Kwangtung and Fuhkien. passes through this bay. 

Ckauan Bay. The west point of Chauan Bay (which is the 
eastern point of the bay mentioned above) has a small islet off its 
south extreme. This bay may be useful during the SE. monsoon, 
but in the NE. vessels should endeavor to reach Owick Bav, which 


Owick or Psyche Bay. Jokakko Peak. Cone Ptak. Tongsan Harbor. 

is seven milo5 further to the eastward, as the other runs far enough 
back to the SE. to allow an awkward sea to rise. At the entrance 
is a middle ground with 2i and 3 fms., the south end of which bears 
N. 80" W. from east Chauan Point ; the west end S. 11° E. from 
Pagoda Bay, and the east end S. 21° E. from the same. 

'i'hree cables from the SW. point of Square Islet (the southernmost 
islet in the bay) is a reef awash at low water. When upon it the 
east point of Chauan Bay bears S. 60° E., and the west end of Square 
Island N. 33° E. The shoal water also extends 1.1 mile from the 
NW. side of the bay, which will be detected by the discolored water. 
Anchorage in six fms. will be found with the centre of Square Island 
bearing SE.; and further up the bay in three 'fms. with the south 
end of High Island in line with the east point of the bay. Between 
High and Square islands and the east point of Chauan Bay, the 
channels are too narrow for square rigged vessels. 

Owick Bay. Owick or Psyche Bay lays three miles to the east 
of East Chauan Point. It is protected by a narrow isthmus with two 
rocks off its south extreme, the end of which may be brought to bear 
SE., where a vessel will have smooth water in 3^ fathoms. Immedi- 
ately to the east of Owick Bay is a remarkable sand hill, which will 
point out its position. 

Jokakko Peak. Jokakko Peak is the highest part of the land at 
the back of Owick bay, and is conical shaped. Bell Island lays three 
miles to the east of Owick Bay point, and is perforated at its south 
end, which will be seen on a SE. or N W. bearing. There is a smaller 
islet between it and Jokakko Point, making the channel, five cables 
wide, in the centre of which there is only 2^ fathoms ; from Bell 
Island, the Southeast Brother bears S. 28° 30' E. 15J miles. 

On Jokakko Point is an isolated hill, N. by E. 1 J mile from Bell 
Island ; off it are two islands. Cliff Island bearing SE. by E. one mile, 
and the Square Head N 76° E. 1.7 mile. The channel between 
them and the Point is safe. 

Cone Peak. N. 30° E. from Jokakko Point is Cone Peak, with 
a peaked rock off its eastern point. The land between the two is 
a sandy plain, very little above high water level ; the distance across 
which to the bottom of ChaJlum Bay is only If mile. 

Brothers. The Southeastern Brother is the larger of the two, and 
has a reef extending northwesterly from it. The islets are 2^ miles 
apart, bearing SE. ^ E. and NW. ^ W. from each other ; the north- 
western has a remarkable square top. 

Tongsan Harbor. Tongsan Harbor is one of the best upon the 
coast of China, and will be easily recognised by a remarkable peak 
called " Fall Peak," making something like a saddle, but with a deeper 
indentation ; and upon the island at the entrance is a pagoda, which 
hears from the Southeast Brother N. 55° W., 14^ miles. 

There is a mud bank outside, having for its least water 3f fathoms, 
bearing from the pagoda S. 40° E., and from Fall Peak S. 35° W,. 
By keeping the Sisters, two islets in the northern portion of the bay. 



Old Thunder Head. Fall Peak. Tungyung town. Bees' Rock. 

ope)i of the east end of Middle Islets (the group immediately north 
of Pagoda Island or Tung-shan Ying, ^\ ijl <^), you will be to 
the eastward of the bank. 

Pagoda Island and the eastern shore of the harbor are steep to, 
until you open the low isthmus which connects Old Thunder Head 
with Fall Peak, when the eastern shore becomes shoal ; and the larger 
Sister must not be brought to the westward of N. by W. ^ W. 

There are also some rocks extending a cable and a half from the 
south point of Middle Islet, and a mud bank extending northerly 1^ 
cable from its east point. 

The Plover's first anchorage was in 4J fathoms, with Fall Peak 
bearing N. 73° E., and the larger Sister N. 19° W., under a long 
sandy point and opposite to a creek. Afterwards for the convenience 
of watering, which was readily obtained, and that during the dry 
season, she was moved under Old Thunder Head ; the Fall Peak 
bearing N. 44° E. and the east head of Middle Island N. 52° W. 
Old Thunder Head is called by the Chinese Kau-lv-tdu shdn, 

1^ M SM llJ *• ^- High-fair-head hill. 

Junks anchoring for the tide bring up between the pagoda and 
Middle Islands. In passing to this anchorage care must be taken to 
avoid some rocks extending southeasterly, two cables from the E. 
point of the northern part of Pagoda Island ; and the best berth will 
be found in 12 fathoms, when the Sisters are seen through the wes- 
tern opening of the Middle Islands. You must not close the Middle 
Islands nearer than two cables, as there is a mud bank extending from 
them southerly. This anchorage is confined, but will be found con- 
venient for a disabled or an unhandy vessel in case the ebb tide should 
prevent her reaching the other anchorage ; and in the former case 
she would be nearer to the town of Tungyung, where spars are to 
be obtained. The latter is situated upon a peninsula opposite to the 
Pagoda Island ; this channel is not a good one to enter by, as rocks 
extend from both shores, narrowing the channel to three cables. 

It is high water at 11.30; rise and fall, 12 feet. The bay runs 
back NNW. II miles from Middle Island, where I think there is a 
river's mouth, the boat having three fms. water at the farthest point 
reached in the channel, but that was very narrow. Also due west 
from Fall Peak there is a boat channel leading into Challum Bay. 
The northwestern portion of the bay is bounded by a range of rugged 
mountains, called Greene's Range, or Niu shdn ^ \\l In proceed- 
ing to the eastward, the coast on the eastern side of Old Thunder 
Head must not be approached within a cable, as there are three 
rocks which show at low wat6r along it. 

jRecs' Rock. Rees' Rock bears S. 65° E. from Fall Peak, distant 
1.7 mile; at spring tides it is covered at high water; when upon it, 
the Chimneys (or, as the Chinese call them, Md-tsii hung J[|| jjig ^^ 
MitsiVs palace,) on the island which forms Rees' P^ss bear N. 32° E. 


Rees' Pa$9. fVreck /. Darisborg I. Ching Reef. Goo Ruf. 

and the siimmit of the eastern islet of that group (Southeast, islet) 
N. Si" E. There is a rock east of it one cable, which only breaks 
at low water spring tides. Tho chalmel between Rees' Rock and 
the hiain is used by the junks, but it is narrow and the ground is 

Rees' Pass. In Rees' Pass there is a shoal with 2J fms. on it at 
low water, three cables from the shore of Chimney Island, bearing 
from the Chimneys S. 78" W. The Plover rode out a very heavy 
gale of wind, ranging from NE. to E. by N., being anchored in six 
fms. two cables from the Black rock at the southern end of the sandy 
bay under the Chimneys; but I do not think that a vessel will gain 
anything by going through the Pass, as immediately on clearing the 
north end of Chimney Island, you are exposed to the same sea that 
you would experience to the eastward of the group. Anchorage also 
will be found under Southeast Island in five and six fathoms, with 
the south point bearing east. 

Wreck Island. Wreck I. lays six cables to the NE. of Southeast 
Island; off its eastern end are several rugged rocks, on the outer of 
which the "Simplicia" went to pieces on the 8th October, 1844, 
having struck upon a reef which shows at low water.and lays one cable 
NE. of the .same rock. In this neighborhood the sea rises very rapidly 
after the commencement of a breeze, and overtops, leading a seaman 
to suppose that there must be some change in the soundings. 

Dansborg Island. Dansborg Island lays two miles to the NE. 
of Wreck Island. It has three peaks which are nearly the same 
height, and is of an oblong shape, being six cables in a NE. and SW. 
direction, and 2| in width. To the WNW. of it, at the distance of 
a mile, and of one mile and four tenths, are two smaller islets. 

Ching Reef. — The Ching Reef bears from the western of the two 
N. 19° W. 1.4 mile. It shows at half ebb, and when upon it the 
folloxying are the bearings: — NE. Head of Dansborg Island S. 51° 
E. The chimnevs upon Chimney Island, S. 49° W. The Awota 
rock S. 72° W. Black Head on Hutau sh^n N. lOJ" E. It is of 
some extent, the northeastern rocks which break only at low water 
being two cables from the highest part of the reef. The Awota 

Rock is called by the Chinese Shih-ydh-mu sz' ^ ^ -^ -f-^ . 

The Goo Reef which shows at the last quarter ebb, bears S. 69° 
W. from it. The bearings upon it are: — the chimneys upon Chim- 
ney Island S. 41° W. Awota rock S. 8 r W. Summit of Wreck Island 
S. 35° E. Western Lslet off Dansborg Island S. 82° E. The Awota 
Rock mentioned above lays close to the main, to the NW. of Rees' 
Pass, bearing N. 53° W. from Chimney Island. 

Hutau shdn Head lays six miles north of Dansborg Island. It 
is composed of five separate hills, the southern of which, " Black 
Head," is the most remarkable. Vessels might ride out a strong 
breeze under it in four fathoms, at the distance of two cables from the 
shore, particularly if the wind holds to the northward ; should how- 


Hatau-shnn. Spire. JVob Rock. Red Bay. Chinhai Bay 

ever a gale come on, or the wind draw to the eastward, the sooner 
this anchorage is quitted the better. Under such circumstances, 
refuge may be had by running through Rees' Pass, and anchoring 
close under Chimney Island, or in Tungshan harbor. 

On the northern of the five hills is a walled town; Hutau shin 
river has deep water when inside, but it is not available for naviga- 
tion without buoys, as the channels are narrow and intricate; a 
spit extends three miles southerly from Hi'itau shin j^ §H |I| » 
some parts of which are dry at low water ; the eastern extreme of it 
bears S. 68° W. from Black Head. 

Hutau-shdn to Red Bay. The coast line from Hiitau-shSn to Red 
Bay lays NE. J E., the distance being 10^ miles, and with the 
exception of one hill and two hillocks is a sandy plain. To the 
eastward six cables from Hutau-shan Point, are some rocks, a portion 
of which are always uncovered. 

Spire. To the NE. of the Point is a rock with a remarkable 
square column on it, called *' Spire," and a low flat rock to the 
westward. N. by E. one mile from Spire is Cleft Rock, which must 
not be approached within three cables, as reefs lay off it to the east 
and northeast. 

Noh Rock. Nob Rock bears from Black Head east, and from the 
east head of Red Bay S. 15° W. being 5| miles from the nearest 
shore; it is steep to. 

Red Bay. In working up to Red Bay or Tsiang-kiun Tsiau, 
y^ ^ ?^ from the southward, care must be taken to avoid a reef, 
laying six cables N. by E. from the low hill on the shore, three miles 
to the southward of the anchorage. When upon the reef, the eastern 
Black Rock bears N. 53° E. By tacking when the Black rocks are 
in one with the point beyond them, you will be one third of a mile 
to the eastward. 

Red Bay will be readily known by the two Black rocks off the 
point, as well as by the low red sand hills at the back of it. A reef 
extends northwesterly from the southern of the two rocks, leaving 
a passage only for small boats between it and the main at low water. 
S. 55° E. seven cables from the southern Black Rock, is a reef which 
is covered at high water. The anchorage lays between the two, and 
the reef has three fms. close to it. The water shoals gradually on 
going in, after having passed the rocks. It will be found a very good 
I'oadstead in the northern monsoon, There is a village awd a creek 
in the bottom of the bay. «j^. , . 

Red Bay tu Chinhai Bay ^ J^. From Red Bay to Chinhii 
Bay the distance is 18 miles, the coast trending NE. by N. It is steep 
to, with the exception of the NE. point of Red Bay, and of some 
reefs and a sand spit which lay west from Lamtia, and to the south- 
ward of a low hill with a house on its summit, where there is a bay 
in which the water runs a long way back, but it is shallow. From 
Red Bay, Chapel Island bears ENE. ^lA miles, and Lamtia NE.^E. 


IFu-ii&shitn. fVoan I. Hu-i Tau Bay. Reef near DodcTt I- 

lOJ miles. The west point of Amoy Bay is three miles NE. by E. 
from Chinhai Point ; between the two, and five cables from the shore, 
is a rock awash at high water ; and four cables north of the point 
is a reef, which shows at low water. 

The island of VVri-sii'i-shan bears N. 17° E. four miles from the 
Point ; nearly midway between the two is a rock which is covered 
at high water. From it the High Pagoda bears N. 62' W.; the tides 
in its vicinity are strong, therefore give it a wide berth. 

The distance between Wusiu and Woan (the islet west of it) is 
five cables, forming a secure but somewhat confined anchorage, 
which is now much resorted to. The best passage is to the north 
of the former, and between it and Chinseao. The water is shoal 
ofl' the northwest point of Wtisiu ; the lead will however give you 
warning. There are usually a number of fishing stakes which ob- 
struct the southern passage, and it should not be used except with a 
commanding breeze and at slack tide. The centre and eastern 
channels should be preferred to the western. 

In navigating this portion of the coast during the northeasterly 
monsoon, the breeze will be found to hang to the northward from 
2 to 10 A. M., and in the eastern quarter the remaining period. And 
deeply laden vessels will find it more advantageous to seek shelter 
in one of the harbors or roadsteads abovementioned during a strong 
northeasterly wind, than to keep the sea, as ground can seldom be 
gained, in consequence of the perpendicularity of the seas. 

Hu-i Tau ^ ^§ Sat/. Owing to the uncertain set of the 
currents in the Formosa channel, several vessels have mistaken this 
bay for the Harbor of Amoy. The following remarks will point out 
the difference in the approach: — 

The entrance to Hu-i Tau and Amoy compared. — Dodd's Island, 
called by the Chinese Pakting, is in lat. 24° 26.'6 N., and long. 
118° 29.'4 E., and may be known from Chapel Island by a reef three 
cables to the NNE. of it, on which the sea always breaks; the 
former also is uneven, gradually sloping to the eastward. Chapel 
Island rises suddenly, and there is a difficulty in saying which is the 
highest part of it; it is eight miles from the nearest land, Dodd's 
island being only three. 

The entrance to Amoy, viz., from Chapel Island to the south point 
of Q-uemoy, is 11 miles, but from Dodd's island to Hi'j-i Tau Point 
is only five miles. The rocks off the south point of Quemoy are 
peaked, the reef off Hu-i Tau Point is flat. 

There are two pagodas on Quemoy Point, which extends NW. by 
N. and SE. by S. On Hi'i-i Tau Point is a small obelisk, and the 
land turns suddenly to the north. 

Hu-i Tau bay will afford very good shelter in the northeast mon- 
soon, as the point may be brought to bear SE. by E. in 3A fathoms ; 
and vessels drawing le§s than three fathoms may brmg it to bear 


Hu-i Tau Point. Oytler J, Thalia Bank. Flat I. Channel by Quemoy. 

Reef off Dodd's Island. There is a rocky ledge from E. by N. 
to E.NE, 1.2 mile from Dodd's island ; on it are two patches, one 
of which breaks, and the other has only one fathom at low water. 
The eastern extreme of the land seen to the northward, bears iV, 
43° E. from its eastern edge. North of Dodd's Island, one mile, and 
on the same bearing 0.7 of a mile, are two rocks with only three 
feet at low water ; and N. tiO" VV. five cables, is a reef whioh will 
show at half tide. 

Hii-i Tau Point, ili'i-' Tau Point is low, about 80 feet abt^ve the 
sea; on the hills north of it is a small fort, and a remarkable nob at 
the north head of the bay as you enter. The reefs extend S. 40*" E., 
three cables from the Point; also from the first point inside, they 
extend westerly two cables. There is a sunken rock, with 20 feet 
water upon it, bearing S. 56° E. from the Obelisk 1.3 mile, and N. 
AS" E. from Dodd's Island. 

Oyster Island and Rock. Oyster Island is a low fiat rock N. 47' 
W. two miles from the Point; vessels running in for shelter will find 
smooth water between them, taking care to avoid the Oyster Rock, 
which shows at low water spring tides, and bears from the island 
S. 2' E. 9h cables; when on it the Obelisk on the Point bears E. 27° 
S. ; the fort N. 67" E. ; and the summit of a flat island i? in line with 
the left slope of a conical hill in the bottom of the bav, bearing N. 
70° W. 

Thalia Bank. The east end of the Thalia Bank bears W. ^ S., 
2.1 miles from the Point, and N. 16'' E. from Dodd's Island ; it 
extends nearly to the White rocks in the centre of the bay, the east 
end having IJ fathom on it; its western end dries. The NE! 
part of it is steep to, the lead giving no warning. 

Anchorage west of Oyster Island. There is anchorage also to the 
westward of Oyster Island in five fins., but it must not be brought 
to bear to the southward of east, as there is a rocky ledge with only 
one fathom on it seven cables from the i.sland. 

Anchorage off Flat Inland. Vessels requiring .shelter in a souther- 
ly breeze may run up and anchor to the NE. of b'lat island, at tlie 
distance of half a mile ; it bears W. by N. 5.^ miles from Oyster Island, 
The northern edge of the Thalia Bank bears iS. 69' E. from Flat 
Island; do not bring it therefore to the westward of N. 69' AV., 
and keep Oyster Island open to the northward of the fort, to avoid 
the shoals on the northern shore of the bay. 

Channel between the Thalia Bank and Quemoy. There is a chan- 
nel between the Thalia Bank and Quemoy, but the ground is foul 
M'ith several reefs, and should aot be attempted without the chart 
or some previous knowledge. A leading courso to clear the south 
end of the bank, ia the Chimney.'? on the north point of Ciuemoy 
bearing W. by N., until the White rocks bear N.NE., 
must be .steered to pass half a mile from the points of the bays on the 
Q,uenioy shore. In the west end of Ilu-i Tau Bay are two remark- 
able sharp peaks, which form good leading marks from the sea. The 

to.M. uu. 5 


Chimmo Bay. South and Pagoda Is. lieef. Town of Eng-lang 

eastern is 1390 feet high, and is in latitude 24" 40/5 N. and long. 
118° 22/5 E. 

Fresh Water. Fresh water can be obtained under the fort at the 
Point. The ten miles of coast line between Hi'i-' Tau and Chimmo 
Bay is low, the sand hills being about 300 feet high. There are two 
walled towns between the two, the southern of which has a small 
pagoda near it. None of the small sandy bays afford shelter, the 
boat.s being all hauled up on the beach; six miles from Hi'i-i Tau 
Point, and three from Pagoda Island, is a peak with three chimneys 
on it. 

Chimmo Bay. Chimmo Bay will be easily recognized by the 
Kti-sau tah, ij^ u^ :^, or Chimmo Pagoda, which is 760 feet above 
the sea, and is in latitude 2i' 43' N., and longitude 118' 33. '6 E. 
It is 1.8 mile from the beach at the north head of the bay. 

South and Pagoda Islands. On the southern side of the bay are 
two islets, South Island and Pagoda Island, the channels between 
which, and between Pagoda Island and the south of the bay, are full 
of rocks. 

Reef. N. 4° W. from South Island, o and 7 cables, are two rocks, 
which show at low water springtides. When on them the east end 
of Pagoda Island is in line with a flat reef outside the south end of 
the bay. To pass to the northward of them, keep a large tree, half 
a mile from the beach in the northwest part of the bay, open to the 
left of the north fall of a remarkable Shoulder peak, which it will 
be bearing N. 45° W. ; and also when Point Island is in line with the 
east end of the first point beyond it, you will then be to the west- 
ward of them. From the reef to Point Island is 1.2 mile ; the latter 
is steep to, but there is a reef which covers at half tide W. 9° S., 
three cables from it. The water shoals gradually, and vessels draw- 
ing 15 feet or more must not bring the Point Island to the southward 
of E. 9° S. This bay at the best is but a roadstead, and a dangerous 
one in the southerly monsoon. The walled town of Yung-ning or 
Eng-lang ^J^ i^, is at the northern side of the bay, and Chimmo on 
the southern, with large villages along its shores, the inhabitants 
of which do not bear a good character.* There is a large fleet of 
fishing-boats belonging to this bay, and their nets will be fallen in 
with six miles from the shore, all the way from Ilu-i Tau to Chin- 

Coast line towards Chinchcw, or Tsiuenchau fu, ^ j\\ /|^> 
the department of Tsiuen-chau, or Chinchew. — The coast toward 
Chinchew Bay trends northeasterly, the distance from Point Island 
to Chinchew Point being eight miles. Several sandy bays occur 
which afford shelter to junks, but being shoal will only be of service 
to vessels of their draught. From Chenchi or Tsiangch', WE ^, 

* The piracy on the " Omega'' and " Caroline" in 1847 is an instance of 
their daring character. 


Directions into Chinchew Bay. Pisai. Rocks off Passage J. Bool Sand. 

li mile, is a small islet in a bay, with a building like a bell on it. 
Chenchi Point is about 400 feet above the sea, and forms the south 
end of Chinchew Bay. Sunken rocks extend from itt wo cables to 
the eastward; it is in latitude 24" 45' N. and longitude 118' 44. '7 E. 
The course hence into Chinchew Bay is north until Cho-ho (Jih-hu, 
H ^fifl) Pagoda is shut in with Siciu-toi, when it may be steered for. 
Directions. The following directions will take you over the bar 
into the anchorage south of the Boot Sand, and the position and 
description of the dangers will follow : — being half a mile to the south- 
ward of Passage Island, steer for the south end of Ta-toi (or Ta-tui, 

~fc B^, Great Army) which will be known by its being the highest 
island in the neighborhood. When you are within three cables of 
it, edge away to the southward, passing to the eastward of Si4u-toi 
(or Siau-tiji, /K |^ Small Army,) a low barren islet, at a cable's 
length. Haul to the westward round it, keeping at the same distance 
from high water mark. When Siiu-toi west summit is in line with 
Ta-toi summit, you are in the narrowest part of the channel, which 
here is barely a cable wide at low water. Having passed Siau-toi, a 
WNW. course will take you up to the anchorage above Pisai in mid- 
channel. By keeping this islet to the westward of N. 73° W., the 
rock off Cho-ho Pagoda will be avoided; and by not bringing Sidu-toi 
to the southward of S. 62° E., the knee and toe of the Boot will be 
avoided. The outline of this bank is however generally visible. The 
anchorage is north of Pisai 1^ or 2 miles, where the channel is three 
cables wide. 

Rocks off Passage Island. There are three rocks to the eastward 
of Passage Island, which cover at high water. The southeast of the 
three bears E. 8° S., J mile from the island. There is also a ledge 
extending from its southwest point I J cable ; N. 40" E. from Passage 
Island are two White rocks, always partly uncovered ; the channel 
between the two is unsafe. To the northward of the White Rocks is 
T4h-kuh, ^S ^. an island at high water, with a large town upon 
it; there is a sunken rock between them, bearing from the highest 
part of the northern White Rock N. 17° E., and is distant five cables 
from it; the summit of Ta-toi bears from it S. 71" W. 

Anchorage north of the Boot Sa?id. Vessels intending to anchor 
to the northward of the Boot Sand, must steer to pass north of Ta-toi, 
which is distant three miles from Passage Island, and if drawing less 
than three fathoms may run up until Cho-ho Pagoda bears south, 
when you will be about l^ mile from the usual anchorage to the 
southward of the Boot. The north edge of the Boot will be avoided 
by keeping the White Rocks mentioned above, to the southward of. 
east. With Ta-toi summit bearing S. 17' E., there is a half tide rock 
on the north side IJ cable from the shore There is good anchor- 
age in 3.} and four fathoms, with Ta-toi bearing SE. by S. The 
Boot may be crossed by a vessel of light draught at high water, 

36 sAn.iNG DfHECTinvs roR the coast of china. 

Lynx Rock Saheen Rock. Mid-channel Reef. Ota Rock. Pyramid Point. 

but it should be sounded first, as tlie sands shift. A vessel drawing 
II feet is reported to h;ive struck on a bank 1.^ mile easterly from 
Si'iu-toi, but not less than 2J fathoms were found on it in March 1844. 
The .southerly monsoon may however cause the sands to accumulate. 
Cho-ho Pagoda open to the north of Siau-toi will place you in three 
fathoms on its north edge, and the south end bears S. 80' B. from 

I4un2 Rack. The Lynx Rock, with only six feet upon it at low 
water, lays S. 77° E., not quite five cables from the highest part of 
8i,Ui-toi ; when on it Ta-toi summit bears N. 14' VV., and Passage 
Island N'. 62° E. 

Saheen Rock. S. 11' E. two cables east from it. is the Saheen 
Rock, which shows at low water spring tides; when upon it Cho-ho 
Pagoda bears N. 87° VV., and Ta-toi summit N. 14° VV. The bottom 
between it and the rocks which lay S.SVV. from Si'iu-toi is rocky 
and uneven, and in some places there are only six feet, but a channel 
through it is used by the vessels coming out of Chinchew, when the 
wind is too far to the eastward to permit them to fetch through be- 
tween Siau-toi and the Lynx Rock, by keeping the highest part of 
the rocks S.SW. from Siau-toi in line with Cho-ho Pagoda. 

mid-channel Reef. The Mid-channel Reef south of Siiu-toi is a 
cable's length from the SW. point of that island; it is two cables in 
circumference, and three rocks show at low water spring tides. Th<i 
channel between it and the rocks south of it is rather more than half 
a cable wide ; when on the reef, the west summit of Si lu-toi is in line 
with the highest part of Ta-toi. Rocks extend half a cable from Siuu- 
loi on its south, southwest, and eastern sides. 

Cho-ho Reef. A sand spit extends easterly from Cho-ho Pagoda 
1.2 mile, and the reef off it bears N. 52° E. 0!6 of a mile from the 
pagoda, and from the summit of Pisai S. 73° E. 

Ota Rock. The Ota rock, which is also covered at high water, 
lays east from Pisai five cables, Cho-ho pagoda bearing from it S. 
40' E. 

Tsiuen-chau fu. The entrance of the Chinchew river bears N. 
65 "" W., five miles from Pisai. The channels are shoal and intricate, 
the large junks being obliged to wait for high water ; near the mouth, 
on the left bank, is circular fort, called Fah-shih, jf^ ^. The 
city is on the north bank of the river four or five miles above the fort. 

Pyramid Point or Tn-tsih, ^ >^, the northeastern horn of the 
Bay, is in lat. 24° 52.2 N., and long. 118° 58 E., Passage Island 
bearing from it S. 73° W. 8.7 miles. Ve.ssels requiring shelter during 
the NE. monsoon, will find it in the first bay west of the Pyramid, 
taking care to avoid a sunken rock one cable's length south of the 
first point to the eastward of the walled city of Tsung-vsu, ^ |^. 
The Pyramid Rock is connected with the point at low water ; to the 
SE. is a rock which is never covered ; and east of it are several rocks, 


Town of Tsungwii. Matheson's Harbor. Mei-chau Sonnd, and Inner Harbor. 

the outer of which bears N. 65° E. six cables from the Pyramid, and 
the highest part of the land forming the north side of Matheson's 
Harbor N. IT E. A cliff head at the end of a promontory extending 
southwesterly from the hills mentioned above, in one with a remark- 
ble cone in the bay bearing N. 16" W., will put you on it. . ^«, 

Matheson's Harbor, called by the Chinese Gulai or Siautsih /J^ p ' 
lies immediately to the north of Chinchew Bay, the isthmus near the 
town Tsungwij being only one mile across. The bay is four miles 
wide at the mouth, and will afford tolerable shelter to vessels draw- 
ing 12 feet, if the wind be to the northward of east ; but it is only a 
roadstead, and that a bad one in the SE. monsoon. There are^ no 
dangers in it except a rock which lies north four cables from the 
largest islet on the south shore. The highest part of the north head- 
land is in latitude 24° 56.'6 N., and longitude 118° 59.6 E. 

3fci Ckau Jl§ •I'HI Sound is six miles across at the entrance, and 
will be known by the Nine-pin Rock, which lays in the centre near 
the entrance. South of it one mile is a cluster of rocks, one of which, 
Square rock, does not cover at high water : the outer part of the reef 
extends southwesterly, 1^ cable from it. nine cables from the 
Nine-pin, is a flat patch, which is level with the water's edge at high 
water ; between this patch and Rugged Point, which forms the north 
head of the Sound, is good anchorage in the northerly monsoon. 
Rugged Point may be approached without fear except on its east 
side, from whence there is a reef rather less than a cable's length 
from the shore ; 3^ and four fathoms will be found at the distance 
of three cables from the sandy beach. N. 19° E. one mile from the 
Nine-pin is a rock which will be seen at low water, and it bears N. 
60° W. from the highest part of Rugged Point. There is a passage 
between it and the Nine-pin, but rocks extend one cable in this 
direction from the latter. 

Inner Harbor. In the southerly monsoon vessels will find a good 
harbor to the NW. of Saddle Island, called Ohuhkan, |^ ^ , which 
bears NW. by N., 3^ miles from the Nine-pin. Pass to the southward 
of the South islet off it, and haul to the northward round the Western 
i.^let, giving it a berth of a cable at high water to avoid a ledge. 
The ground is uneven hereabouts, and there are only 2^ fathoms one 
mile to the WNW. of West Saddle Island. N. by E. from Saddle 
Island one mile is a low cliff islet, from the west point of which is 
a sand bank extending 1.7 mile to the northwestward. The south 
peak of Saddle I. being to the eastward of S.SE. will avoid it. 

Sand Bank, Mound Peak. When Mound Peak, called Siting 
hiang ^ M, ^jj. (which is on the main, and is three miles north 
of the Saddle with a walled town and a pagoda near it), bears east, 
you are past the Sand Bank, and may haul in towards the town. N. 
73° W., 2.4 miles from Mound Peak, is a bank with only one fathom 
on it. The junks the channel between Mound Peak and the 



Sand Bank. M and S. Rock. Town of Ping hdi. Ockstu I. Lu-lsz' Reef. 

Cliff Island, but it is awkward without a personal knowledge. They 
also pass to the northward of Nui-chau Island, but this channel has 
but nine feet and is strewn with rocks. The sound runs back ten 
miles to the northward of Mound Peak, forming narrow isthmuses 
between Ping-htii and Hing-hwa fu bays. 

South Rock. South Rock bears W. | N. 3.8 miles from Rugged 
Point; it is in latitude 25' 23' N., and longitude 119' ICG E., being 
about 60 feet high, with a rock south of it three fourths of a cable. 

North Rock. North Rock bears N. 34° E. 9.4 miles from the 
South Rock, and lies on the north side of Ping-h^i Bay ; it is 90 feet 
high and conical shaped, and is four cables from the shore. There 
is a sunken rock S. 57° W. 2^ cables from it. The fort on the low 
hills west of the town bears N. 37° W. from it. -— ,i^ 

Ping-hdi. Anchorage in three fathoms off the town Pinghai ~p Jf^ 
will be found with North Rock bearing SE. by E. Five miles west of 
the anchorage is a high range of hills, one of the peaks of which 
(Marlin-spike) will form a good guide for this part of the coast. 
The bay runs back past the foot of the Marlin-spike range, but is 
shoal, there being seldom more than two fathoms to the west of the 
range. ^ j^ 

Ockseuor Wukit'i ^ jj£ From the North Rock the highest part 
of Ock-seu bears S. 44° E., not quite 15 miles. From the South 
Rock Ock-seu bears S. 76° E., 15.9 miles; and from the Pyramid 
Point N. 76' E. 28 miles. It is in latitude 24° 59' N., and longiude 

ii9°29rE. m-m 

Lii-tsz' Reef. From the North Rock the centre of Li'itsz' ^ .^ 
bears E.SE., 5.8 miles; there are two sunken rocks between them 
which bear S. 59° E. from the North Rock, Marlin-spike being- in line 
with it. When on them the northeast islet of Lutsz' is in line with 
the islet off the .south face of Lamyet; they are 1.8 mile from Lutsz'. 
Reefs extend nearly one mile from the main to the northward of the 
North Rock. 

There is a rock which shows at half tide N.NW., two cables from 
the NE. Lu-tsz', and another S. 9° W.,8 cables from it; the latter 
lays east from the summit of Lutsz'. The sand bank extends 2^ 
miles southerly from the SW. point of the Lamyet. By keeping the 
west end of the island (which has three chimneys on it) to the east- 
ward of north, its western edge will be avoided. There is also a 
rocky patch having only 1^ fathom in 'some places: t"he east end of 
it bears S. by W. two miles from the east islet in the channel be- 
tween Lamyet and the main. On its south edge the Chimney Point 
mentioned above bears N. 77° E. 

Anchorage to the tcesttoard of Lamyet. The junks anchor under 
the first point south of the Chimneys, off which there is a rock 
which will always show. This will be found a snug anchorage for 
small vessels, as there is a considerable swell in the channel between 
Lamyet and the main with a northerly gale; care must be taken to 
round the rock at the point close, as there is a sunken rock in the 


Lamytt I. Cliff L Passage Js. Hing-hwafu Sound. Fort Corner. 

bay six cables to the southward of it, and the reef must not be 
brought to the westward of NNW., as the water shoals suddenly. 
Anchorage for large vessels will be found to the northward of the 
Chimney Point in four and five fathoms, the depth of water opposite 
the Point is from 12 to 15 fathoms. Vessels intending to pass to 
the northward and westward of the Lamyets ought to use the chan- 
nel to the northward of Passage Islands (which are three in number, 
and bear NNE. five miles from the Chimney Point). Between the 
north point of Lamyet and the Passage Islands is Cliff Island, in the 
neighborhood of which are several reefs, rendering the channel be- 
tween it and Lamyet, also between it and the Passage Islands, 

A ledge extends westerly two cables from the SW. point of West 
Passage Island. The channel to the northward of it is four cables 
wide, being bounded on the north by a rock, with a reef which 
shows at low water, a cable and a half west of it. North of the rock, 
one and a half cable, is a small islet; and northward of the islet four 
cables is Rugged Island. 

The northeastern of the Passage Islands is a bold bluff, which is 
steep to on its northern face, from whence you may steer to pass 
either north or south of White Island (which bears west from the 
Passage Islands 4^ miles); if to the south, beware of three rocks 
which lay S. by W. 1.1 mile from it. 

E. 12° N., 2.2 miles from White Island is the south rock of a reef 
extending from an island on the coast ; having passed which vessels 
may haul to the northward, and work up inside Chimney Island, to 
the westward of which there are no dangers, except a rock at the 
entrance of the inlet (on the south point of which is a walled town 
and a pagoda) on the western shore, which will be avoided by keep- 
ing a cable and a half from the shore. ^^ ^^ . 

Iling-hwd fu Sound. Vessels bound into Iling-hwa fi ^^ /f^ 
Sound must steer to the northward from the Chimney Point (on the 
west side of Lamyet) seven miles, when they will be a mile to the 
northward of Nob Island, and may steer for Fort Point which bears 
NW. 7^ miles from Nob; there is a patch of rocks to the NW. of 
the latter, the easternmost of which bears N. 11° W. from it eight 
cables, and the northwesternmost N. 50° W. 2.8 miles; part of them 
always show. ^^ . ^ 

Reef off Fort Corner or Wan-ngdn ^ ^C^ Another patch will 
be found ESE. from the Fort Point, the soulheasternmost of which 
bears S. 68° E., two miles from the Fort Corner. Good anchorage 
in six fathoms will be found with the Fort Corner bearing ENE., 
but the point extending from it has rocks which will show at low 
water 1^ cable from high water mark ; the sand line at low water 
trends NW. by W. from the point. 

The entrance to Hing-hw^ fu river bears W. by S. from the F'or 
Corner, the depth of water shoals to six feet, five miles from Ihe 
Fort. On the main SW. from the Fort, is a piratical establishment. 


.. ■ ^ 

Eighteen Tit. Cap. Sand I. Junk Sail Rock. Haititn Straits. 

To the northward of the large Lamyet is a group of small islands 
(called by the Chinese the Kighteen Yit) ; between this group and 
the large island are numerous rocks and shoals rendering the bay 
useless for shipping. 

N. 21° K. six miles from the highest part of the Lamyet is an 
islet called the Cap, which is the .southeastern of the Eighteen Yit. 
Vessels entering the Hai-tan Strait, should pass to the eastward of 
this and the Double Island, three miles N. of it, keeping to the 
westward of a group called Reef Islands which bear from the Cap 
N. 49° K. five miles. NNE. four miles from Double Island, is a 
remarkable White Island with sandy beaches and detached hills; 
the channel between this and Reef Island group is foul, having many 
rocks in it, but it has not been sufficiently examined. After passing 
to the westward of Sand I.«land, which has several rocky islets upon 
its NVV. face, a pagoda situated upon the south point of a shoal bay, 
with the ruined walls of a town near it, will be seen to the west- 
ward. Here vessels will have smooth water, being protected from 
the easterly swell by Three Chimney Island, which is the large 
island immediately to the northward of Sand Island. In the centre 
of the channel between this island and the pagoda, the water is deep. 
The best anchorage is close under the shore of Hai-tan, near to 
Observatory Island, avoiding a reef to the westward of it, which i? 
nearly covered at high water. Observatory Island is in latitude 25' 
25 N., and longitude 119' 45' E. 

Vessels intending to pass through the Hui-tan Straits (which I re- 
commend them not to do) must steer SVV. by W. from Observatory 
Islet (on the Hui-tan shore) two miles, to avoid as and spit which 
extends from the point NVV. of it, and then haul to the northward 
for Junk Sail Rock, from whence a reef extends half a cable to the 

From Passage Island, which lies NW. by VV., 1.1 mile from Junk 
Sail, a sand-bank extends southerly, the end of which bears west 
from the Junk Sail, the channel between the two being rather less 
than a mile. A reef of rocks lays N. 45" E. from the .suniniit of Pas- 
sage Island distant three cables, which will show at half tide. Pass 
to the northeastward of it, and between it and a small islet four cables 
to the northward, from whence a mud spit with rocks on it extends 
S.SE. three cables, and it must not be approached within a cable's 
length of high water mark on its western side. 

Having passed the reef off Passage Island, steer N. by W. ^ W. to 
pass to the eastward of Flat Island, which is two miles from Passage 
Island, and has a spit extending southerly a cable from it, and u 
ledge of rocks off its NE. point, on which the Plover lost her false 
keel; then bring the E. end of Flat Island in line with the E. end of 
Passage Lsland, which it will be bearing S. 4° E., and will carry you 
up in mid-channel five miles beyond Flat Island. Care, however, 
must be taken not to open them, as there it a reef 1.2 mile above 
Flat Island which shows at low water ; a bill on H<ii-t<iu with three 


Pillar Rock. Castle Rock. Cow's Horn Peak. Hope I. 

chimneys on it bears E. by N. from it. By keeping the chimneys 
on the summit of Chimney Island to the southward of the west point 
of the islet to the NE. of Passage Island, it will be avoided. 

When Pillar rock, or Shih-p i y n^^ jjil i^ (which is on the 
Hai-tan shore, and bears N. by E. 6i miles from Flat Island) bears 
NE. by K., steer NVV. by W. until Hope Island bears north, when 
it maybe steered for.pnssing to the west of Castle Rock, which bears 
N. 7" W. from Flat Island 8^ miles, and has a reef one cable and a 
half to the westward of it. 'I'he summit of Hope Island be?rs N. 
15' W. from Castle Rock, four miles; between the two are several 
reefs. The west extreme of the nearest to the Castle bears N. 9' W. 
from it, distant eight cables; part of it is always above w^ater. 
N. by E., 2.8 miles from the Castle Rock is a patch which shows at 
low water only; when on it the Cow's Horn, called rsiu-kioh Shin 

■H-* Pj LU * remarkable peak on the main outside the Straits, bears 
N. 10" VV., being in line with the east end of Hope Island; the Pillar 
bears S. 33' E., and the Castle Rock is in line with the S\V. point 
of Hai-tan. 

The channel lies between it and a black peaked rock, which bears 
N. 76° W., eight cables' length from the reefs. Rocks extend from 
it at low water southeasterly 2.^ cables. 'J'here is also a reef south 
of it five cables, both of which will be avoided by keeping the summit 
of Hope Island to the northward of N. 5" E. j. ^ 

The passage out is to the eastward of Hope Island or ^3 y^ ''^ng 
seu ; a reef of rocks extends from both islands in the cinnnel, 
narrowing it to three cables. In working out, the summit cf Hcpe 
Island must not be brought to the southward of S. 40' W., as there 
is a rocky patch with only nine feet upon it seven cables from Hope 

There is a rock on which the sea breaks at low water, N. 24" E. 
from Hope Island ; on it the Cow's Horn bears N. 38' W. N.TJE six 
miles from Hope Island are four islands, S. 71" W. from the western 
of which five cables, is a reef bearing also N. 24° E. from Mrps 
Island, and a ledge extends southerly four cables from the eastern 

There are three other channels between Hope Island and Hii-tan, 
none of which are so good as the one described ; and as there is 
generally a heavy swell setting into the bay to the northward of H'li- 
t in, vessels will find some difficulty, unless they are fast sailers, in 
clearing the dangers in one tide. 

The junks invariably use the Straits, but we found one that had 
been detained 27 days, waiting for an opportunity to get out at the 
northern end. The flood tide comes in from both ends of the Straits, 
the two tides meeting in the neighborhood of the Castle Rock. 

CO.M. GU. 


Entrance to Amoy. Chapel I. Sltoals north of it. Tingtae Bajf. 

&ectron 3 

[The Sailing Directions in this s?ction show the outer islands and external 
dangers, along the coist in the 28tlj, 27th, SOth, ySth, and 24tli degrees of 
north latitude; they were compiled by Capt. R. Collinson from the surveys 
of himself and Captain Keliett of H. M. ships Plover and Starling, in the 
mnntha of Jamnry, Februiry, March, and April. 1843, From Amoy to tlie 
Haitan Straits, they cover the same ground with the fuller surveys contained 
in the preceJing section made by Capt. Collinson in 1844, but are not alto- 
gether superseded by them. The few addenda made by Capt Collinsoi^and 
published by order of Admiral Cochrane in 1844, have been inserted in their 
proper places. The latitudes and longitudes in Capt C.'s surveys are given 
in degress, minuleK, and decimal parts.] 

O.v approaching Amoy, (Hi'imun ching, W P^ ^0 ^^^^ ^^ 
southward, Chapel Island, called by the Chinese Tungting ^ f'^, 
and situated in iat 24° 10.'3 N., and long. 118' 13.'5 E., or 9.'44 
E. of the SW. point of seu g^ ]f^ [IjlH, may be seen from 
four to five leagues; it has an even surface, is about 200 feet high, 
and its circumference three cables. It is perforated at its southeast 
extreme, which shows when it bears E.NE. or W.SW, When in 
its neighborhood, a pagoda (called N;int:'ii Wushin ra y^ ^f |X|) 
will be seen, formerly elevated 1720 feet above the sea, but now 
mu'ih dilapidated ; it is a good mirk for the entrance. 

Bcitween Chapel Island and the main are two shoals. The ex- 
tremes of the southern one bear from Chapel Island S. 60 W. to 
S. 79"" W. The south extreme, having only one fathom on it, is dis- 
tant 7i miles. The northern extreme, having 3J fathoms, is distant 
5\ miles; the direction and extent of the shoal is N.NE., 3^ miles. 
When on the shoalest part. Chapel Island bears N. 60^ E., and the 
island of N anting ^ j^ or Lamtia, N. 63' W. The Northern 
shoal bears from Chapel Island N. 80° W., distant from it 8J miles; 
it is formed by a number of pinnacle rocks which show at low water 
spring tides, having deep water between them. Four miles due 
north of this shoal, with Chapel Island bearing S. 60" E., is a small 
bay, called Tingtae, which affords shelter for small vessels m the 
northern monsoon ; it may be easily known by the flat table head 
(with three chimneys on it), forming the eastern point of the bay, 
and the ruin of a wall encompassing a hill above it. The pagoda 
of Nantai Wiishan is immediately over this bay, bearing N. 15° W. 



Chau-chat Rocks. W i-seu I. fVu-dn I, Tsing-seu. Chih-scu. 

In entering Amoy harbor, should a vessel pass inside Chnpel 
Island, she must not approach within a mile of the coast after piss- 
ing Tingtae point. The Chauchat, or Tae-tseao y^ 5^ composed 
of three flat rocks, said never to be entirely covered, but over which 
the sea breaks, lies N. 22' W., 10.6 miles from Chapel Island. 
When on it, the three chimneys on Wi'iseu sh'n Island are inline with 
the N';nt i Wiish tn pagoda, bearing S. 82° W. By keeping Tanpin 
-^ ^ or Wei-tsz' s'l Point open to the eastward of Tsing-seu "p^' |IM 
Island, (which it will be when bearing N. 55' W.,) it will be avoided. 
The channel between the rocks and Wu-seu sh n Island is five ca- 
bles wide, with deep water, but dangerous for ships in consequence of 
the chowchow water. The passage to the northward and westward 
of Wi'i-seu shin is dangerous, being strewed with rocks, 

W!-seu vS |lj]^ Island is 1.2 cable long, and in the centre a 

cable's length broad. The northeast and southeast faces of this 
island are steep cliff's; on the east side is a sandy bay, and on the 
west three, with two batteries. On its summit (which is about 300 
feet high) are three chimneys intended for night signals. There is 
a large village on the west side of it. 

Wii'un. To the westward of Ww-seu sh'in, half a mi'e, is the 
island of WiJ-m, which is five cables long ; it is barren and without 
inhabitants. Between the two are three small islets, with reefs ly- 
ing off them. Shelter from easterly winds, with a depth of from four 
to six fathoms, might be found here ; but vessels had better not piss 
to the westward of W.'i-seu shin, until more soundings have been 
obtained; the number of detached reefs in this neighborhood mak- 
ing it probable that many sunken rocks will be found. 

South from Ww-seu shan Island I.I mile, is another half-tide reef, 
which lies 7 cables from the main. N. 32^ E. from Wn-jn island, lie 
two pitches which are covered at high water, and between it and 
the main are several islets and half-tide rocks. 

North 40" W. from W i-seu sh'm island is Tsing-seu; midway 
between the two is a cliff islet (Jih-sii), northwest of which two ca- 
bles, and S.SVV. one cable, are reefs which are dry at low water. 

The entrance to the harbor lies between Tsing-seu and a small 
island north of it, 60 feet high, called by the Chinese Chih seu (or 
R l^wi Jih-sii) The shores of both islands facing the passage are 
steep to, but one or two rocks lie one cable southerly from Chih-seu. 
Off Chungpat-siaou, which is the rocky islet immediately to the 
northeast of it, lie two half-tide rocks, three to four cables' distant, 
to avoid which, when standing to the eastward, ai^d within half a 
mile of Chih-seu, keep the west tangent of that island open of the 
earstern extreme of Wu-seu shin. 


Seao-t'n and Tat-tan Is. Pagoda 1. Ckanvil into Atnoy Harbor. 

NK. by E. from Chih-seu are four islands; the two nearest, Ta-sao 
•y^ /]> and Hwangkwa -pr Hj^, are rather larger than it, and be- 
tween which there are no passages. Seao-t'm A\ ^^ Island 18 6 
cables long, and about 200 feet high, and has a sandy bay on its 
northern side; between it and Hwngkwa there is a safe channel, 
v^hich may sometimes be taken with advantage by ships; thereby 
enabling them to weather the Chauchat without tacking. Between 
Seaotin /]> ;j|3 and Tae-t'in -^ i|3^ there is also a safe channel. 
Vessels cmnot enter to the northward of Tae-t'in, for between this 
island and Amoy there is only \h fathom. On both of these islands 
there are three chimneys. Tae-t m is eight cables long, with a sandy 
isthtnus in the centre, and a village on its western shore; the eastern 
end is about 300 feet high. 

From Chihseu (or Jih-sii) to the outer harbor off Ki'ilang-seu, the 
course is N. 33" W., 4^ miles, with a depth varying from 7 to 12 
f.ithoms. Between Tsing-seu and Taepan Pt. is a deep bay with 
many rocks and shoals in it, to avoid which vessels should keep 

Pagoda Island, or K seu Sig ip| open of Taepan Point. Vessels 
entering Amoy from the northward, to clear the shoal which extends 
three miles due south, from the western pagoda on Quemoy ^ PH, 
and dries at low water spring tides, must keep the southern extreme 
ofTaetanopen to the northward of Pagoda Island. With these 
marks on, when the pagoda on duenioy bears N.NE., you are clear 
of the danger: or a better mark is, (as Pagoda Island may not be 
seen,) after passing Leeo-Loo ¥A ^ Point, to steer to the south- 
ward until (Nantu Wush'm or) the high pagoda bears west, when 
you may steer west without fear until you make Ww-seu shan and 
the Chauchat. The south end of Amoy is a sandy point, with several 
rocks extending two cables from the shore. Between this point 
and the next west of it there is a half tide rock, three cables 
from the shore. To avoid this, when standing into the coast, a cliff 
point with a battery, and three chimneys on it, (1.3 mile from the 
rock.) will be seen, and also a sandy point with a large stone at its 
southern extreme, 0.8 of a mile further to the northwest. Tack be- 
fore these two points come in line with one another. From the 
south point to the remarkable stone on the beach, the three fathom 
line extends two cables from the shore. 

The channel between the island of K'l^ng seu and Amoy is so 
narrow thfJt a stranger would not be justified in passing through it 
until he had anchored, and made himself acquainted with the marks. 
A rock at the entrance of this narrow strait, called Coker's Rock, 
with only four Ni^t water on it at low water spring tides, may be 
avoided by bringing the centre of Hau-seu iwc |I|Ett Island on with a 
remarkable peak, the highest but one on the land behind it. When 
the rock off the south tangent of Kulmg seu is in line with Pagoda 


Kfdnng sen. Hau-seu. Anchorage. Inner Harbor. Facilities at Amoy. 

Island, and a pinnacle rock off the eastern extreme of Kul^ng seu 
is in with a remarkable Tree point on that island, you are on it. 
Prom this position a vessel should keep as close to the Amoy shore 
as the junks anchored off it will allow them. The small island off 
the City Point has deep water close to it; between this island and 
Hau-seu (i. e. Monkey Island), is the best anchorage for a ship, 
having a reef that extends from City Point in a N.NW. direction 
lying to the northward of her. Vessels cannot anchor in the straits 
without a great risk of losing their anchors, as the bottom is very 
rocky and uneven. North of the island of Ki'ilang seu, there is a 
pinnacle rock which is nearly covered at spring tides, and distant 
from the shore three cables. The mud dries between this rock and 
the island. All the points of KTilang seu have recks off them ; off the 
southwest extreme there is a half tide rock, 1^ cable from the shore. 

The island of Knlang seu is 1.1 mile long and 0.7 wide, and 2.85 
in circumference ; there were five batteries on it. The channel be- 
tween it and Amoy is 675 yards wide in the narrow part; at the 
entrance it is 840 yards. The ridge of hills is about 280 feet high, 
being less elevated than those opposite on the Amoy shore; these 
hills are granitic, and the geological features of the country primitive. 
Fresh water is plentiful, and the island has been well cultivated. The 
population may be estimated at between 3000 and 4000.* 

To the westward of Kuling seu there is a good and safe anchorage 
in 7 or 8 fathoms. Close to either shore the water is deep, but in 
the centre there is a bank with from 7 to 9 fathoms on it. Vessels 
wishing to anchor off the town, should use this passage, and by keep- 
ing the rocks off the west extreme of Kuliing seu in line with a re- 
markable sharp peak on the south shore of the harbor, until the 
peaked rock off the north end of Knlang seu bears to the southward 
of east, she will avoid the mud bank and rocks running off that is- 
land, and may choose her berth off the city. The channel round 
the island of Amoy is so narrow and winding, that directions would 
be useless; the chart is the best guide. Besides the excellent shelter 
that this harbor affords, and it is one of the best on this coast, the 
Chinese have docks for building and repairing their largest junks. 
The access and egress are easy ; in the outer harbor there is good 
holding ground, and unless vessels are badly found in ground tackle, 
they will ride out almost any gale. In the Inner Harbor, capable of 
containing from 60 to 100 vessels, there is little or no swell, and the 
houses are built close to the beach. Fresh water and supplies of 
every description may also be had of the best quality and cheap. 
The rise and fall of the tide from one day's observation on the full 
moon in September, was fourteen feet and a half; at this period, 
however, the night tides exceed the day by two feet. The change 
in the depth, in all probability, three days after full and change, would 

* It is now nearly desolate; during the insurroction in l!?f)4, tho people were 
driven off and most of the villages deslioyed 


(^aeinoy I. Lteo Loo H.ty. Do Id's I. H'-iTauPt. Otfitter I. 

exceed sixteen feet. This would be of £freit impoftince to vessels 
requiring repair, particularly as sites for docks, and ample miterials 
for miking them, are to be found upan the island of Kulang seu, as 
well as in other parts of the harbor. 

Shelter may be obtained under Quemoy, but the anchorage under 
its NW. side is foul with many half-tide rocks. The channel be- 
tween it and the main leading into H:i-i Tau Bay has only 3 feet at 
low water. N. 74 E. from the Chauchat, and distant sixteen miles, 
is a small indentation in the coast called Leeo-Loo iji OT Bay, 
where small vessels shelter themselves from the violence of the 
northeast monsoon, by bringing the south extreme rocky point of 
Q,uemoy in line with Nintii Wushan Pagoda, and as close as possi- 
ble to the pt»int forming the eastern head of the bay, in four fathoms 
sandy bottom, with fiir holding ground. There is a village amongst 
some trees at the head of the bay, with a fort on a bluff to the west- 
ward of it. The land over it is high and ea.'^ily distinguished. 

Five miles E.NE. from Leeo-Loo point is Dodd's Island, called by 
the Chinese Pa'aing 4t ^ 5 >t >s distant from the nearest part of 
Queraoy 'i\ miles. There appeired to be no channel between it 
and the shore; and there is a sunken rock N. by E., f mile from the 
island. A reef extends some distance to the north of it. N. 34° E., 
five miles from Dodd's Island is the point of Hu-i Tau ^ ^W Bay, 
in lat. 24° 31' N., and long. 118 31.'5 E. This bay affords good 
shelter from northeast winds; it may be easily known by two very 
remarkable peaks situated in the bottom of the bay. The eastern 
peak bears from the point N. 45' W. There is a shoal in the centre 
of the bay, which extends two or three miles in a W.N W. direction. 
This shoal may be avoided by keeping a remarkab'e hill inland, 
resembling a dome, open to the southward of the eastern high peak 
in the depth of the bay. In entering, give the point of the bay a 
berth of at least three quarters of a mile, for there is a reef running 
off it, but on which the water generally breaks. The best ancho- 
rage is off Oyster Island, but as vessels do not visit the bay, except 
for shelter, it would be advisable to anchor just inside the point with 
it bearing E. by S. or E.SE. South of Oyster Island there is a ledge 
of sunken rocks, which at low water have only a few feet on them. 
To avoid these rocks, keep Oyster Island to the eastward of north. 
Vessels from the southward, intending to anchor, should not stand 
too far into the bay until it is better known ; there are overfalls 
from 10 to 4 fathoms, and there may be less water. The junks go 
to Amoy by this passage, and the Chinese say there is water for 
small vessels, but it must be very intricate. 

The coast between this and Chimmo Bay is clear of dangers, and 
the general soundings are from 12 to 15 fathoms. There is no 
shelter for vessels, but junks anchor under some of the points. The 
small Pagoda Island off the southeastern point of Chimmo Bay is in 


C'kimmo Bay. Anchorage. Ockseu Is. SooLne. Lamyit It. 

lat. 24° 42' N., and long. 118' 42' E. This bay may be known by 
a pagoda called by the Chinese Kusiu tih fji^ 5(6? J^, on the high- 
est hill in the northern end of the biy. Although vessels lis here 
throughout the year, it cannot be cilled a good anchorage, as it is 
exposed from E. by N. to S.SE. Vessels entering this bay from the 
northward must not approach the land nearer than one mile, as there 
is a rock which shows at low w iter, h ilf a mile off shore, on which a 
brig called the •' Fairy " struck, and from which it has taken its 

W. by S., 1.5 cable from the rocky islet off the northern point of 
the bay, is a led^e of rocks, which uncovers at low water, and on 
which the sea generally breaks. Half a mile to the W.NW. of the 
northernmost rocky island off the southeast point, are two sunken 
rocks, to clear which keep a remarkable clump of trees in the depth 
of the bay on with the right shoulder of the high land in the north- 
west part of the bay. There are rocks a short way from the beach 
all round the bay. The best anchorage for vessels is as close up to 
the northern shore as the water will allow ; the holding ground is 
good. There are several very large towns in this bay, and number- 
less fishing boats ; supplies may be had and at cheap rates. 

Ockseu ^ 4^ (or Wukiu, probably a contraction of Wi'iki'J sii 
Ml i£^®*) consists of three islands, the centre one a barren rock, 
nearly joniing the eastern island. The steamer " Nemesis" anchor- 
ed under this island. There is a considerable fishing village on it, 
which is difficult to be seen unless very close. The western island 
is the largest, and is in lat. 24 59.'3 N., and long. 1 19° 25.'5 E. 

W.NW,, twelve miles, is a group of islands, consisting of one large 
and four small, with a reef to the northward of them, called Soo-tsze. 
There is a reef which covers at high water 1.8 mile to the westward 
of Sootsze. From it, the NE. island of the group bears N. 83° E. ; 
and Fort hill on the main, opposite to Lamyit, N. 10' E. Off the 
southwest point of Lamyit is a shoal, extending li mile, to avoid 
which do not bring the islet off the south end of I^amyit to the east- 
ward of S. 82* E., until the west point of the island bears to the 
eastward of north. There i« good shelter on the south and west 
sides of Lamyit, but no vessel should attempt to pass to the north- 
ward of it without the chart. . 

N.NE., 12| miles from Ockseu, is the largest of the m 3 
Lamyit islands, called by the Chinese Chungtung sh'n. It is 7 
miles long in an E.SE. and W.NW. direction. 'I'he eastern peak is 
the highest, beine: 565 feet above the sea ; it is in lat. 25' 12. 3 N., 
and long. 119" 36' E. 'I'here is a remarkable table land to the 
southwestward of it called Powshan. This island is very low and 
narrow in several places, and has a remarkable conical hill toward.3 
its west end. Notwithstanding its barren appearance it is very 


Bifchteen YU. Sand I. Hntan Straits. TiimaboiU I. HiUan Peak. 

To the northward of the large Lamyit is a group of small islands, 
called by the Chinese the Eighteen Yit ; between them and the large 
island, there are numerous rocks and shoals, rendering the bay per- 
fectly useless for shipping. N. ST E., 6 miles from the highest 
peak of the Lamyit, is an islet called Cap, which is the southeastern 
of the Eighteen Yit. Vessels entering the Haetan Strait should pass 
to the eastward of this and the Double island three miles to the north 
of it, keeping to the westward of a group called the Reef Islands, 
which bear from the Cap N. 49° E., five miles. N.NE., four miles 
from Double Island is a remarkable White island with sandy beaches 
and detached hills ; the channel between this and Reef Island group 
is foul, having many rocks in it, but it has not been sufficiently 
examined. After passing to the westward of Sand Island, which has 
several rocky islets on its northwest face, a pagoda situated on the 
point of a shoal bay, with the ruins of a town will be seen to the 
westward. Here vessels will have smooth water, protected from the 
easterly swell by Three Chimney Island, which is the large island 
immediately to the northward of Sand Island. In the centre of the 
channel between this island and the pagoda, the water is deep. The 
best anchorage is close under the shore of Haetan, near to Observa- 
tory Island, avoiding a reef to the westward of it, which is nearly 
covered at high water spring tides. Observatory Island is in lat. 25' 
25' N., and long. 119' 45' E. A vessel leaving this anchorage 
bound to the northward must give the south point of Haetan a good 
berth, as there are several rocks off it. 

N. 80° E., 5J miles from the Three Chimneys, and S. 65° W., 7 
miles from Turnabout Island, is a very dangerous shoal. Vessels 
coming from the northward intending to enter the harbor, after 
passing Turnabout, should steer for Triple Island, passing within a 
mile of it, being very careful not to approach the south point of 
Hae-tan too close. 

Turnabout Island in lat. 26° 26' N., and long. !19° 58.'7 E.; it is 
distant from the nearest or southeast point of Elae-fan four miles ; it 
has two small islets in its neighborhood. The channel between it 
and Hai-tan is safe. Under the eastern point there were several 
large junks seen at anchor, and a considerable village. Unless this 
anchorage gives good shelter, there is no bay on the eastern coast of 
Haetan that vessels ought to enter, as they are strewed with rocks 
and shoals. Under the high peak of Haetan, and to the eastward, 
is a bay that was entered by the surveying vessels " Starling" and 
"Plover" in a strong northeasterly wind, out of which they were 
glad to get, and lucky in having escaped getting ashore ; but the 
entrance into it and the anchorage are full of rocks, with a heavy 
swell when blowing hard. .^^ ^^ 

The high peak of Haetan W m is in lat. 25° 35.'7 N., and long. 
119° 51.'3 E., and its elevation above the sea 1420 feet. The north 
coast and the northern entrance of the Straits, as seen from the peak, 
presented to view manv rocks and islands, which would always 



While Dog Group. Breakwater. Entrance to the R. Min. Reef. 

render the entrance from the northward, and navigation of the Straits 
extremely dangerous. The White Dog Islands bear N. 14° E., 23 
miles from the peak of Haetan. ^^ .^ 

The White Dog group, called by the Chinese Pih-kiuen Ef yC 
has two large and one smaller island; l^ mile northeast from the 
eastern island is a rock on which the sea generally breaks. Ancho- 
rage for ships of any draught may be had under the western island 
in the northeast monsoon. A reef of rocks running off from the 
western extreme of this island, forming a natural breakwater, affords 
good shelter close under them for vessels under 18 feet draught : — 
here whole fleets of Chinese junks anchor during foul weather. 
As the water decreases gradually towards the island, large ships may 
approach as convenient (keeping in mind that there is 18 feet rise 
and fall). II. M. ship " Cornwallis," 74, vice-admiral Sir William 
Parker, anchored here for five days with strong northeasterly winds, 
and rode easy. The bearings from her anchorage were as follows: — 
west point of northwest island, N. J W. ; village, N.NE.; smallest 
island, E. ^ S. ; eight fathoms at low water. 

A large ship ought to approach the island, until the passage be- 
tween them is shut in by their tangents. One cable off the western 
point of Village bay on the south side of the western island is a half 
tide rock. The channel between the islands is safe, as the dangers 
show. The Breakwater is in lat. 25' 58.1 N., and long. 119° 57' E. 
The highest peak of the island is 598 feet above the sea. Fresh 
^ater may be obtained here in small quantities. These islands are 
inhabited by a few fishermen. 

Vessels bound for the River Min f^ ^J from the anchorage under 
the White Dog Islands, should start with the ebb tide. The entrance 
bears N. 55" W., 8| miles from the Breakwater. When this distance 
has been run, a good lookout must be kept from the mast-head for 
Rees' Rock (a small black rock about 20 feet high) on the southern 
side of the channel, which will be seen bearing N. 71° W., 4^ miles. 
This will place the vessel about eight miles from the land. The 
channel between the breakers is 2 miles across at the entrance, 
and gradually decreases to half a mile. There is a remarkable sharp 
peak on the north bank of the river, and a square peak on the south 
bank ; nearer than Square Peak, and to the southward of it. Round 
Island will be seen, and to the southward of that is a sharp sandy 
peak bearing about S. 68° W. This latter may be mistaken for the 
sharp peak of the north bank of the river, unless the bearings of the 
White Dog group be referred to. 

Eastward of the north horn of the channel is a dangerous reef 
which shows only at low water. The bearings on it are, Matsoo-shan 
Peak, N. 54^ E. ; Sea Dog, N. 88° E.; W. White Dog peak, S. 45^' 
E.; Sand Peak, S. 59^ W.; Sharp Peak, N. 71° W.; and Rees' Rock 
in line with the south peak of Square Peak Island. The best mark 
to Heep to the southward of it, and for entering the channel, is to 
t»ring Rees' Rock in line with Square Peak bearing N. 81." W. There 

COM. Gt. 7 


itees* ffocL Hokcaty^ /. ff^of^a Fort. Temple PL Kinpai-mvn. 

is a small knoll, with 9 feet on it at low water, in the centre of the 
passage ; ii bears S. 8(i' E., 'Sh miles from Rees' Rock, and the above 
leading mark will keep you clear of it. 

Having entered, steer so as to pass one mile north of Rees' Rock ; 
the breakers will show on each side of the channel if it be near low 
water at the time and there is any swell. Should the breakers show, 
by skirting the northern shoal, a vessel will insure the deepest water. 
The course from Rees' Rock is N. 6S° W., on which bearing a re- 
markable pinnacle rock on the northeast side of ilokeanga is in line 
with a white battery on the northern shore of the Kinpai-mun. In 
going up, keep the two islets called the Brothers on the face of the 
island of Ho-keanga ^^ yj^ in one. This will carry you in mid- 
channel until you are abreast of Sharp Peak Point, when you can 
haul up .N. 55" W. for Temple Point, which is on the north bank of 
the river, and will bo known by the trees on it. 

In the channel without Rees' Rock, the depth of water is generally 
three fathoms. Between Rees' Rock and Sharp Peak Point, close to 
the northern breakers, there is a hole with five and six fathoms, 
where vessels may stop a tide and find tolerable shelter. Sharp 
Peak Point may be passed within a cable's length. The bay west 
of it is shoal, and under the peak the two fathom line extends nearly 
one mile from the shore. The mud also extends southeasterly from 
Hokeanga nearly 1^ mile; — vessels beating in this passage must 
therefore keep the lead agoing. 

Woga fort is a dilapidated circular building on the top of the first 
hill, on the island west of Sharp Peak. The junks laden with timber 
lie immediately under it, until the whole convoy is collected, some- 
times amounting to eighty sail. S. 17' W.,34 cables from the Tem- 
ple (called Hoktow or Fuh-tau j|ig ^ , is a knoll with only 2| fa- 
thoms on it. Sharp Peak seen over the lower part of Woga Point 
will put you on it. From the West Brother, the mud extends west- 
erly one mile; on its northern edge is a patch of rocks, which are 
covered at a quarter flood. The West Brother bears from it S. 74° 
E., and the Temple N. 12° E. 

From the Temple to Kinpai-mun is not quite two miles, W. by S. 
There are two islets at the entrance of the passage. Pass between 
them, and keep over towards the south shore to avoid a reef, which 
lies W. by S. ^ S. from the northern islet. The channel is not quite 
two cables' length wide, and should only be attempted at slack tide, 
for the chowchow water renders a vessel unmanageable. 

Two cables to the westward of Kinpai Point is the tail of a sand 
bank, to avoid which keep the southern shore close on board ; the 
distance between it and the edge of the bank being under two cables. 
vWhen abreast of the Ferry House, which is 1^ mile above Kinpai, 
and on the right or southern bank, edge over to the other shore, 
passing Wedge Islet at a cable's length. Tree Point will then be 
seen on the southern bank. A half tide rock bears N. 9° W., 4J 


Ferry House. Min-gan hien. Pagoda I. Fuhchaufi. 

cables' length from it. When on it, the Ferry House is in line with 
Kinpai Point. On the northern shore, after passing Wedge Islet, 
are two rocky points extending nearly a cable's length from the 

This reach runs SW. by S., and NE. by N. At the distance of 
six miles from Kinpai-mun, the river narrows again to 3:J cables, 
the land rising on each side to 1500 and 2000 feet. The town 

of Min-gan ^ ^ is on the left or northern bank of the river, one 
mile within the strait. The river continues narrow for three miles, 
the depth of water being above 12 fathoms, and in some places no 
bottom at 29 fathoms. Vessels will have some difficulty in getting 
through this strait with spring tides, unless with a leading wind, in 
consequence of the chowchow water. Rather more than half a mile 
above Mingan, and on the same side of the river, is an islet crowned 
with a fort. 

The banks of the river on each side are steep cliffs with many 
batteries. At the upper or south end of the gorge, are two islets 
on the right bank of the river. In going up, leave these islands on 
your larboard hand, passing close to the northern one of the two, to 
avoid a shoal patch of l.j fathoms, which lies two cables W.NW 
from the island. Having passed this island, keep along the right 
bank, gradually hauling up for the pagoda Lo-sing tah ^S ^M ^^. 
When you have passed the low point of the island on which it is 
situated, anchor east of it. S. 12' E. from the pagoda, rather more 
than two cables, is a sunken rock, which shows only at low water 
spring tides. It is recommended to pass close to the pagoda, if ves- 
sels intend proceeding up higher, but as the river is only navigable 
for vessels three quarters of a mile beyond the pagoda, and the chan- 
nel is not only nartow but the tides are stronger, it would be advisa- 
ble not to go above it. 

Above the pagoda, the river turns abruptly to the northwest. The 
city of Fuhchau f i j|S iMij RdF is situated on the left bank of the 
river, nine miles above the pagoda; the distance to the city (by the 
river) from the rocks at the entrance is not quite 34 miles. Four 
miles below the city, the river is staked half way across, and the 
remainder rendered difficult even for junks to pass, by large piles 
of stone which are covered at high water.* 

Due north of the Western White Dog is a large island called 
Matsoo-shan j^ jjj^ ^J, and between the two, N. 14' E. from the 
White Dog, is a precipitous black rock, about 60 feet high, with reefs 
about it, called the Sea Dog. Between the Sea Dog and Matsoo- 
shan, there are two other reefs, which are never covered. S. 28' W., 
l.l mile from the Sea Dog, is a rock which is seen only at low water; 


H. M Stenmcr »* Reynard " was carried quit*- up to the bridge, in 1851. 
further dclaib ruspocting the navigation of the Min, see the next Sectioof. 


Sea Dog Rock. MaUoo aAart. Changcht than. TSnghae Ba/y. 

tvhcn on it, the west end of Matsoo-shan bears N. 26° W., and the 
Breakwater at the west end of the White Dog, S. 18° \V. There is 
also an island off the eastern end of Matsoo-shan, with a reef runn- 
ing off its eastern point. Shelter may be had under this island from 
the northeast monsoon. There is a deep bay on its northwestern 
face, where good shelter may be had from the southwest monsoon. 
From the peak of this island, the reef at the entrance of the Miii 
River bears S. 54° W., 7^ miles. In the northern, and also in the 
western sandy bays, fresh water may be obtained. 

Northeast, three miles from Matsoo-shan, is another large island 

called Changche shan ^ jlgt jjj, with two very remarkable sharp 
peaks on it, the highest elevated above the sea 1030 feet; it is in 
lat. 26' 14 N. and long. 120' 1.'7 E. The bay on the south side 
of this island affords good shelter in the northeast monsoon. Vessels 
entering from the northward may round the southeastern horn of it 
close, and anchor within the point in six fathoms. Vessels bound 
to the River Min should anchor here, as from this anchorage in the 
northeast monsoon, they may always get to the bar at the precise 
moment they require it, but from the White Dogs a vessel will barely 
fetch. After a little, pilots might also be obtained, as 
there is a large fishing population on it. 

Tinghae Bay, ^ '/^ which lays N. 42° W., 11 miles from the 
summit of Matsoo-shan, is a safe anchorage in the NE. monsoon. 
There is a cluster of islets, 8 miles, N. 51° W. from Matsoo-shan, 
between which and Flat Island (which is 2 miles N. 55° E. from 
them) is a channel; but sunken rocks extend half a mile from the 
cluster ; therefore vessels had better pass south of the latter. Tinghae 
Bay will be recognized by the small isletsoff the south point; there are 
-the remains of the city wall, but the place appears now to be nearly 
deserted. The junks frequent a bay further to the eastward, which 
affords them good shelter, but cannot be recommended for larger 
vessels; it is called by the Chinese Wangke, and has a rock in the 
centre of the bay 0.7 of a mile from the shore, which I suppose to 
be the one on which the " Phlegethon" struck. To the southeastward 
of this bay are several small islets, with detached reefs between them 
and the main, which is distant 1^ mile; and S. 40° W., 5 cables 
from the southern islet, are two patches of rock which are covered 
at high water. When on them, Cue hill over Tinghae bears W. 
33° N., and the summit of Matsoo shan S. 12' E. The eastern 
extremity of the main is eleven miles from Tinghae Bay, the whole 
being a narrow peninsula, in some places only half a mile wide. Off 
the east point, a quarter of a mile distant, is a double island with a 
reef f of a cable to the east of it. The junks use the channel west 
of the island, but vessels without the aid of a scull had better ke^ 
to the eastward. 

On the northern face of Changche shan are several small islands, 
the largest of which bears north 2A miles. There is no safe passage 


Trio Rocks. Mli^aior I. Ijarne L and Rock. Tungyuna; Peak. 

between these islands. N. 61° E. from the southeast point of the 
same island, are three peaked rocks, called the Trio Rocks, about 50 
feet above the sea, between which and the point is a safe channel. 
N. 12^" E,, 4^ miles from the summit of Changche shan, is a small 
islet, inadvertently omitted in copying the charts. There is a 
reef 2 cables south of it. Care must be taken in approaching these 
.islands from seaward to avoid Alligator Island (called Tungsha 
^H v|?); it is due east of Matsoo shan peak 24i miles. From thie 

south extreme of the White Dog Island, it bears N. 62° E., 25^ 
miles ; it is in lat. 26° 9' N., and long. 120° 25.'7 E., about 40 feet 
above the level of the sea, and is a flat barren rock. 

N. 56° W., 12i miles from Alligator Island, is a small rock, call- 
ed Lame Rock, with one awash two cables to the northward of it. 
It bears from the high peak of Changche shan N. 80° E., and is 
distant from it 11 miles. N. 18^° W., 5 miles from Lame Island, 
is broken water ; the north end of Tungyung bears from it E. 7° S., 
the Black Rocks, S. 69' W., and Cone Island, N. 37° W. 

N. 11° E. from Lame Rock, distant 5J miles is Lame Islet; it 
bears from the high peak of Changche shan N. 58° E., 14 miles. It 
is about 200 feel high, with large boulders sticking up here and there. 
Near the summit are three houses, and off its northern and southern 
ends are ledges of rocks. N. 72° W., 7^ miles from Lame Island, 
and bearing from Changche shan Peak N. 25° E., 11 miles, is an- 
other patch of rocks, about 40 feet above the sea. 

The peak of Tungyung ^ ^^ bears from Larne Islet N. 84° E,, 
distant 14 miles, and is the easternmost island on this part of the 
coast; the highest part of it is in lat. 26"" 23.'2 N., and long. 120' 
31' E., and elevated above the sea 853 feet. Its appearance is level 
and flat, topped with steep cliff" shores ; off" its south extreme is a 
ledge of rocks. There is another island half a mile to the westward 
of it. They appear however as one, except on a NE. by N. or SW. 
by S. bearing. Under this island there is good anchorage during 
the northeast monsoon. North half a mile from the eastern point 
of the western island, is a sunken rock. Tungyung has a large 
village and fishing establishment on its western side. 

N. 68° W., 20 miles from Tung-yung, is a remarkable Conical 
Island ; it has a reef off" its northeast point ; with this exception the 
channel between it and the two islands north of it is safe, and two 
miles wide. West of it, ^ miles, is a large island (Spider Island), 
with good shelter from the northeastern winds on its western side. 
The highest part of the island is 620 feet above the sea; the other 
peaks of it are nearly the same height. There is a large village in 
a bay on the south of it, and off' the southwest point is a reef. On 
the northeast face of it are four islets, and one on the northwest, 
between which and Spider Island there is a half tide rock. To the 
westward are manv islets and rocks. 


Cone I. spider I. Rocks near them. Double Peak J. Pihseang b. 

S. 48' E., 0.8 of a mile from the Cone, is another rock which 
shows only at low wHter. The south end of Spider \. bears N. 80° 
W. from it. To the W.NVV. of Spider 1. are three islets; between 
the first and Spider I. is a sunken rock ; between the first and second 
(which his a sandy isthmus) is a good channel ; between the second 
and third are hnlf tide rocks; and between the third and the main, 
which is 3 miles distant, is a clear channel with four fathoms water. 
Opposite to the third island, on the main, is a cove which was point- 
ed out as the rendezvous of the pirates. S. by W. ^ VV. from the 
second island, I 'mile, are two reefs, which are covered at high 
water. H. Al. Str, " Vixen" saw discolored water 7 miles to the 
northward of Tung-yung. The " Plover " in this neighborhood 
passed over several patches without changing her depth of water, 
and a pilot denied the existence of any rock in the neighborhood, 
akhough there is one inserted on the Chinese chart. Opposite to 
Double Peak I. on the main is a village called Seongtin, the inhabi- 
tants of which assisted the pirates in escaping from the "Plover's" 
pinnaca, and the merchant junks which were boarded in search of 
arms, pointed this place out as the head-quarters of pirates when in 
this neighborhood. 

Four miles northeast of Spider Island is a large island, with two- 
remarkable cones on its northern end called Double Peak Island; it 
is 34 miles long, and its highest peak 1190 feet high. There is very 
good anchorage, the best being under its southern point, the two 
small islands north of Cone Island sheltering you from the eastern 
swell. Between it and the main, there is a good channel, three 
miles wide, whose depth varies from 6 to 18 fathoms. The main- 
land to the westward of this island is high, with very remarkable 
conical peaks, and much indented. Water and a few vegetables 
may be had here, 

NE. by E., 10 miles from Double Peak, is a group of islands called 
Pih-seang shan ;||/ f^ |L| orTsih-sing ^ ^, The northern one 
is the largest. There is at its southwest angle, a small bay, which 
would afford shelter to two or three small vessels. This is a Chinese 
vice-admiral's station ; when the surveying vessels visited it, there 
were three war jnnks at anchor in the bay. Between the northern 
and the southern islands of this group, there is a safe passage, but 
the bay is thickly studded with fishing stakes. The northern island 
is in lat. 26' 42. 5 N. and long. 120" 22,'7 E. The southern, which 
is a detached rocky island, is about 60 feet above the sea, in lat. 
26' 32' N. Between this group and the main, the average depth 
of water is 9 fathoms. 

'\ Due north, 12 miles from the Pihseang shan group, is a high island 
called Fuhyaou shan J^ \%. jjj ITOO feet above the sea, with a 
good harbor between it and the main; it in lat. 26" 56.'1 N., and 
long. 120° 22.'6 E. The entrance to the noathward is broad and 
open, the southeastern channel is only one cable wide. Good water 


Fuhyaou shan. Rock, Table I. Pihquan Harbor and Is. JVamquan I. 

is plentiful and easily obtained here. N. 60° E., 5 miles from Fuh- 
yaou shan, is a group of small islands affording no protection, but 
having no danger near them. And N. l-J" E., 5| miles, is a solitary 
islet having a reef off its eastern end. The southwestern entrance to 
Fuhyaou shan harbor will probably be found better than the eastern; 
it has not however yet been examined. 

S. 74" E., 10 miles from Fuhyaou shan, and N. 45' E., 15 miles 
from Pihseang shan, is a very dangerous rock, over which the sea 
breaks; it is in lat. 26^ 53' N., and long. 120^ 34.'3 E. N. 80' E., 
16 miles from the eastern point of Fuhyaou shan, th re is a small 
group of islands called Tae shan fe- |J^ (z. e. Table Hill) : the east- 
ernmost large island (remarkable for its table top) is situated in 
lat. 26' 59.'5 N., and long. 120° 44' E.. and is 618 feet above th^ 
sea. S. 25° VV. from Table Lsland are two rocky islets, about 100 
feet high, and which are almost joined. There is bad shelter to be 
had between the two largest islands, as close (half a cable or less) to 
Table Island as a vessel can with safety go. There is a passage 
between the two islands, and to the northeast of the western large 
island, there is a most remarkable Mushroom rock, about 260 feet 
high ; and joined to the islands by reefs at low water. There is an 
indentation on the eastern face of the middle large island, that af- 
fords shelter to a number of small fishing junks. 

N. 60" E., 7^ miles from Table Island, are three small rocky islets, 
with several rocks awash near them. Three miles to the N.NVV. 
of these is another rock, about 50 feet above water, and remark- 
able from its being cleft in two. To the westward, between this 
group and the harbor of Pihquan, there are also several rocks which 
only show at low water. From the number of rocks and shoals about 
these islands, all of which may not yet be discovered, it will be ne- 
cessary for vessels to approach this part of the coast with great cau- 
tion, or indeed to avoid it in this latitude altogether. 

N. 45° W., 14 miles from this group, is the island and harbor of 

Pihquan :It H ; it is in lat. 27° 9.'7 N., and long. 120 32.'6 E., 

and will afford good shelter in the northeasterly monsoon for vessels 
drawing 15 feet. 

Three quarters of a mile west of the south point of Pihquan is a 
rock nearly level with the water's edge, with a reef that is covered, 
Haifa cable's length to the northwest of it. 

This roadstead is I J mile broad, and has three fathoms in it. 
Fresh water may be got in the sandy bay at the foot of the three 
chimneys on Pihquan. _• ^^ 

To the westward of the roadstead is the island of Namquan J^ |^ 
within which is a deep bight, and a walled city. West of it good 
anchorage will be found. To the northward of it on the main is a 
most remarkable peak, called by the fishermen Pihquan Peak. The 
boundary line of the provinces of Chehkiang and Fuhkien, passes 
through Pihquan harbor. 



Af'tfmke shan. Ta .Vew Harbor- Pihke Is. TSmgpvnan 1. Tseigh fs. 

N. 35° E., distant 30 miles from the Tac-shnn group, is a group 
of islands, the largest of which is called by the Chinese Namke shan 
ra jp l\\. It consists of one large and fourteen smaller islands; 
the large island is 737 feet above the sea, and has a good harbor on 
its southeiistern side in the northeast monsoon, where there is a 
ood watering place. The eastern horn of the harbor is in lat. 27' 
56.'3 N., and long. 121° 6.'G E. Vessels should not pass between the 
islets which form the southwest part of the group, as there are many 
reefs which cover at high water. The westernmost island makes 
like a cone, and has regfs to the northward. The southern islet is 
a castellated rock, and is 5 miles distant from the rest of the group. 

W. by S., 24 miles from Namke shan, on the main, is a harbor, 
called Ta New y^ '^. It is too shidlow for anything drawing 
more than 9 feet. There is a reef, showing only at low water, 3 J 
miles from the shore, to the northward of this harbor. It bears from 
the highest part of Namke shan S. 76^° W.; a cleft rock at the 
entrance to Ta New harbor bears from it S. 49^° W., and a peak 
on the main to the -Jiorth ward N. 23"^ W. 

N.NE.. 10 miles, is a group of islands, the largest of which called 

Pihke shan -ft S |A|' ^" '*^- ^"^ ^^' ^■' ^^^ '^"g- ^^l" 12' E. 
There are four small islets close to it, which protect the anchorage 
off the southwest end of the island from the easterly swell. Vessels 
should not anchor under these islands unless from necessity, as they 
have so much better anchorage either to the northward or south- 
ward of them. Fresh water may be obtained. There is an exten- 
sive fishing establishment on the island. 

West, 11 miles from Pihke shan, is another group, of one large 
and four smaller islands. The largest is called Tungpwan shan 
1^4 ^ ^^ ^' '^' Br^ss-basin I). Between this group and Pihke 
shan are five detached islets. The main is distant 15 miles to the 
westward of Tungpwan shan, the hills rising to 1000 or 1200 feet, 
with extensive plains between them, which are protected from en- 
croachment of the sea by embankments. Between it and the main 
there are two groups of islands, the eastern of which will afford 
secure shelter in the NE. monsoon; a fleet of junks, probably from 
Wanchow foo, took shelter here during a northeasterly gale. The 
main land opposite is shoal to. 

Eight miles, W.NW from Pihke shan, are the Tseigh islands, of 
which there are three, the North Tseigh ;i\^ ^. the South Tseigh 
Tg ^, and the East Tseigh ^ D^. >n the space between which 
there are clusters of rocks interspersed with reefs which cover al 
half tide. Vessels cannot go between these groups without great 
fisk, as there may be many rocks not yet laid down. 
i..-?The Tseigh islands form the sputh extreme of a very large and 
numerous group of islands. To the northward and westward of these 


Coin I. Tongtau shan. Miaou I. Hootow and LaouJsa Is. 

islands, between them and Takew yfr 1^, is an excellent ancho- 
rage, sheltered from all winds, called Bullock's Bay ; the best 
entrance into which is to the northward of the Tseigh Islands, 
between them and Pwanpien shan^i ^^ m. Here water may be 

procured, and bullocks of the best description were obtained from 
the natives in any quantity. The harbor may be known by a 
remarkable conical island, called Coin Island, (with three rocks N. 
i W. of it,) which is the northeasternmost of this group, in lat. 27° 
50' N., and long. 121' 15' E. W.N W. of Coin Island is a flat island 
with rocks off its southern extreme, and two rocky islets to the 
westward, between which and Tongtau shan there is a safe passage 
in 8 fathoms, xjpt j-^ » 

Tongtau shan )|i|| 7^ H-l the largest of the group, and forming 
the northern boundary of Bullock's Bay, is 6 miles long and 2^ miles 
at its extreme breadth ; the feature of its eastern face is high and 
precipitous : between it and Pwanpien shan, is a junk passage, not 
available for vessels. 

North of Tongtau shan, there are two large islands Miaou shan 
^ 1^ Uj and Chwangpien shan ^jj^ -n^ iLl. The channel be- 
tween them is shoal, having only 3 fathoms; between Miaou shan 
and Chxvangpien shan, the channel is too narrow for a ship. The 
extent of the two islands together is 9 miles. 

N. 55° W., 8 miles from Miaou shan, is the entrance of the 
Wanchow foo j^ iUii t^S river, with an island in the mouth of it. 
The inhabitants of '1 pngtau shan report that the approach to the 
entrance is very shallow. S. 65° W., 5 miles from Miaou shan, is a 
dangerous rocky shoal. We found on approaching the main from 
Miaou shan, that the depth of water decreased at 4 fathoms. To the 
northward of Miaou shan, are two large islands called Hootow shan 

l/E^lil ^"^ I^aouka shan ;/L^ i^l' ^'^^^ *^^'** ^"^^^^ islands 
between them. The channel between Miaou-shan and the main is 
shoal ; and vessels intending to enter the river Ngau which leads to 
Wanchow foo, must pass to the northward and eastward of that 
island, and between it and Hootow shan, off the south point of 
which is good anchorage; from thence the entrance to the river 
bears N. 66° W., 6 miles, and will be known by an isolated range 
of hills, with a square fort at their east end, and a small walled city 
at the west end. The depth of water varies from three to four fa- 
thoms in the channel, which is more than a mile wide ; but the mud 
dries upon each side of you and shoals suddenly. Having passed 
the range of hills, keep the left bank of the river or north shore on 
board until the first hill on the flat island on the south side of the 
river bears SW. by S., when you will have passed a middle grviund, 
which is half a mile from the south shore, and \h mile to the E.NE. 

COM. <Jt. ^ 


tyanrhow River. Pe shan. jhi/tM; shan. Seaoluk shan. JVanpai sJtan. 

of this hill ; — {the. highest peak of Ilootow shan on with the south 
foot of the hills at the entrance bearing E. 3° S. will place you on 
its north edge;) — then edge over to mid-channel, passing a large 
city on the north side, and gradually haul in for the first point on 
the south side, at which the hills come down to the water's edge : 
keep that side on board, passing a point with a circular fort and a 
building like a jar upon it, close. 

Do not go above '2A miles beyond the Jar point, as the water 
shoals, and the channels become too intricate for explanation ; you 
will then be in from 3^ to 7 fathoms water, and 5i miles from the 
city of Wanchow foo, which is on the south side of the river. The 
water of this stream contains a great deal of sediment, and is not 
used by the inhabitants for culin<u-y purposes. 

To the northward of Hootow shan is a deep inlet, running back 
20 miles, in the southern parts of which there is good anchorage, 
but the upper end is all shoal excepting a narrow channel, which 
forms the island of Woksing, and comes out opposite to Taluk shan. 

Two and a half miles to the southward of Laouka, there are four 
cliff islets, and half a mile from the south point of it is another islet. 
The "Plover" passed between these, and anchored to the westward 
of a small islet on the southwest side of Laouka ; in this bay the wa- 
ter shoals suddenly from 19 to 6 fathoms. , , . 

N. 75° E., 17 miles from Laouka, is Pe shan <jx W the eastern- 
most island of the next group, lying in lat. 28" 5. '5 N., and long. 
121" 31/8 E. It is three miles long from east to west, has three 
rocks on its northern face, and two islets on its southern. North- 
west from it is a sugar loaf island, whh a small one close to it, and 
W. by N., 1^ mile, is another low level island. 

Taluk shan 4^ )|r Ml is west from Pe shan, 5.^ miles ; this 
island is 771 feet high, and affords good shelter on its western side 
in 3 to 4 fathoms ; its eastern face is a high and precipitous head. 

Seaoluk shan yj^ J^ ijl are three islands, 1^ mile south of it; 
between the two the depth of water is 8 fathoms. To the west of 
Taluk shan, 3 miles, is Chinke shan p& ^? iji which has fi. large 
and populous town on it. To the north of Taluk shan, 2 miles, is 
another island, which is also populous. Chinke shan faces a deep 
bay on the main. 

Northwest, 24 miles from Taluk shan, Ts a high conspicuous 
mountain on the main ; the sea washes the foot of it, but the entrance 
to the sound was not explored. To the westward of Seaoluk shan, 
distant 6 miles, is Nanpai shan m y\Y |Jl|, an islet. On the point 
to the westward of Nanpai shan, there is a large and populous vil- 
lage. Heachuh shan, the southernmost island of the Taichow group, 
bears N. 60" E., 27 miles from Pe shan. N. 45° E., distant 16 
miles from Pe shan, is a small island, with a reef running off its 


Shelung. Teaotipung. Chikhok I. Heachuh shan, one of TauJiow Is. 

southern end, and which is the eastern island of a group; it is in 
lat. 28° 15/8 N., and 121° 44. 5 E. 

Southwest, 2 miles from this island, are four small peaked rocks, 
with rocks awash between them. West, 2^ miles, is the island of 
Shetung mun ^ ti^ f^ , having many small rocky islets nearly 
joined to its southern extreme, and a reef to the westward of them. 
A vessel may get very good shelter under this island, unless the 
wind is far to the eastward. ^ j,^ gg 

Between this island and Teaoupung mun rf^ v j* j J are two 
islands; the eastern passage of the two is a mile wide, and has 3J 
fathoms. Northeast of the centre island are three small islets, with 
a reef extending from the east end of the northernmost. To the 
southward of the roadstead are four islets, the largest of them is 
called Sanshe shan ^^ jE~r^ i\\. The channel between them and 
the main is a mile wide, and has 4.J fathoms through it. The point 
opposite to these islets is called Chinseu shan, and forms the south- 
east horn of a shallow bay, and is connected with the main by an 
isthmus occasionally overflowed. 

Through the Teaoupung mun all the coasting trade passes, and 
from the number of towns erected on this barren headland, it would 
appear that it is a stopping-place for the numerous junks that pass. 
When the "Starling" anchored in this roadstead, there were nearly 
100 sail of junks at anchor. They all weighed together, and passed 
through the Mun to the northward. 

North, 6 miles from the easternmost island off the Teaoupung 
mun, is the island of Chikhok f^ ^ jJj >n lat- 28" 22.'4 N., and 
long. 121° 42. 2 E. It is 760 feet above the sea, and bears S. 58' 
W., from the anchorage at the Taichows. It rises abruptly, and 
has a most remarkable broad yellow stripe on its southeastern side, 
forming one of the best leading marks for the coast. There is an 
islet, 1^ mile W.NW. from it, off the north end of which there is a 
half tide rock. Westerly from Chikhok is a crooked island, under 
which there may be shelter ; but all the channels among the group 
to the west of it are shoal, none affording shelter to vessels drawing 
more than 12 feet. _^ .^ . 

East of Chikhok, distant 9J miles, is Heachuh shan, f^ Jy |J-j 
the southern island of the Taichow group, inlat. 28^13.'3 N., and long 
121° 55.'2 E. This group extends 9 miles in a northerly direction 
from Heachuh shan; it consists of two large and ten smaller islands. 
Between the two large islands is an excellent harbor, the approaches 
to which, both from the eastward and westward, are free from danger. 
'J'he best anchorage will be found southeast of the island, lying off 
the southwestern extreme of Shang-tachin shan V* 4^ II|6 ijl, 

which is the northern large island. The bay to the northward of 
this is too shoal for anrh(»racro. 


Hea-tachin »ft«m. Shang-tachin shan. Tung-chvh seu. Chuh seu. 

Between Stiang-tachin shan and the small island, 1^ mile to the 
N.NE. of it, there is a safe passage. Several watering places will 
be found on Shang-tachin shan, but the supply from any one of them 
is not very abundant. The southern large island, called Hea-tachin 
shan ~T% -^ |^ ill is the highest, its elevation above the sea being 
750 feet. It is well inhabited ; a couple of bullocks and other stock 
were obtained here. 

There are four islands and two reefs to the southward of it. The 
southernmost island, or lleachuh shan, has a remarkable finger rock 
off its southern side. The western rock lies S. 22° W., 3^ miles 
from the highest part of Hea-tachin shan, and is seen at all times of 
tide. N. 41° E., 4i cables from the above rock, is a reef that covers 
at hight water ; it bears from the peak of Hea-tachin shan, S. 20° VV., 
2f miles. 

There i.s a good channel west of the Taichow group, and to the 
north of Chikhok are numerous islands, many of which are joined 
by the mud at low water. 

N. 55° W., distant 7 miles from t^e northern island of the Tai- 
chow group, are two islands close together, that will be mistaken 
for one except on an E.NE., or W.SW. bearing. Junks take shelter 
under the western point in strong northeast winds ; off the northeast 
and northwest points are rocks ; a reef also extends off its southeast 
end. Two and a half miles to the eastward of these is another cliff 
islet, which is the easternmost of the group. The channel between 
these islands and the Taichows is free from danger. The mainland 
is distant 9 miles from the above islands, and the depth of water 
between the two is from 6 to 3 fathoms, shoaling gradually towards 
the coast, which is very low, and at low tides dries a long way off 
from the shore. 

North, !0 miles from the northern Taichow, is the easternmost 
of a large group in lat. 28° 42.'2 N., and long. 121° 55.'1 E., called 
Tungchuh seu k^ J^ WSL- Shelter may he had under it on its south 
side, but there is always a heavy swell which renders riding there 
very unpleasant. There are several rocks and islands within two 
miles of its southern, and three islets on its northern, face. There 
are several large islands lying to the northwest, some of which 
would no doubt afllitfd good shelter, but they have not yet been 

Seven miles, west a little southerly from Tungchuh seu, lies the 
island of Chuh seu ^ ^bp|. with a sharp cone, 670 feet above the 
sea, over its southern point. Midway between the two is a cluster 
of rocks, four in number ; and S.SW. from Tungchuh seu are two 
islets, with detached reefs bearing from it E., two cables distant, 
and N. by W. four cables. On the same bearing from it, 3 miles, 
are two islets, with a roof off the eastern end of the 
From Chuh seu there is a solitary cone island, S. 60° E., 2§ mile?. 


Passafi;e to Taichowfoo. Hishan Group. Patahecock I. Cape Montague. 

Good anchorage, with a convenient and abundant watering place, 
will be found under and to the southwestward of the peak of Chuh 
seu in 6 fathoms, between an island with a reef off its northeast 
point and Chuh seu. On the peak at the northwest end of Chuh 
seu is a lookout and three chimneys, from whence they communi- 
cate by signals with Taichow foo ]^ ^^|^ j^. The entrance to the 
river leading to the city, called by the Chinese Hoomun, is west 17 
miles from the peak of Chuh seu. The water shoals gradually for 
the first 8 miles to 2 fathoms, after which there are not more than 9 
feet at low water until you are within the headland, when it deepens 
to 3 and 5 fathoms. The tide rises in the neighborhood from 18 to 
20 feet. 

The channel between Chuh seu and the main appears to be shoal, 
with several rocks covered at high water. Vessels therefore ought 
to pass to the eastward of the whole group until the inner channel 
has been examined. 

South of Chuh seu, there are several small islets, with safe pas- 
sages between them. There are several rocks and islands to the 
northward towards Sanmoon bay, which cannot now be described, 
not having been sufficiently examined. ^ 

N. 62° E. from Tungchuh seu, is the Hi-shan ^ [J-| group, dis- 
tant 17 miles ; it consists of 3 inhabited islands and 8 barren rocks, 
extending 4 miles in a north and south direction, and 2 miles 
east and west. The southernmost is the largest, and makes like a 
saddle. It is 320 feet high, and is in lat. 28° 50.'8 N., and long. 
122° 14.'4 E. The rocks are steep, with remarkable cliffs. The 
sea has undermined the northernmost one so much that it bears 
some resemblance to a large mushroom. The inhabitants, who are 
Fuhkien men, called this island Ung shan. The depth of water in 
the vicinity is 20 fathoms ; they are too small and too detached to 
afford much shelter. The inhabitants are all fishermen, from whom 
excellent fish may be obtained. There is also a fine stream of water 
on the island, but it would be difficult to get at it. Five miles NE. 
from it, a reef is reported to have been seen. 

North from the highest of the Hishan islands, distant 32 miles, is 

Patahecock /V ^ ^ the southernmost of the Kew shan^ jlj 
or Quesan group. 

N. 25° W., distant 22 miles, is Tantow shan '^ ^ p^ or Cape 
Montague, in lat. 29° 10' N., and long. 122° 2.'5 E. It is an island 
separated from the main by a channel varying from one to 1^ mile 
wide. It is 738 feet high, and nearly divided into two parts, the 
connection being a low shingly isthmus. 

Four miles to the southward of Cape Montague, and nearly at- 
tached to the main, is a small islet with a reef off its eastern point. 
Twelve miles S.SW. of Cape Montague, is Leaming, forming the 
northern and eastern point? of Sanmoon ^ P^ Bay, having a rork 
off its soiithwestern end. ' ^ 


Sanmoon Bay. Albert's Peak. St. George's I. Bangoa rocks. 

South of Cape Montague, and 3 miles from the coast, are four 
islets; the southern is 9 miles from the Cape, the others are seve- 
rally 3, 5, and 7 miles distant from it, with good passages between 
them to enter Sanmoon bay. 

Sanmoon bay will be readily recognized by a most remarkable 
thumb peak, called by the opium vessels that frequent this bay, Al- 
bert's Peak, and by the Chinese Ta-fuh-tow -/r '^ ^5 (?. e. Budha's 
Great Head or point) ; it is about 800 feet higli, and is in lat. 29" S 
N., and long. 121= 58.'5 E. _ , . . 

S. 38"^ W., 2.^ miles from Leaming, is Sanche shan JH liR |j4 
or Triple Island, the depth between the two being 10 or 11 fathoms. 
Vessels entering, either to stop a tide, or driven in by weather, will 
find good shelter from the northeast monsoon, to the westward of 
Leaming. Care, however, must be taken when standing intothis 
bay, as it shoals suddenly. If the north peak of Leaming is not 
brought to the southward of east, there is no danger ; it is all soft 
mud in the bay. 

Due west of Leaming, 6 miles, is a conical island, with a reef off 
its south end. 

Tafub-tow, or Albert's Peak, is situated on an island to the north- 
ward of this half a mile, but the channel between has many rocks. 
In the northern extreme of the Bay, between Leaming and Albert's 
Peak island, is a small entrance into Sheipoo. 

Having rounded the conical island, St. George's I., or Ching shan, 
will be seen, bearing NW. 4 miles. The bay shoals gradually as 
you approach it, and the anchorage, half a mile south of it in 3 
fathoms, is secure in northeast winds. There is a well of good 
water on the island, but it is not easily got at nor plentiful, and 
vessels in want of water will find it more convenient to anchor to 
the eastward of Albert's Peak, where water can be easily obtained. 
The bay to the northward of St. George's Island is shoal, and full of 
rocks; it extends a considerable distance. The i."'thmus between it 
and Nimrod Sound, or Tseiingshan keang ^ Ml fK is only 7 miles. 

There is an entrance into Sheipoo, 4 miles to the north of St. 
George's Island, which is frequently used by junk.s. 

Westward of St. George's Island, 4 miles, is a group of islands 
with many sunken rocks off them. The mainland is distant 3 miles 
to the westward of this group, and rises immediately from the sea to 
the height of 900 to 1000 feet, forming a continuous range along 
the coast. Patahecock bears from Cape Montague, N. 3t>^ E., 15^ 

Vessels bound for Sheipoo Roads may pass close to the northward 
of Cape Montague, and run in due west for the two forts which will 
be seen on the summit of the island forming the entrance to Sheipoo. 

North of the roadstead are 3 islands. South, 3 cables from the 

eastern end of the centre island, Wangche shan "^ ^ ijj are the 


Cliff I. Sheipoo Roads. Txingmuv. Rock near Cape Montague. 

Bangoa rocks, which always show ; there is deep water close to 
them. To the westward of Bangoa, the water shoals off the centre 
island to 2J fathoms, 9 cables from the land, to avoid which do not 
bring the higher fort to the southward of west. 

Cliff Island, or Seao-seao, lies nearly in the centre of the road- 
stead ; anchorage will be found off the northwest end of it in 4 
fathoms mud ; there is always a considerable swell rolling in with 
a strong wind. Vessels passing between Cape Montague and the 
main should keep to the eastward of Cliff Island, and pass between 
it and a rock, 7 cables further to the eastward. The deep bay on 
the western side of Cape Montague is shoal, but the southwest point 
is steep to. 

A reef of rocks extends from the westward of Cliff Island, and 
the channel between it and the main has only 3 fathoms in it. South 
of Cliff Island is another islet; the ground between is foul. 

From the roadstead into Sheipoo /fij^ Jffl li arbor are three en- 
trances, all of which are very narrow with rapid tides and chowchow 
water, rendering the navigation dangerous for ships. Two of them 
are formed by Tungmun '^ P^, the island on which the forts are 
situated. The third entrance is 1^ mile to the southward of Tung- 
mun, and is the best of the three. 

At the entrance to it is a small flat island, with a reef of rocks 
extending easterly ; pass to the northeastward of this island, as there 
is a reef to the westward between it and the main. The town is 
situated on the main, forming the north boundary of the harbor; it 
is walled, but the walls are in a most dilapidated state. The houses 
and shops are not good. It derives its importance from its being a 
convenient port for the coasting trade. At high water the harbor 
has the appearance of a splendid basin ; but at low water the mud 
dries off shore a long distance, giving it the appe.;rance of a river. 

At the western extreme of the harbor, is a narrow passage into 
Sanmoon Bay, and midway between this passage and the town is a 
large island. South of this island is another narrow passage into 
Sanmoon Bay. 

N. 36° E. from the highest part of Cape Montague, 7i miles, is 
a very dangerous wash rock; it is as near as possible half-way be- 
tween Patahecock and the Cape. 


Bar of the Mm. Rees* Rock- Channel into the Rivrr. 

SfcKon 4. 

By Lieut.-Com. John Richards of H. M. Brig Saracen. 

These directions are intended to accompany tlic chart made by Lieut. 
Richards, but they will furnish useful hints to the navigator without it. 

The best time for entering the River Min is from flood to half ebb. 
There are 15 feet on the Outer Bar, and 13 feet on the Inner Bar, 
at low water spring tides ; and at low water neaps, 19 feet and 17 
feet respectively. 

When the North Sands begin to dry, there are barely 16 feet on 
the Bar. At low water springs, they are about 3 feet dry ; at neaps,' 
they do not show. 

In fine weather, the North and South Breakers appear from half 
ebb to half flood, under similar circumstances, the outer knoll 
seldom until after the last quarter; but in bad weather, a line of 
breakers extends from the outer knoll, right across to the North 
Bank, and a continuous line from the South Breakers to Black Head. 

The first of the flood tide comes in from the NE., and setting 
with great velocity through numerous small channels, and over the 
North Banks, the great body of it (from Rees' Rock inside) sets 
across the Sharp Peak entrance of the river, straight for Round 
Island, gradually changing its direction for Ilo-keanga as the tide 
rises. 'J'he first of the ebb comes from the direction of Round 
Island, and sets across the Sharp Peak entrance over the Nor*h 
Banks; as the tide falls, the stream takes the regular channel. 

Outside Rees' Rock, the strength of the ebb runs to the eastward 
until nearly low water, when it changes its direction to the SE. 
The flood tide now coming in from the NE., turns the stream off* to 
the southward ; and near the knoll, it runs strong to the S.SW. 
for 3 hours, changing its direction to the westward as the tide rises ; 
after half flood, the stream sets in for Round Island, and abates con- 
aiderabiy in strength. 

The Channel north of the outer knoll (from the numerous patches) 
it not safe, and ought not to be attempted by large vessels. 

To run for the South Channel, the Southern Breakwater Rock, 
nearly in line with the south part of the Middle Dog, is the mark 

Generally used in cloudy weather by vessels frequenting the port, 
[igh Sharp Peak, open to the southward of Sharp Island Peak, is a 
good mark to lead in between the Knoll and South Bank until 
Triangle Head comes open of the small black rocks off" Sand Peak 
Point, or until the North Breakers bear north ; then haul up NW. 
or N.NW., (according as ebb or flood is running,) and crossing 
the outer Bar, gain the deep channel to the northward. 


Guides over the Inner Bar. Kinpai Pass. Woga Pt. 

If passing to the north of the Nine Feet Patch, the sharp shoulder 
should be well open to the northward of the Sharp Island Peak, be- 
fore Sand Peak comes on with the middle of the Black Rocks off 
the point. If passing to the southward, the Sharp Shoulder should 
be kept a little open to the southward before passing that line of 

When Sand Peak appears well open to the right of the Black 
Rocks, Sharp Shoulder may be brought in line with Sharp Island 
Peak, gradually opening the Shoulder to the southward, as Serrated 
Peak eoraes on with SE. tangent of Woufou, which now becomes 
the leading mark until the middle of Brother A. comes on with the 
right high tangent of Brother B., (beacons are proposed to mark 
these spots,) with which cross the Bar, steering a midchannel course 
when Round Island comes on with SE. tangent of Woufou. 

Small vessels turning in over the Inner Bar, will find the follow- 
ing marks useful : — stand no nearer the North Bank, than Temple 
Point in line with Sharp Peak point; nor nearer the SE. side of 
Ilo-keanga Bank, than Sharp Island Peak on with the middle of 
Sharp Point bluff; nor to the NE. side of Ho-keanga Bank, than to 
bring the right high tangent of Brother A. in line with the left high 
tangent of Brother B. 

There is good anchorage in 5J fathoms, stiff mud, outside the 
Inner Bar, with Brother B. in line (or a little open) of Sharp Peak 
point, and Rees' Rock in line with Black Head. 

Sharp Island Peak kept open of Woga Point, clears the six feet 
rock off Temple Point ; shut the Sharp Peak in behind the high 
land of VVoga, and you can go inside the Temple Point Rock. 

In the NE. monsoon, the high land of Woga in line (or a little 
open) with Temple Point, is a good line to anchor on; in the SW. 
monsoon, Woga Creek is the best anchorage. 

The Kinpai Pass is dangerous to strangers, particularly at or near 
the spring tides, for the current meeting the rocks with great force, 
causes eddies, that occasionally run across the stream. With the 
flood a dangerous eddy extends from Kinpai Point in the direction 
of the Ferry; and for this reason the passage north of the Middle- 
ground is considered the best. 

After passing White Fort, close with the northern shore ; it is 
very steep, and may be approached with safety. The apex of Pass 
Island in line with White Fort Bluff tangent, is a near clearing 
mark for the shoulder of the middle ; it is therefore recommended 
to shut Pass Island in altogether until past that point, opening it 
again immediately afterwards. 

The danger of this passage is in passing the shoulder, which 
forms a sharp angle of the bank, with only one foot at low water 
spring tides, and 4 fathoms close to ; from this point to the opposite 
shore, the distance is only 1^ cable. After clearing this point, in 
passing either up or down, the tide tends rather to set you from the 
bank into the stream. 

CUM. uu. 9 


Tongue ShoaL ScotU Ilock. Spiteful Rock. Anchorafre. 

The high Serrated Peak in line with Ferry-house, leads through 
between the Middle and duantao Shoal, and is a good line for ships 
to anchor when coming down the river, and waiting for an oppor- 
tunity of dropping through the Pass. 

The 'I'ongue Shoal is steep to, and has seven feet near its northern 
extremity. This part i.s cleared by keeping the Ferry-house midway 
between Kinpai Bluff and the Tower, until the apex of Kowlooi 
Head comes on with Half-tide Rock. 

Between Half-tide Rock and Tintao, the bottom is very irregular. 
The Scout Rock is the end of a ledge projecting 25 yards from 
Couding Island, with seven feet near its extremity. 

The Spiteful Rock shows at low water ; it is part of a rocky ledge 
projecting about 30 yards from the Island. To pass between it and 
Losing Spit, do not shut in Younoi Head with Flat Island until the 
black cliff head (marked by a white spot) comes in line with the 
north tangent of Twaisee Island. 

The Pagoda Rock is two feet dry at low water spring tides. 

The best anchorage is from this rock for about half a mile above 
it. Should this anchorage be full, I would recommend vessels to 
anchor pretty clo.-se to the south shoulder of Losing Island, where 
they will be out of the strength of the tide. 

In dropping through the Mingan with the ebb tide, it is necessary 
to gujrd against a dangerous eddy, setting from the point above 
CoudinjT Island on to the Scout Rock. 

Section ."). 


These directions were prepared by Capt. CoUinson in 1846 to apsist 
seamen in taking thoir ships into the River Min. They should be read in 
connection with his remarks on pp. 49 — 51, especially the paragraphs relating 
to the positions of the White Dogs, Changche ehan, and Matsoo-shan. Pilots 
may sometimes be obtained at the White Dogs, but their conduct must be 
carefully watched. In connection with the Directions contained in the last 
Section, this will furnish all the hints necessary in going up to Fuhchau. 

Entrance to the River Min. To the eastward of the north horn of 
the channel at the entrance of the river is a reef which shows only 
at low water ; the bearings from it are : — Matsoo shan peak N. 54° E.; 
Sea Dog N. 88° E.: White Dog peak S. 45^" E.; Sand peak S. 59* 
W.; Sharp Peak N. 71' W.; and Rees' Rock in line with the southern 
peak of Square Peak Island. 

Ree.s' Rock is low and difficult for a stranger to get hold of, unless 
from the masthead. There are, however, other leading marks, which, 
unless the hills are obscured, will form good marks to enable a sea- 
man to ascertain his position. On the north side of the river i^ a 


Rtes' Rock. Leading marks in. Channel up to the Brothers. 

remarkable sharp peak ; and a square (or double peak) on the south ; 
nearer than the latter, Round Island will be seen, and to the south- 
ward of it a sharp sandy peak, bearing about S. 68° W/ This latter 
is the only peak that can be mistaken for the sharp peak on the 
north side, and the bearing of the White Dogs will at once obviate the 
mistake, if referred to. The channel between the breakers is two 
miles across at the entrance ; nearly in mid-channel is a knoll which 
at some seasons has only nine feet over it, and at other periods thirteen 
feet. The leading mark in, to pass upon the north side of it, is to 
bring Rees' Rock in line with Square Peak, bearing N. 81° W. At 
present, however (1846), the channel south of it has more water, 
and is to be preferred, the leading mark for which is to bring Rees' 
Rock in one with the first point under and to the right of Square 
Peak, bearing W.NW. Having entered, steer so as to pass one 
mile north of Rees' Rock ; the breakers will show on each side of the 
channel if it be near low water and there is any swell ; by skirting 
the northern side the deepest water will be found, and it is necessary 
to take great care that the vessel is not set across the channel, as 
the tide rushes across with great force between the sand banks, the 
ebb setting to the northward and the flood southerly. 

The course from Rees' Rock is N. 68" W., and in going up keep 
the two islets (called the Brothers) on the face of Ho-keanga in one, 
which will carry you in mid-channel until you are abreast Sharp Peak 
Point, when a NW. by W. course may be shaped for 'I'emple Point, 
which is upon the north bank of the river, and will be known by the 
trees and Joss-house upon it. In the channel without Rees' Rock, 
the depth of water is 2J and 3 fathoms; between Rees' Rock and 
Sharp Peak Point there is a hole with 5 and 6 fathoms, where 
vessels may stop a tide and find tolerable shelter ; Sharp Peak Point 
should not he passed nearer than a cable ; the bay west of it is shoal, 
and under the peak the two fathom line extends nearly one mile 
from the shore. The mud also extends southeasterly from Ho-keanga 
nearly 1^ mile. Vessels beating in this passage must therefore keep 
the lead agoing. From the West Brother the mud extends westerly 
one mile, and upon its north edge is a patch of rocks which is 
covered at quarter flood. The West Brother bears from them S 
74" E., and the Temple N. 12^ E. 

South 17° W. from the Temple, 3^ cables, is a knoll with 2J 
fathoms on it. Sharp Peak seen over the lower part of Wofja Point 
will place you on it. From the Temple to Kin-pai mun is not quite 
two miles W. by S. At the entrance of the passage are two islets; 
pass between them and keep over towards the south shore to avoid a 
rock which lies \V. by S. ^ S. from the northern islet. The channel 
is not quite two cables wide, and should only be attempted at slack 
tide, as the chowchow water renders a vessel unmanageable. 

To the westward of Kin-pai Point is a rock having 13 feet over it 
at low water: the bearings upon it are Kin-pai point .\, 60° E . fort 


IGnpai pau and rock near it. Ferry Houae. Min-gan toum. Pagoda ft. 

on the north shore N. 32° E. ; ferry house S. 48° W. ; highest hill 
over Kin-pai Point S. 30° E. Kiu-pai Point in one with the north 
end of Passage Island (the northern islet at the entrance), bearing N. 
56° E. will place you south of it, which is the best side to pass, as 
the channel this side is IJ cable wide, while between the rock and 
the tail of the spit to the westward, the distance is only half a cable. 
Having passed the point, keep the southern shore close on board to 
avoid the middle ground, the channel hereabouts being sometimes 
under two cables; when abreast of the ferry house which is 1^ mile 
above Kin-pai, and on the right or southern bank, edge over to the 
northern shore, passing Wedge Islet at a cable's length ; there are 
two rocky points above it which are covered at high water, and 
extend a cable from the embankment. The rock and sudden turn 
in the Kin-pai pass, render the navigation exceedingly awkward; but 
if vessels wait for the last quarter flood they will be enabled to run 
up on the northern shore. 

Above the ferry-house and on the same side of the river is Tree 
Point, the shore on that side between them being shoal too ; a half 
tide rock bears from the Tree Point N. 9° VV. 4A cables ; when on 
it the is in the line with Kin-pai point. This reach runs 
SVV. by S. and NE. by N. ; at the distance of six miles from Kin- 
pai, the river narrows again to 3:^ cables, the hills rising abruptly on 
either side. ^^ 

The town of Min-gan [^ ^' is on the left bank of the river one 
mile within the strait; the river continues narrow for three miles, 
a)id the depth of water being generally above twenty fathoms, vessels, 
unless with a leading wind, should keep a boat ahead, for the tide is 
apt to set you on either shore. Rather more than half a mile above 
Mingan, and on the same side of the river, is an islet crowned with 
a fort. At the upper end of the narrows, are two islets upon the right 
bank; in going up leave them upon your port hand, passing close to 
the northern point of the outside one, which is steep to ; but there 
is a sunken rock on which the "Spiteful" struck, three fourths of a 
cable from its northwestern shore; W.NW. from the island, two 
cables, is a shoal patch of nine feet at low water. .um 

Having passed the island, keep along the right bank, gradually 
hauling up for the Pagoda of Lo-sing ; S. 12° E. from it, rather 
more than two cables, is a sunken rock which shows at low water 
spring tides ; to avoid which, round the Pagoda Point close, and 
come to opposite the sandy bay above the Pagoda. The river is only 
navigable for vessels three quarters of a mile above the Pagoda. 
There is a sand bank half a mile to the northeast of the Pagoda, and 
three fourths of a cable from the shore. 

H. M. S. " E.speigle" struck on a rock, lying N. 58° E. J mile 
from the NE. extreme of the island at the S. end of the Gorge, hav- 
ing IJ fathoms at low water; the Losing Pagoda bears S. 48'' W., 
and the N. end of Pagoda South island S. 74° W. ; W. by S. from 
it, half a cable, is another rock with 2 fathoms on it. 


Pescadore Is. occupiefL by the Dutch. Productions. Present Population, 

Aectfon 6. 

By Capt. Richard CoHinson, C. B., R. A*. 

This group of islands was once deemed of great importance in conducting 
the trade with China, and a forcible settlement was made on them by the 
Dutch in 1623, after their unsuccessful attack on Macao in 1622. The 
authorities of the opposite coast of Fuhkien, at Amoy and Fuhchau, unsuc- 
cessfully endeavored to drive out the new-comers ; but finding this means 
futile, they urged them to leave it for the richer acquisition of Formosa. 
This was at first declined, but after a series of alternate negotiations and 
ruptures, hostile attacks and specious treaties, between the parties, very 
characteristic of those times, and the landing of 4000 Chinese troops to garrison 
a fortress on the largest island of the group, and thus prevent all trade, the 
Dutch agreed to move over to Formosa, where they built Fort Zealandia. 
Their conduct had been so harsh towards the natives of the Pescadores, and 
such prisoners as they had taken, while holding possession of them, that the 
people on the main declined to trade much with them. 

The Pescadore Group now forms one of the six districts which constitute 

the department of Taiwan fu, ^^ ^p tM^, or Formosa, and is called by 

the Chinese, in their statistical works, Panghii ting, oj >kH ^5 or the 

district of Panghii ; it is under the immediate government of a magistrate, a 
subordinate of the prefect, or chi-fii, of Formosa. He resides at Makung 
(Macon, as the place is called by foreigners), and has under his command a 
few hundred soldiers. It has been impossible to identify the Chinese names, 
found on the maps of the Ta Tsing Hwui Tien, with those on Captain Col- 
linson's new chart The Chinese have, in that work, given more than thirty 

islands, which they call seu, [Ijffl. but in this list they make no distinction be- 
tween the larger and the smaller islands, nor between the islands and mere 
rocks or shoals. The largest is called Panghii, ^ sm ; and from it the 

group seems to have derived its name. Captain CoUinson has added the 
following memoranda: — 

" Panghii is 48 miles in circumference, and Fisher's or West Island is 17. 
The want of trees, which the Chinese officers accounted for by the violence 
of the wind, and the absence of sheltered valleys, give the islands a barren 
appearance. The Barbadoes millet, however, is extensively cultivated and 
yields a very good crop; and between the rows of the millet the ground-nut 
is planted. In some spots, sheltered by walls, the sweet potato is raised 
and a few vegetables ; but for the latter and for fruits the inhabitants depend 
principally upon Formosa, the intercourse with which, during the summer 
season, is very frequent. Pine-apples were bought at the rate of four and 
five for n mace, and vegetables were equally cheap. During the winter 
season, however, two months sometimes elapse without the arrival of a junk. 
Bullocks and poultry were abundant; the former are used both in the cultiva- 
tion of the soil and the collection of the crop, for which latter purpose a rude 
cart is used. The population of the two larger islands was stated to be 5000, 
and that of the whole group 8000; the magistrate stated that he had 2000 
troops, including militia, and 16 war-junks under his command." 



List of places in the Pescadores. Number of islands. 

Macon Town. 

A complete list of the Chinese names, as they are found in their statistical 
works is here given in the court dialect, with the literal meaning of the 
names. A few of these can be identified with those on the surveyor's chart. 

Hien Tsiiu, U^ P£ Dangerous Rocks 
TA Lieh, -^ ^ Great Splendid. 
3Uu Lieh, fY^ y^ Small Splendid 
Kih Pei, "^ ^ Happy Pearl. 

P«, M ^"""^ 

Kung Hoh, ^ ^ Vacant Shell 

Win Pei, ^^ ^ Crooked Pearl 
K6 Po, jtjji ^ Great Aunt 

NanPehSh^^ |^ g ]/)/ ^ s^^id ^^ 
Feh Shd, 1^ 'jfp White Sand 
Chung Tun, dl j^ Centre Dome 
SiiuTaing, ;J\ ^ Small Granary 
T4 Tsdng, -jr '^ Great Granary 
SiAu Mun TAu, ;|> p^ gj Passage 
Lin Pun, ^^ Blue Post. 
Ting Ktt Chi, }j£ ^ "^ Saw Teeth 
Pang Hfi, ^ )jffl Dashing Lake 

Si gg West. 

Tiu Kin, gj fjj Turban 
Sz- Kioh, fQ ^ Four Horna. 
TungPwan, f^ ^ Water Basin. 
Y^ng. P^ Sun. 

Hwd, ^2 Flowers. 

T-l, 7C Great. 

Hiang Lfi, "^ ^ Fragrant Furnace 
Chuen Pung)I)p j^ Ship's Sails. 
Ki Lung, ^ ^ Hen-coop. 
H6 Tsing, ^ ^ Tiger's Well. 
M4 Ngan, j^ ^^ Horse Saddle 
Tieh Chin, ^ ^ Iron Anvil. 
Pwdn Ping, ^ ^ Half Flats 
Pdh Chau, /\ Jp Eight Shades 
Tsing Tsz' $y f^ Warrior 
Tung Kih, y^ a Eastern Felicity. 
Si Kih, M ^ Western FeUcity. 

The Panghu or Pescadore Archipelago consists of twenty-one inha- 
bited islands, besides several rocks. They extend from latitude 23' 
13' to 23° 48' N., and from longitude 119° 16' to 119° 37' E. 
Their general appearance is flat, the summits of many of the islands 
being nearly level, and no part of the group 300 feet above the sea. 
The two largest islands are situated near the centre of the Archipe- 
lago, forming an extensive and excellent harbor between them. The 
western island of the two (Fisher's Island *) is five miles from north 
to south, and 3J miles from east to west. On its SW. extreme is a 
light-house, 225 feet above the sea. 

To enter the harbor pass half a mile to the southward of the 
Light-house point, and then steer E. ^ N. for Macon, which is situa- 
ted on the north side of an inlet on Panghii, and will be readily 

* In a collection of voyages in Dutch published in 1726, Fisher's I is called 
D'Visser's L 


Entrance to the Harbor. Dome L Flat I. Inner Harbor. 

recognised by a citadel and line of embrasures. The large junks, 
waiting for a favorable wind to take them to Formosa, lie to the 
SW. of the town in 7 and 8 fathoms water, with a black rock, which 
is midway between Fisher's Island and Macon, bearing about NE. 
by N. In the "Plover" we ran into the inner harbor to the westward 
of Macon, passing between it and Chimney Point, and anchored 
with the latter bearing N. 54" W., distant six cables, which is also 
the width of the channel here. The junks belonging to the place 
lie close to the town, in a creek which runs back to the northward 
of the citadel. There is water suflicient for a square rigged^vessel, 
but the harbor there is much confined by coral reefs. 

Dangers to be avoided on entering the harbor. The only danger 
on entering the harbor by this passage, is a shoal with only nine 
feet upon it at low water, which lays NW. J W. from the centre of 
Small Table island. Its SW. extreme, having 4 fathoms water, 
bears N. 50° W. 1.1 mile from the south end of Small Table, and 
its NE. limit bears N. 55° VV. from the north point of the same 
island. The western limit bears S. 65" W.. from Dome Island. 

Dome Island lays N. by E. J E., 1^ mile from Small Table Island, 
and has a reef which is just awash at high water five cables to the 
westward of it. It is 2 J cables from the SW. end of Panghu. 

Flat Island. To the northward of Dome Island is Flat Island, 
which is two cables to the westward of the Chimney Point, and is 
surrounded by reefs which extend a cable's length from high water 
mark. Shoal water extends" northerly f of a cable from Chimney 
Point, on which is the old Dutch fort. 

The inner harbor runs back three miles to the eastward of the 
Chimney Point : there are four coral patches in it, which are awash 
at low water spring tides, and may always be delected from the mast- 
head in time to avoid them. The westernmost bears from the Chim- 
ney Point S. 59° E., and from the Dome Hill (a remarkable elevation 
in the southern part of the harbor) N. 14° VV. On the same bear- 
ing from the Chimney fort, and 2^ cables further to the eastward, 
is another patch, on which the Dome Hill bears S. ; and with the 
Dome Hill S. 5' W., and the Dutch fort N. 48° W. is another reef: 
also with the fort bearing N. 49° W. and the Dome Hill S. 32° W. 
is a fourth shoal. They are all small in extent and steep to.» 

The Chimney or Dutch fort, above alluded to, is on the southwest 
point of Panghu, which in some places is barely a cable's length 
broad, and so low that a vessel in this part of the harbor might be 
fired into from one outside. 

Panghu extends 9.6 miles from north to south, and seven miles 
from E. to W. ; it is however separated into three portions by na^rrow 
channels, which have only two feet at low water, and are further 
blocked b'y stone wier?. The whole of the western face of the island 
is fronted by coral reefs. Water was obtained from wells ; the three 
which we used yielded three tons daily. Bullocks and fish were 
reasonable in price and plentiful. 


Pangku I. Black Rock. Pisher\'i I. Tortoise Rock. 

Skelter in the NE. monsoon in the Light-house Bays. Vessels in 
a northeast gale, seeking shelter will find smooth water between the 
Light-house and the SE. point of Fisher's Island, where there are 
two sandy bays, in the northern of which is a fort or line of embra- 
sures, and in the southern is a run of water except during the dry 

Black Rock.— The SE. point of Fisher's Island is a bold cliff 170 
feet above the sea, N. 54" E. li mile from which is the Black Rock, 
part of which is always uncovered. Vessels passing to the north- 
eastward of it must keep within four cables, as the coral patches 
extend in this direction from Panghu. 

fisher's Island. — The coast line of Fisher's Island trends north 
from the SE. point, forming several small bays, which are steep to 
within a cable of the beach, until you are 2^ miles north of the SE. 
point, when the reefs extend nearly three cables ; to avoid which 
the fall of the SE. point must not be brought to the southward of S. 
14" W. after Macon citadel opens to the northward of the Black Rock. 
The •' Plover " lay beyond this point in 3 fathoms with the Black 
rock bearing S. 19° E., and the highest part of Centre island E. ^ N. 
In the bay abreast of her was a good stream of fresh water. 

The harbor beyond this point is much choked with coral patches. 
There is a passage out to the northward between Fisher's Island 
and Panghu for vessels of sixteen feet draught ; to render it available, 
however, local knowledge is necessary. 

Coral reefs extending from Pangku. — To avoid the coral reefs 
which extend from the shore of Panghu, do not stand further over 
on that side than to bring the Black rocks S.SW. 

Shelter in the southerly monsoon to the northward of Fisher^s 
Island. — Shelter from southerly winds will be found in the bay form- 
ed by the northern ends of Fisher's Island and Panghu. The NE. 
point of the former is a table bluff, with reefs which cover at high 
water extending two cables northeasterly from it. 

Tortoise Rock. — This rock, which is 2.1 miles from the N W. point 
of Fisher's, is nine feet above high water and is steep to. There is 
a shoal patch of two fathoms bearing S. 10° W. 0.7 mile from it; 
when on it the NE. point of Fisher's Island bears N. 36° W. On 
the western face of Fisher's Island is a reef which breaks at low 
water seven cables from the shore, which bears N. 14° E. from the 

Northern part of the Archipelago. — The Archipelago, to the 
northward of Fisher's Island and Panghii, does not afford any in- 
ducement for a vessel to enter it. The external dangers therefore 
will only be noticed. 

Sand Island. N. 58° E. from the Tortoise Rock is Sand Island, 
which will be known by a hummock which rises on the low land in 
the centre of the island ; off its SW. end is a rock, and the reefs 
extend northwesterly three cables from it. To the east of it half a 



Low I. JVorlh L and Reef. Organ I. Round I. Great Table I. 

mile is a flat black island, and to the north of it a cluster of stones, 
some of which are always above water. 

Low Island. Low Island bears E.NE. from Sand Island. A long 
sandy point forms its southern extreme. From the north point the 
shoal water extends three miles. 

North Island. North Island, which is nearly connected by reefs 
with Low Island, is one and a half mile from the north point of it, 
and has a house for the shelter of fishermen on it. 

North Reef. The northern extremity of the reef uncovers at low 
water, and bears from N. 20' \V. to N. 9° VV. from North Island, 
distant 1.4 mile; from its west extreme which is sleep to (for the lead 
gives no warning). Sand Island bears S. 20° W. ; also from the west 
point of Low Island rocks extend towards the north reef. Sand Is- 
land must not be brought to bear to the westward of S. by W., until 
the west point of Low I. bears to the eastward of E. by S. There 
is a shoal patch N. 19" VV. from Sand Island, and west from North 
Island, on which however we did not find less five than fathoms. 
Shelter from southerly winds will be found to the northward of these 
reefs and Low Island. 

North, ast Sand Island. From the northeast end of Low Island, 
Northeast Sand Island bears SE. by S. five miles. It is a small islet 
with a sand patch off its south cliff, and is surrounded with rocks, 
being nearly connected with the two islands to the south of it, the 
southern of which has a large village on it. 

Organ Island. S. 16° E., three miles from Northeast Sand Island, 
is Organ Island ; there is a reefJjearing N. >)7° E. one mile from it; 
when upon it Northeast Sand Island bears N. 34' W. 

Ragged Island. Ragged Island bears SE. by E. 1.2 mile from 
Organ Island. The whole of the east coast of Panghu opposite to 
the.>^e five islands is shoal. 

Round Island and Triple Island. The eastern extremity of Pang- 
hii is a low shelving point; li mile from which is Round Island 
bearing from Ragged Island S. 20" E. 3.6 miles; and S. 6° E., 1.3 
mile from Ragged I. is Triple Island. N.|59' W. from Triple, and 
S. 45° W. frpm Round, is a reef which covers at half tide ; and be- 
tween Round and Organ Islands are several over-falls. The SE. 
point of Panghu bears S. 52° W. from Triple I. Between the two 
are two bays with fishing villages, either of which would aftbrd toler-. 
able shelter in the northerly monsoon. 

Great Table Island. It is aptly named, the summit being a dead 
flat 200 feet above the sea ; not far from the SW. 6nd is a sudden 
fall nearly to the level of the sea, giving it at a short distance the 
appearance of two islands; it is not quite two miles in an E. by N. 
and VV. by S. direction, and is seldom three cables in width. To- 
wards the NE. end was a good run of water in the month of June. 
The two fathom line extends two cables from its eastern extreme. 

Small Table Island. Small Table I. lays a mile to the NE. of it; 
between the two there is froai 12 to 19 fathoms water, and the dis- 

COM. (iL'. 10 


WeaTJ. High I. South I. Reef I. East J. Rover Group. 

tancc from Small Table to the south point of Panghi'i is 2.6 miles, 
with from 2 to 32 fathoms water. Directions for avoiding the shoal 
off Small Table Island have already been given. 

West Island. From Great Table Island, West Island bears S. 66' 
W. 10.5 miles ; and from the light-house on the south end of Fisher's 
Island S. 40° VV. 12 miles. It is two miles in circumference, and 
uneven in appearance. 

High Island. South of West Island, 4i miles, is High Island, 
which is dome shaped, 300 feet high, and § of a inije in circum- 
ference. To the eastward of it one mile is a low flat island ; be- 
tween the two are several rocks, one of which rises to the height of 
60 feet, with a remarkable gap in it; and S. 51° E. 1.7 mile from the 
summit of High Island is a rock nearly level with the water's edge. 

South Island. South Island is two miles from E. to W., and J 
from N. to S. ; the depth of water in its vicinity is 15 and 16 fathoms. 
On its SW. side is a reef of rocks extending six cables from the 
shore, within which is a small harbor for boats. On its eastern face 
are bold cliffs. The western extreme is a long shelving point. The 
highest part of the island is 260 feet above the sea. F'rora it High 
Island bears NW. h N. nine miles ; Reef Island NE. by E. J E., six 
miles; East Island, E. by N., twelve miles. 

Reef Islands. Reef Islands are three in number, one of which is 
a remarkable pyramid. The other two are rather more than a mile 
each in circumference, and are connected at low water by a stony 
ledge. To the southward of them the reefs extend half a mile. 
South from the east end of the eastern island of the two is a pyramidal 
rock 80 feet above the sea. There is also a low flat rock nearly 
level with thre water's edge. S. 33° W., 1 mile from the same place, 
and S. 45° E. from the east end, is a small peaked rock with a reef 
to the southward of it. 

East Island. East Island lays east of Reef Islands, 8.2 miles. 
Between the two, and distant from the latter 5.2 miles, is a smaller 
island 1.6 mile in circumference, with a reef extending easterly, not 
quite a mile from its north point. East Island is 2.4 miles in circum- 
ference, and has a small islet five cables from its western shore. 

Nine-foot Reef The Nine-foot Reef bears N. 19° E. from the 
east end of East I. ; when on it the Dome hill on Panght'i bears N. 
73° W. 10.7 miles ; and Triple Island N. 29° W.|4.1 miles. The lead 
gives no warning, but if there is^any tide the ripple will show it. 

Rover Group. The Rover Group is composed of two larger i.slands 
and several rocks. The western of the two is two miles from N. to 
S. and one from E. to W. The summit is near the eastern shore, 
and rises like a dome with a large pile upon it. SW. from it 
2.6 miles is the end of a reef, which extends westerly from the south 
point of the island. Its extreme shows at all times of tide. There 
is also a rock under the highest part of the island, bearing S. 70' W. 
from it, two cables from the shore. The NW. point of the island 
is not steep to, and off the NE. point"is a rock which will always 
show. There is a channel between it and the point. 



Passage between East and West Is. 


Astronomical Positions. 

The distance between the E. and W. Islands is barely a cable 
wide, the former is a mile from N. to S., and 1.4 mile from E. to W. 
On its NW. face are two islets; in the bay to the southward of the 
southern a small vessel might take shelter in a northerly wind, tak- 
ing the precaution not to stand too far in, as there is only 6 feet, 2 
cables from the beach. On the v/est end of the island, which is a 
cliff, are three embrasures. Having passed between th6 two islands, 
in doing which the western island should be kept on board, a small 
rock in the centre of the channel to the southward will be seen. Pass 
to the eastward of it ; but the channel is narrow, and the only excuse 
for a stranger using it would be his being caught at anchor to the 
northward of the two islands in a breeze from the northward, and 
unable to fetch clear either to the eastward or westward. 

The west point of the east island is remarkable from an isolated 
cliff 100 feet high, which forms the most striking feature in the 
group ; seven cables to the westward of which is a ledge of rocks, 
part of which is always above water. The islands are sufficiently 
large to afford shelter in either monsoon.- The general depth of 
water on the southern shore is 7 and 8 fathoms, and on the northern 
13 and 14. From the highest part of the Rover Group, the Light- 
house bears N. by W. 10| miles. The Reef Islands bear S. 8" E., 
3.3 miles from the same place. The general depth of water on the 
western side of the Archipelago is 30 and 35 fathoms; ihere are 
however some places in which there is as much as 60. To the east- 
ward of the Group the depth is 40 fathoms, and the current is strong. 
The tides are much affected by the prevailing winds ; so much go 
that during the month of August we sometimes experienced a tide 
of four knots per hour on the flood, running to the northward, whilst 
with the ebb the current slackened for two and three hours, but 
seldom ran with any velocity from the northward. On the whole a 
person navigating in this neighborhood may safely allow, that the 
effect of the current and tide together will set him, according to the 
prevailing monsoon, seventeen miles in one tide. 

Astronomical Positions of places in the Pescadores. 



Observatory . 

Dome Hill... 


South Island 

High island 

Kast Island 

West Island 

Nine-foot Reef... 
Triple Island .... 
NE. Sand Island 
Tortoise Rock... 

North Reef 

North Island 

Second point on north 

side of inner harbor. 


Centre . 

Highest Part. 
South Point. . 
Highest Part. 

Highest Part. 

Highest Part. 

23° 32.9 N. 














119" 30.2 E. 















Port Cock-si-con. Sand-banks near it. .4/)e'.« Hill. Dutch Fort. 

JSertfon 7. 

By Lieut.- Com. John Richards, R. A*. 

Those remarks are extracted from the China Mail, No. 530, where they 
were inserted by request of Capt Richards. He entered the port of Cock-si- 
con, Feb. 25th, 1855, and found no hindrance to the prosecution of his survey 
of this part of the coast from the Chinese authorities. Tliere were 16 large 
jtmks at anchor in the port on his arrival. 

All this part of Formosa is fronted by sand-banks elevated only 
fivo or three feet above hiph water; they run in lines generally 
parallel to the coast from two cables to half-a-niile broad, and are 
pierced at every mile or so by narrow channels, depths varying from 
seven feet and under. There is no vegetation in sight of the western 
sand-bar ; the mainland of Formosa can only be seen in very clear 
weather from it, and the whole intermediate space seems to be an 
intricate mass of sand and mud banks and shallows, with occasional 
patches of sedge. These sand-banks are occupied by a few poor 
fishermen, whose miserable huts and bamboo rafts are the only 
relieving features of the dreary scene. 

Port Cock-si-con can only be distinguished by a stranger by three 
larger clumps of huts than can be found in any of the outer sand- 
banks, and by the number of large junks generally at anchor inside. 

Ape's Hill to the southward, and the South Pescadore Island to 
the westward, will be found useful marks to run in for the place. 
Cock-si-con bears N. 21° VV. 30 miles from Ape's Hill, and E. by 
S. f kS., 26 miles from the South Pescadore. The old Dutch 
Fort of Tay\>^tn is just in sight from the anchorage, from which it 
bears S. 42' E., 7h miles. I made the south point of the entrance 
to the port to be"in latitude 23° 5' 52" N., longitude 120° 05' E. 
Var. 0.33J' W. ; high water full and and change 1 Ih. 30//?., rise of 
tide at springs about 3 feet, but very irregular. 

This port is the outlet of several small shallow streims, which 
here unite and form a channel through the mass of sand-banks 
fronting the coast. This channel or port runs NE. and SW., arid, 
taking the three-fathom line as its boundary inside, is ^ of a mile 
long, and barely two cables broad, with 4^ fathoms in the middle. 
It is therefore necessary to moor NW. and SE. The bar has 12 
feet at L. W. springs; the deepest part is generally marked by the 
natives with bamboos, but as the channel is both wide and straight, 
and the bottom remarkably even, it is by no means difficult of access 
, for vessels of 12 or 13 feet at high water. The " Saracen " sailed in 
with a draught of 13 feet 2 inches, but then the sea was remarkably 
smooth; and I think that generally vessels drawing over 13 feet 


Town of Tuywnn. Low Coast. Form of Ape's Hill. Fishermen. 

should not attempt to enter, particularly with any swell on. The 
tide from the Bar inside sets fairly through the channel, its greatest 
strength about a knot ; outside the Bar the flood sets to the north- 
ward along the coast, the ebb to the southward ; its strength varies 
in different positions, running with much greater velocity off the 
west sand-bar, on the edge of deep water than in the shoal water 
bight ofFTaywan, where it is occasionally variable in strength and 

Fresh water and stock are procured from the town of Taywan ; 
and if a vessel should only require these articles, she will do better 
to anchor at once off the town, about f of a mile from the shore, 
where, in 5^ fathoms, with the old Dutch Fort bearing NE., she 
will find capital anchorage and good shelter from December to 
March. During the rest of the year the chances of southwest winds 
would render this position unsafe, and vessels should of course anchor 
further out. 

At the distance of 1^ mile NW. of the old Dutch Fort Zealandia, 
there is a large clump of trees on the outer -sand-bar. The ruins of 
the old Dutch Fort are about § of a mile inside the sand. It is 
about 60 feet above the sea level, and the only conspicuous landmark 
in this neighborhood; it can be seen 8 or 9 miles from a ship's 
deck. The principal town of the island of Formosa is two miles 
SE. from the Dutch Fort, and large junks trading to the place in 
the NE. monsoon, generally anchor off the Fort, and send their 
cargoes by this route to the city. 

Here the main island of Formosa approaches within a mile of the 
sand-bars fronting the coast, and although it is generally marshy 
and fiat, it is cultivated with rice, &.c. The sand-bars from hence 
to the southward are occasionally clothed with bushes and grass, 
and are densely populated by fishermen, who appear to be well fed 
and clothed, and a happy and contented people. These fishermen 
pursue their avocation generally in divisions under the direction of 
particular chiefs, and their rafts, hauled up on the beach, placed in 
tiers on their sides, form a feature in the appearance of the coast. 
Wherever we landed we were treated with the greatest civility and 
deference, and our surveying marks, although sometimes made of 
an article most tempting to them, (white calico,) were never inter- 
fered with. 

There is no remarkable feature in the coast until within 8 miles 
of Ape's Hill, where commence some low mud cliffs; and there is 
also a small piece of table land about a mile inland. The coast be- 
tween the old Dutch Fort at Taywan and Ape's Hill is nearly a 
straight line of beach, pierced by four small streams navigable only 
for boats. Ape's Hill, called by the natives Ta-kow, bears S. 14° 
E., 22^ miles from the Dutch Fort. It appears like a truncated 
cone, on a north and south bearing, and is IIIO feet high, sloping 
towards the land side, appearing at a distance like an island. Its 
apex I made in latitude 22'' 38' 3" N., long. 120° 16' 30" E. NE. 


Whale Back Hill. Saracen's Head. Tides. Provisions. 

of Ape's Hill, 4h miles, is another remarkable hill, which, from its 
resemblance to a hu^e whale sleeping on the water, I named Whale 
Back; tiien N.NC 12 miles, there is a small triangular-shaped hill, 
and a large detached piece of table land resembling a Quoin, on a 
north and south bearing. These are the only landmarks on this 
part of the coast (which is all very low), and of these Ape's IliH is 
the most useful, as it is frequently seen distinctly when all the oth- 
ers are shrouded in mist. From its summit to the southward, it 
descends in a gradual slope, and terminates in a huge nearly level 
block of a mole-like appearance, which, jutting to seaward for about 
300 yards, forms a sheltered anchorage for small vessels in the NK. 
monsoon. This mole is separated from Ape's Hill by a deep chasm 
of 50 fathoms wide, and within this is the small port of Ta-kow-con. 

The SW. part of the mole (a steep cliff) I named Saracen's Head. 
It bears S.SE. 34 miles from West Point, and 32 miles from Gull 
Point on the same line of bearing. It is in latitude 22° 36 15" N., 
long. 120° 16' 41" E. Variation 0.34^ W. 

The inlet of Ta-kow-con has a narrow bar of 11 feet depth at low 
water, extending from the south side of the entrance, curving to 
the NW. and N.NW. in the direction of Ape's Point; but directly 
this is passed, the water deepens to 4, 6, and 9 fathoms just within 
the port. 

The entrance, though narrow, is steep to, and perfectly safe of 
approach, but unfortunately the anchorage within is so very confin- 
ed that there is no room for a vessel to swing ; it is therefore neces- 
sary to moor head and stern. The tides are also rather strong when 
near the springs, but this anchorage is susceptible of great improve- 
ment at small expense, and when Formosa is opened to commerce, 
this place must advance in importance. The coast included be- 
tween the points of our survey we found perfectly safe of approach. 

The subjoined information was obtained from fishermen and other 
natives of the coast by our interpreter : — 

"The best season for ships to trade on this coast is during the NE. monaoon 
from November to March. The weather is generally boisteroiis in June and 
Jnly, and tyfoons occur in those months. The sea stands at a higher level 
during the SW. monsoon than at the opposite period, and the Western sand 
bars are occasionally submerged. On tins account the fishermen remove 
their huts to the mainland in April until the northeast monsoon sets in again." 

This is important, if true, and would render the coast at that 
sea-son peculiarly dangerous. The following are the prices we paid 
for refreshments at Ta-kow-con : — 

Water very good (but cannot be readily obtained in large quantities, 
from the difficulty of transport) at 50 cents for 16 piculs 80 catties, or 1 ton. 
Bullocks, from 84 to 6, according to size. Eggs, from $1 for 300. 
Pigs, „ SI to 5 do. Rice, „ $1.25 to 1.75 per picul. 

Fowls, „ $1 to 1.75 per dozen. Sugar, ,, $1.25 to 2.50 do. 

Ducks, „ .$0.50 to 0,75 per dozen. 
Fish and Vegetables at a very low rate. 


Kew-shan Group. Patahecock J. Isliwda near it. Heshnn Is. 

Sectfon 8. 

The following directions for navijoraling the Chusan Archipelago were com- 
piled and published by Capt-R. Collinson, C. B., in 1841, from the surveys 
made by the ofHcersof If. B. M.'s ships connected with the Expedition to 
China. It connects with the survey in Sect. 3, ending at Cape Montague, 
(see page 63,) and its more minute directions almost supersedethose given in 
the last few paragrai)h8 of that section. 

The a£ jJ-i Kew shan (or Quesan islands) are eleven in number, 
besides several rocks. The largest is three miles long, and its 
greatest breadth 1^ mile; in some places, however, it is not more 
than a cable, or a cable and a half wide: the others are much small- 
er, varying from ^ to ^ of a mile in extent. They are thickly popu- 
lated, probably to the amount of 1500 inhabitants, who principally 
subsist on fish. They have goats, pigs, and fowls. The sweet po- 
tato is cultivated upon most of the islands, and forms during the 
winter their principal article of food. 

The geographical extent of the group is from lat. 29° 21'^ N., to 
29' 23' N., and from long. 122° 10' to 122° 16'.^ E. 

Patahecock or Pahts^zekioh. The south-easternmost island is call- 
ed Patahecock, (y\ t^ ^ Pah-tsze-kioh, or the 'letter Pah Point,' 
so named from its resemblance to the form of the character /\.^^ 
Its flat and table appearance will cause it to be easily recognized, 
when compared with the adjacent islands to the south, ^ \[\ Hi- 
shan or Hesan, which are rugged and uneven. Four small islets lie 
off its northeastern shore, and one off the southern. The summit is 
more than 450 feet above the level of the sea, and in lat. 29" 22' N., 
and long. 122° 13.'40 E. The northeastern islet of the group is a 
narrow cliff, an uninhabited islet. To the westward are four small 
islands, inhabited and cultivated; and north of them, three cables, 
is a flat precipitous rock ; its colored appearance renders it remark- 
able, being composed of red porphyritic hornstone. This face of the 
island may be approached without danger. 

The westernmost island is the second in size, and attains an 
elevation of 400 feet. The body of the large i.sland lies due south 
from it. Between the two is a mud bank, gradually shoaling to the 
shore of the large island. By keeping the western extreme of the 
west island to the eastward of N.NE, not less than 3 fathoms will 
be found, arrd good holding ground without much swell. The highest 
part of the large i.sland forms a sharp peak near the western e.xtreme, 
and is 490 feet high. The coast line of the island consists of high 
steep cliffs, with the exception of six small sandy bays. 


Holder ness Rock. Sunken Rock. Cape Montagtu. HnlJ'-lide Rock. 

South, and separated by a channel a cable and a half wide, there 
is another island, which is also \ng\\, with steep clifts. Off the 
western point is a half-tide rock, and a reef runs off from its south 

Holderness Rock. The Holderness Rock lies N. 88° W., one mile 
from the highest part of this' island. It has one fathom over it, and 
breaks occasionally. From it, the highest part of the western island 
bears N. 24" E. ; a small peaked islet to the southeast, S. 52° E., 
and Patahecock table, S. VS" E., the reef of rocks, lying off the south 
extreme of the nearest island, being in line with it. 

Sunken Rock. Another sunken rock, with only three quarters of 
a fathom on it, lies S. 20" W., three quarters of a mile from the 
summit of the island, south of the large Kew-shan, and N. 70° W. 
from Patahecock, the east extreme of the large Kew-shan, and N. 
70' W. from Patahecock, the east extreme of the large island being 
in line with the east extreme of the nearest island, bearing N. 50° E. 
The inhabitants were civil, and readily sold their pigs, potatoes, and 
goats. Fresh water probably could not be procured in any quanti- 
ty. During the expedition against Chusan in 1840, H. M. ship 
" Pylades " encountered three piratical junks here, one of which 
was taken and burnt. The inhabitants did not appear to participate 
at all in the crimes of these marauders, and e.xpressed themselves 
well pleased at their being driven away. 

Cape Montague. Several small islets lie off Cape Montague, (or 
no i^ ijj Szechaou shan), the depth of water close into them 
being 4.^ and 5 fathoms. The Cape is in latitude 29" 10' N., and 
longitude 122" 5' E. A passage exists between it and the main, 
which is used by the junks. Between it and Buffaloe's Nose many 
deep inlets occur, which render the extremity of the continent 

Half -Tide Rock. The Half-tide Rock lays S. 32° W. from Pata- 
hecock, 7.8 miles, being in a straight line for Cape Montague, and 
from the Bear (an island called -^ Q ILI T«i"uh shan by the Chi- 
nese, with a sharp peak at its eastern extreme), S. 42° E., 11 miles. 
it is uncovered two thirds of the tide. High tide and smooth water 
sometimes prevent its being seen. 

High Water. The time of high water in the neighborhood of the 
Kew-shan islands is 2A. 30m. before the moon's transit, and the rise 
and fall 14 feet. The change in the direction of the stream does 
not take place until 2 hours subsequent to the change in depth. The 
flood tide comes from the southward, and seldom exceeds 2 knots 
per hour. Tlie variation of the compass (1840) is 1° 57' westerly. 

Between the Kew-shan Group and the Bear, the depth of water 
varies from 3.^ to 6 fathoms, gradually shoaling towards the latter. 
Two small groups of islands lie between the Half-tide Rock and the 
Bear, lying 5 miles from the main. From the NE. extreme of the 
Kew-shan islands, Buffoloe's Nose bears N. 53' W., 16 miles, and 

(OAST NEAR Buffalo's nose. 81 

The fVMps. Corkers. Tinker. Buffaloes Mtse. The Plottghman. 

a small rock called the Mouse (nearly level with the water's edge at 
high water) N. 24' W., 6 miles. 

The Whelps. The Whelps form a group of four small islands, 
N. 70° W., 10 miles from the Kew shan. 

Starboard Jack. Starboard Jack is a low flat reef with two rocks 
off its eastern end, N. 47" W., 10 miles from the Kew shan. 

Corkers. Between Starboard Jack and the outer rock of the Cor-. 
kers, (a number of isolated reefs lying between the Whelps and 
Buffalo's Nose,) the distance is 3^ miles, with a depth of from 5 tq 
6 fathoms. The outer rock of the Corkers is occasionally covered, 
and bears S. 31° E. from the extreme of Buffalo's Nose. Two islets, 
a cable's length farther to the westward, are always; above water, 
and will give sufficient warning should the sea not break on the 
outer rocks. 

Tinker. N. 20° E., 1^ mile from the Starboard Jack, is the Tin- 
ker, a steep cliff rock, 80 feet above the water. This passage has 6^ 
fathoms' water, and will be found the more eligible of the two during 
the NE. monsoon, as vessels will be farther to windward, and have 
better anchorage under Luhwang than they would at Buffalo's Nose. 
A sunken rock lies S. 56° E., (nearly in line with the Mouse) from 
the Tinker, distant 2 cables. -^ ^^ . 

Buffalo's Nose. Buffalo's Nose {^ ^L [Ij New-pe shan) is 1^ 
mile from north to south, and three quarters from east to west. 
Its eastern shore is rocky, and off the western extreme lie« a small 
islet. The western shore has several deep indentations, oneof whic^ 
nearly separates the island into two parts. The harbor is formed 
between this island and the Ploughman, and is secure ; during the 
northeasterly monsoon, however, the wind blows directly through, 
and occasional violent squalls are experienced. 

Fresh provisions and water may be obtained here, but the supply 
of the latter is not always certain. On the main (two miles distant) 
are several villages, the inhabitants of which showed themselves 
hostile, and endeavored to intimidate us from landing. There are 
three peaks on the island, the central of which is the highest, being 
about 500 feet above the sea. Near the northern extreme, the island 
is perforated, whence its native name is supposed to be derived. 

Ploughman. The largest island of the Ploughman, which is si- 
tuated in latitude 29° 37' N., longitude 122° 0.'15 E., lies W.NW., 
nearly a mile from Buffalo's Nose, the depth of water varying from 
5 to 18 fathoms. It is an even flat-topped island, with a reef extend- 
ing from its northeastern extreme; another reef lies N. 34° W., 4 
cables from its NE. extreme. 'I'he other two islands are narroyv 
and small, and lie to the N W. of the large one. The junks usually 
pass inside the Ploughman and Buffalo's Nose, and to the west- 
ward of the Corkers. The passage cannot be recommended for 
square rigged vessels, as there are many reefs and the tides are very 


Jtfesan Sf Lanjetl Is. Lowang. Tree-a-top /. DuffieUPa Passage and Reef. 

Mcsan and Lnnjett. The islands of Mesan and Lanjett lie three 
quarters of a mile northeast of the Tinker. There are four large, 
and several smaller islets or rocks. The largest is not a mile in ex- 
tent, and about 400 feet high. Its barren summit forms one of the 
most remarkable features in the Buffalo's Nose passage. In the 
channel between it and the Tinker, there are 7 and 8 fathoms ; sunk- 
en rocks extend a short distance from both shores. 

Harbor. Between this group and Front Island, which lies 3 miles 
to the NE., is the entrance to a convenient harbor (in the northeast 
monsoon). A small castellated rock lies near the centre, and the 
depth of the water varies from 5 to 9 fathoms. 

Lowang. The southern face of Lowang or Luhwang has two deep 
indentations, with sandy bays, and a reef extends from the point 
opposite to Mesan and Lanjett, 3 cables. The reefs also extend from 
the northern extreme of the Mesan and Lanjett group 5 cables, nar- 
rowing the passage to less than a mile. F'rom the small castellated 
rock abovemcntioned, a N. 64" W. course will carry you to Tree- 
a-top, (a small i.sland without a tree on it, at the entrance of Cough's 
and Outfield's Passage,) and keep a mid-channel course between the 
reefs. The coast line of Lowang iminedi^ttely after the reef point, 
trends to the northward, forming a deep bay which extends to the 
entrance of Dufiield's Passage. 

South, 1 mile from the first island in the bay, is a mud bank with 
3J fatlmms; to clear which, you can keep the island on board, 
avoiding a rock half a cable frorti its extreme. 

From this island to Duffield's Reef, (which lies off the western 
entrance to Duffield's Passage, and consi.sts of three rocks, with a 
sunken rock between them and Lowang,) there are 5 to 9 fathoms, 
and good holding-ground. 

Buffalo's Nose through Duffield's Passage. From the anchorage 
at Buffalo's Nose, Tree-a-top Island bears N. 4° W., 5'^ miles: it is 
about 4 cables in circumference, and 180 feet high. There is a pile 
of stones on the summit, but no tree. 

Duffield's, or the passage between the islands of Lowang and 
Futoo-shan, is the nearest towards Ketow Point. 

When between Duffield's Reef and Tree-a-top, the water suddenly 
deepens from 5^ to 40 fathoms. The course through is N.NE., 3.7 
miles. It is 1.2 mile broad at the entrance, and 5 cables at the nar- 
rowest part, which is near the centre. On the Futoo-shan shore 
are several small islets, and off the fourth point on the Lowang side 
is a reef one cable from the shore. The Lowang shore otherwise is 
very steep, having 35 fathoms to within a cable of the mud. On the 
Futoo-shan side, among the islets, the water shoals to 4^ and 5 fa- 
thoms, where a ship may stop a tide if necessary. 

Between the Notches (two small islands in the centre of the pas- 
sage) and Futoo-shan, is a half-tide rock; unless it shows, vessels 
fhould not tack within the Notches &o as to fetch to the westward 
of them. 


Bird Rock. Cough's Sf RoherCs Passages. Kdow PL Junk passage. 

The Bird Rock lies off the north end of the passage, and has a 
stone pillar on it. It is one cable from the shore. The distance^ 
from hence to Round-about island (off Ketow Point) is 9 miles, N[." 
25' E. 

Gough's Passage. This passage (by far the best of any leading 
to Chusan) is formed by Futoo-shan on the east, and the Central 
Islands (four in number) on the west. In the passage, both shores 
are steep to ; but south of the southern islet of the central group is 
a shoal, of which the lead will give warning. The passage is 1.4 
mile through, and 5 cables wide. 

Robert's Passage. ' Robert's best Passage ' is formed by the 
Central Islands on the east, and the mud extending from Mei-shan 
on the west, which dries one mile from the solid ground. The boun- 
dary of the passage westerly, therefore, is not known, except at low 
water, the lead giving no warning. The depth of water varies from 
6 to 40 fathoms. The channel is 1.8 mile through, and 5 cables 

Ketow or Kitto w^ 3^, (on some Chinese maps written f^ S^Mj' 
The course, after you are through these two passages, for Ketow 
Point, will be N. 41° E., 9A miles. Anchorage will be found any- 
where along the Ketow shore, until one mile to the northward of 
Singlo-shan, a small islet near the Ketow shore, where the water 
deepens suddenly ; and as there is no anchorage beyond this, until 
you get to Elephant Island, ships are advised not to proceed, unless 
they have sufticient wind or tide to carry them in. 

Tides. In these passages, the first of the flood comes from the 
northward, and runs sometimes for three hours before it takes the 
same direction as the ocean tide. 

Ten-foot Junk Passage. Between Mei-shan and the Ketow shore 
there is a narrow passage 2.i cables wide. It has deep water, 5, 6, 
and 7 fathoms through, until you arrive at its southern extremity, 
where it shoals considerably. There may be more than 10 feet, as 
only one line of soundings was run across the bar.- There is how- 
ever no likelihood of its ever being used. Near the centre of the 
passage, on the Ketow side, there is a custom-house, and two canals 
which communicate with large villages in the neighborhood. 

Kwoh-keu so ^ j^ fifr Two miles from the northern entrance 
is tire waliod town of Kwoh-keu, a small military station; interrup- 
tion to our sounding operations in 1840 was experienced from this 

The several islands which form passages may be here briefly 

Lowang or Luhwang y^ ^^ is 9J miles long, and 6 miles across 
at the broadest part, which is the western extreme. Near the centre 
it is little more than two miles across, and very little elevated above 
the level of the sea. The southeast bodv of the island to the 
height of 86'» feet, being a conical bare hill. On the i.^thmus is an 

^4 sArtmo biKEf-noNs for tiif. coast op china. 

LouHing I. Fufoo-shan. Central Is. Mei-shan. Beak Head I, 

isolated peak. On the northwestern side of the island are five high 
peaks, the highest being 920 feet above mean tide level. 'IMie south- 
western coast has been already described ; that to the west, in the 
Duftield's Passage, has several small bays, with stone embankments 
stretching from point to point, by which means a considerable 
quantity of land has been gained from the sea. The points of these 
bays form nearly a straight line. Beyond the Bird Rock, tho coast- 
line takes a sudden turn to the northeast. Cape Lowang, the 
northern extreme of the island, is high and bold. The island is 26 
miles in circumference, very populous and well cultivated. 

Fuh-too-shan 'TO Hj^ [Jj. Fuh-too-shan is not quite three miles 
long and one broad ; the southern extreme forms a narrow point, 
connected, at low water, with St. Andrew's. The channel between 
the point and Tree-a-top is 3.^ cables wide, and has deep water. A 
spit runs off the northern extreme of Futoo-shan, to the northward 
of which are three small i.slands. 

Central Islands. The south-westernmost of the Central Islands 
is a small islet, connected by a reef and spit with the next, which 
is the largest of the group. This island is one quarter of a mile 
long, and is the resort of several fishermen, whose stakes and nets 
in 7 fathoms' water will be seen in the neighborhood. 

Mei-shan 7^ ijj (or Plum Island) appears formerly to have been 
eight islands, now, however, united by substantial stone walls, one 
of which is l^ mile in extent. The mud dries IJ mile from its 
southern extreme, and 2^ cables from the northern. Off the north- 
west side are two small islands, from the northernmost of which a 
shoal extends northerly, there being 3 fathoms at the distrnce of 4 
cables from the shore. By keeping the Central Islands open of the 
two islands mentioned above, until you have past them half a mile, 
the shoal will be avoided, and the Ketow shore may be approached 
with safety. -^ ^,r „« 

Ttaotichow mun |^ ^ \\ The passage next to Buffalo's 
Nose is called Teaou-chow mun by the Chinese. 'J'he entrance to 
it is N. 8° E., 18 miles from the northeast extreme of the Kewshan 
islands. ^^ ^_ . 

The island called Beak Head (or ^] ^E \l\ Tunglo-shan) forms 
its southwest extreme, off the east end of which lie three small islets; 
and two hummocks near the end of the island render it sufficiently 
remarkable. Between the Beak Head and F'ront Islands are three 
islets and a rock, which, with Lowang, form Harbor 

There is a narrow passage, having 3^ fathoms, between Lowang 
and the Beak Head, but there would be no object in using it, while 
there are other passages so superior. 

Beak Head is 5 miles long, and very narrow 1 J mile from the east 
extreme. Two reefs lie close in shore upon its northeastern side. 
The distance across to Vernon Island, or Heake, is 2.8 miles, with 
'18 and 20 fathoms. Near the extreme of Beak Head the rhan- 


SoiUheasLpassa^e. Vernon I., or Hiakt sfuin. Taou-hioa shan. 

liel narrows to 5 cables, and there is no bottom with 34 fathoms. 
A reef of rocks, the northernmost of which is always above water, 
bounds the channel on the south side; and an island, with a conical 
hill and two small islets on its south side, bounds it on the northern ; 
this island is situated midway between Vernon and Beak Head; be- 
tween it and the former are two small islets and a reef, which render 
the channel on that side more intricate. 

Having steered N. 59° W., 8^ miles from the entrance, you will 
pass another island, to the northwest of which good anchorage will 
be found in 9 to 10 fathoms. The same course, and 4 miles farther, 
will carry you clear of the passage. On the north side of the chan- 
nel are four small islets, and between them and Taou-hwa shan is 
an archipelago of reefs and islands. There is a passage through 
into the Heake mun, but it is awkward for sailing vessels. On the 
Lovvang side is a reef, and an islet with a small pinnacle on it. The 
reef bears S. 34° E. from Cape Lowang, and is generally uncovered. 
The mud dries 7 cables off Lowang in the bight. Vessels beating 
through, therefore, should not stand into this shore, so as to bring 
Cape Lovvang to the northward of the bearing given above to avoid 
the reef On this side of Lowang, it will be found difficult to land, 
except at high water. AH H Jr 09 • 

The Southeast Passage, or Heake mun S^ Dl^ \\ , lies five miles 
further to the northward. It is formed by Vernon Island on the south, 
and Taou-hwa shan on the north. The east extreme of the former 
island is rugged, with large granite boulders. There is a cove at this 
end of the island, which runs in three fourths of a mile, and would 
afford good shelter for boats. jp^ . , . 

Vernon Island (Heake shan $p( |I|x |^| or Crab-cape Island) is 
five miles long. On the northwest side of the island, there is a long 
bay, were vessels may anchor in 4 to 5 fathoms, and procure water 
from the island of Taou-hwa shan opposite. There are several cas- 
cades, and the water might be obtained without removing the casks 
from the boats. The passage here is IJ mile wide. Six miles from 
the entrance it narrows to 3^ cables. 'I'wo small islands and some 
rocks on the Taouhwa shan side, and an island with a .sharp peak 
(half a cable off the northern extreme of which is a rock), form the 
boundaries. 4JP -«- I 

Taou-htoa shan 70b 'fo |-U shore is bold and precipitous. The 
peak rises to the height of 1680 feet. Near the western end the 
island becomes very low, rising however again towards the extreme, 
where it is surmounted by a peculiar crag, which will be recognized 
nearly throughout all the southea.stern part of the Archipelago. 

The depth of water in the channel is 60 fathoms in some parts, 
and the tide is very strong. It will, however, be found a convenient 
passage out to sea from Chusan during the northeast monsoon : the 
distance from Elephant Island to the open sea, by this passage, being 
only 17 miles. It should not however be attempted in light winds. 


Sctrah GdlUif Passage. OsuHunong I. T\vo rockif patches. Channel northward. 

as vessels arc liable to be becalmed, and to experience flaws under 
the high land of Taou-hwa shan. The passage is 8 miles through, 
and frem its northeast entrance to Round-about Island, the distance 
is 5 miles, N. 41" W. 

Sarah Galley Passage. This passage is by no means so eligible 
as those already mentioned. 'J'he entrance is situated N. 12" E., 21 
miles from the Kewshan group, near which will be seen the Jansen 
Rock, a steep cliff islet, with a reef li cable from the east extreme. 
Another rock, uncovered at half tide, bears from the Jansen S. 25° 
W., 1.3 mile. From it the highest part of Oswamong island bears 
N. 75' W., 1.8 mile, and the highest part of Taouhwa shan S. 5° E. 
The coast line of Oswamong is high cliffs, and off the southeastern 
extreme is a ledge of rocks. t« » i 

Oswamong is called by the Chinese t^ '^^ Woo-sha, or Usha, 
that is, ' Black sand.' 

Two patches of rock. South of the island of Oswamong, 5 cables, 
are two patches of rock, lying NW. J W., and SE. ^ E. from each 
other, and not quite 2 cables apart. From the southeastern patch, 
the Jansen bears N. 52° E. ; and a flat peaked island between them 
and Taouhwa shan, S. 16° E. Very high tides may cover them, but 
they are generally above water. The distance between them, and 
some rocks extending from the north extreme of the flat peaked 
island, is 7 cables. There is no bottom with 31 fathoms in the vici- 
nity of the rocks, after passing which the course is west 2^ miles, 
leaving two small islets with a reef between them to the southward. 
The channel here is 7 cables broad, between Tangfow on the south, 
and an island (with a hut on its summit, and a reef of rocks off the 
southeast extreme,) to the northward. From hence the course is S. 
50° W., 1.7 mile. The channel is now l^ mile broad, between a 
small island with two hummocks (nearly divided at the centre), and 
an island to the westward with a building on its summit something 
similar to a Druidical temple ; between this island and Chookia- 
tsien, the mud dries nearly all the way, leaving only a small passage 
for boats. In standing over to the Chookia-tsien shore, ve.ssels should 
not bring a small flat islet (with two rocks off its southeast extreme) 
to bear to the southward of S. 15° W., as the depth of water de- 
creases very suddenly. Off the eastern end of the island with the 
Druidical temple on it, the small flat island abovementioned, which 
is at the west extreme of the Sarah Galley Passage, bears S. 21 ° VV., 
2.6 miles. Before reaching the flat island, the southeast extreme of 
Chusan will be seen. There is a building constructed of slabs of 
stone (similar to the one already mentioned on the i.sland), on the 
hills over the point, and a small tower or a fort near the water's edge. 
From the flat island to Round-about Island the distance is 7.7 miles, 
W. 7° S. 

. Between Chookia-tsien and Oswamong, there is another navigable 
pas.sagp, two cables wide, which may be used with a fair wind, by 



Chookia-tsien I. Tower-hill Passage. . Anchorage near Bell I. 

which means the reefs in the entrance of the Sarah Galley Passage 
will be avoided. Off the north end of Oswamong is a small island. 
The passage Ijetween Tangfow and Taouhwa shan is very narrow 
in one part. ^^ ^_^ .^ 

Chookia-tsien ^^ ^C ^^ or Choo's Peak, is 6 miles from east to 
west. The west coast has many deep indentations, some of which 
are inclosed from the sea by stone walls. On the eastern extreme 
are 4 remarkably high peaks ; and near the centre of the island is a 
smooth cone-topped one, which is 1164 feet above the level of the 
sea, and forms one of the most remarkable features in this part of 
the Archipelago. On the west face of the island are several sandy 
bays, and the hills in this neighborhood are covered with large iso- 
lated masses of granite. Off its northeast extreme is a group, con- 
sisting of five islands; and to the eastward are three small islets, the 
outermost of which is 8^ miles distant. A half-tide rock bears N. 
14^ E., 7 miles from the cone-topped hill. From the summit of 
Pooto it bears S. 78° E., and from the south-easternmost island of 
the northeast group, S. 49° W. 

Ting-hae ^^ yS. The harbor of Tinghae is difficult of ingress 
and egress, owing to the strong tides and narrow passage. The best 
entrance is that round Tower-hill, and between Bell and Tea Islands, 
in which no hidden danger has been found. 

Tower-hill Passage. The course for vessels intending to enter 
by this passage, will be W. by N., 8 miles from Ketow Point. The 
depth of water in. this part of the passage varies from 35 to 110 fa- 
thoms, and no anchoring ground is to be found unless close to the 
shore. Vessels, therefore, not having sufficient tide to carry them 
round Tower-hill, or wind enough to stem the current, should re- 
main at anchor to the eastward of Round-about Island, or in the 
neighborhood of Singlo-shan. If po.ssiblc the time of starting should 
be so arranged as to obtain the first of the ebb after rounding Tower- 
hill. After having rounded Tower-hill, Tea Island may be steered 
for. The depth of water between Tower-hill and Bell Island varies 
from 30 to 40 fathoms. On the northwest side of Tower-hill, a 
bank extends a cable's length from the shore, with 3 to 4 fathoms 
on it. Spring tides set at the rate of 3 to 3.i knots ; and vessels, in 
light winds, should be careful that they are not set into the archipe- 
lago between Tea and Elephant Islands, where the channels are 
narrow, and the water deep with foul ground. 

Anchorage between Bell and Tea Islands. Between Bell and Tea 
Islands good anchorage will be found in 10 to 12 fathoms. Ships 
intending to remain here should not open the channel between Bell 
Island and Chusan, as the tides are stronger and the ground loose. 
Proceeding from thence to the inner harbor of Tinghae, another 
anchorage will be found on the Chusan shore. A sunken rock, with 
2 A fathoms upon it at low water, lies due south of a small hillock in 
the valley, and 2^ cables from the shore. 


Middle GromuL South Passage. EUphantl. J^'orth Rock^ 

Anchorage on Chiisan shore. Opposite to a canal entrance is a 
mud bank, with 3 fathoms in the shoalest part, and deep water be- 
tween it and the shore. The tides are irregular at this anchorage, 
but it is convenient for watering. In light winds, vessels should 
avoid the strength of the ebb, when passing through the channel be- 
tween Tea and Guard-house Island, which otherwise is liable to set 
them through the Straight, or Southern, Passage. A ledge of rocks 
extends off the northeast extreme of Tea Island, I cable. It is steep 
to, and between the islands 40 fathoms will be found. 

Middle Ground. After passing Guard-hotise Island, it is necessary 
to steer for Macclesfield Island, in order to avoid the Middle Ground, 
which has two feet in its shoalest part. The 3 fathoms' line extends 
within 25^ cables of the latter island, and Tower-hill on with the 
slope upon the south rise of Tea Island will keep you in 4 fathoms, 
or not to open the fort on Trumball Island with the north end of 

The Middle Ground is situated at the western extreme of the 
harbor. On all but the western edge, the water shoals suddenly. 
The passage between it and Chusan is i^ cable wide, with 12 to 14 
fathoms. The channel is I cable broad between Guard-house Island 
and it. 

South Passage. The South, or Straight, Passage lies between 
Deer and Elephant Islands. Two sunken rocks lie near the centre 
of the channel, which narrow it to i^ cable. It should never be at- 
tempted without a commanding breeze. The tides in the 'vicinity 
of the sunken rocks flow from three channels, forrning eddies which 
render a ship, in light winds, totally unmanageable. Intending to 
enter this passage, the course from Round-about Island is NW. by 
N., 4J miles. 

Elephant Island is remarkable for a curious crag near the summit, 
and cannot be mistaken. The tides or wind not suiting to go into 
the harbor, anchorage will be found abreast of it in 16 to 18 fathoms' 
water ; the bottom is gravel, and not good holding-ground. Beyond 
Round Island, which is a small islet lying to the northeast of Ele- 
phant Island, the water deepens from 28 to 34 fathoms, until you 
arrive at the Southern Rock, which has IJ fathom on it at low water. 
The marks for it are the Cap Rock on with the saddle of Kintang, 
N. 75° W., and the joss-house on the hill near the suburbs showing 
between Trumball and Sarah Galley Islands; it lies S. 63" E., 2 
cables from the Black Rock, and N. 75' E., If cable from the ledge 
extending off the island to the southward of Tea Island. 

The North Rock lies If cable due north of it. The marks for 
which are a bushy tree on the eastern slope of Sarah Galley Island 
in line with the square beacon on the east hill ; and the Black Rock's 
north extreme on with the south part of the Cap ; it bears from the 
former N. 63° E., 2^ cables; it has 9 feet at low water. This patch 
is about 30 feet by 20 ; the water deepens suddenly on all sides of it. 



Imur Harbor. Passages between Deer I. and Sarah Galley and Trumhall Is. 

To avoid these dangers, the best direction is to keep the western 
shore on board, taking care to avoid the ledge of rocks which ex- 
tends three quarters of a cable from the island south of the Cap and 
Black Rock ; the latter is steep to. At this part of the channel the 
bottom is rocky, and the depth very irregular. Having passed Sarah 
Galley Island, steer for Macclesfield, which may be rounded close, to 
avoid the Middle Ground, the marks for which have been already 
given in the directions for Tower-hill Passage. 

Inner Harbor. The Inner Harbor of Tinghae is formed by the 
coast of Chusan on the north, Trumball and Macclesfield islands on 
the south, Grave Island and the Beacon Rock on the east, Guard- 
house and Tea islands to the west. It is 3.J cables wide and 6 cables 
long, the depth of water varies from 4 to 8 fathoms ; at the eastern 
extreme is a patch of rocks, with two fathoms, lying S. 85^ W.. one 
cable from the Beacon Rock, which may be avoided by keeping the 
Chusan shore on board until Sarah Galley is open of Trumball. 

Deer Island Passage. The Inner Harbor also may be entered 
— 6om the eastward by passing between Deer and Sarah Galley is- 
lands, which are H cable apart. The Beacon Rock, to the northeast 
of Sarah Galley, may be passed close on either side. The Chusan 
shore may then be steered for, keeping 1 cable to the eastward of 
Grave Island, and when the harbor Beacon Rock opens with Grave 
Island, it may be steered for ; pass between it and Chusan, and keep 
the Chusan shore on board until Sarah Galley Island is shut in with 
'J'rumball. This passage is superior to the South or Straight Pas- 
sage, for although it is only lA cable wide in some parts, the limits 
are always marked, except off the northeast end of Deer Island, from 
whence a spit extends I cable northerly. It is also the only passage 
into the harbor, in which the flood tide is in your favor all the way. 

Anchorage bcttccen Trumhall and Sarah Galley. There is good 
anchoring ground between Sarah Galley and Trumball Islands, in 
8 to 10 fathoms. A spit extends from the southeast extreme of the 
latter, the 3 fathoms' line being 3 cables from the shore. By keep- 
ing the south end of Macclesfield open of the summit of Tea Island, 
it will be avoided. »,_ _ 

Suburbs. The suburbs, called Taou-tow f^ 5.^. contain manv 
houses, forming a long street running parallel to the beach. To the 
east, and close to the water's edge, is a small hill, with a temple or 
joss-house on it (the mark for the South Rock), 1-^2 feet high. 

The level ground intersected by canals extends \^ mile to the 
eastward, where it is terminated by a ridge of hills (542 feet high 
extending down to the beach, upon which are 3 beacons, two round 
and one square ; the latter is 595 feet high, and also one of the marks 
for the North Rock. Westerly from the suburbs, the level ground 
extends 1.1 mile, a ridge of hills 450 feet high runs down to the 
coast, forming two points. There are also three beacons on this 
ridge, the central one is 323.7 feet above mean tide level. 

COM. UL. 12 



7\des. yarialion of Compass. Sttburhs and City of Ting-hat. Ckusan I. 

The latitude of the eastern of these points (the one opposite 
<juard-house Island) was ascertained to be 30° 0/20 N., and tiie 
longitude 122' 5.' 1 8 E. 

The variation of the compass in 1840, was 2° 33' E., and high 
water, on fall and change days, 1 hour before the moon's transit. 

Rise and fall of the tide, 12 feet and 6 inches. Scarcely any 
change takes place in the depth of the water three quarters of an 
hour previous and subsequent to high water. At low water, the 
change in the depth occurred more rapidly. Ordinary tides rise and 
fall from 5 to 7 feet. 

In all the channels, generally speaking, the change in the direc- 
tion of the stream does not alter until \h. 40ffi. after the change has 
taken place in the depth. In the Inner Harbor, and along the coast 
of Chusan, the flood comes from the eastward ; at the outer anchor- 
age off the Elephant, from the southeast ; between Bell and Tea 
Islands, ships flood-rode tend to "the northward. The strength of 
the tide varies from 2 to 3| knots. Strong breezes from the north- 
ward materially affect the rise and fall, the range in two consecutive 
days being sometimes 2i feet. . 

' X^husnn. The island Chusan (or Chow-shan 7^ [Jj so called from 
' its supposed resemblance to a boat) is 51.5 miles in circumference, 
its extreme length being 20.8 miles, which is in a northwest and 
southeast direction. The greatest breadth in any part is 10.5 miles. 
From the beach at Tinghae to the northern shore, the distance is 7 
miles. Towards the eastern end of the island it becomes narrower, 
never however being under 6.1 miles. 

The city of Tinghae is a walled town, 1.8 mile in circumference, 
situated 5 cables from the beach. There are four entrances, situat- 
ed at each of the cardinal points, which are tb«ough double arched 
gateways at right angles to one another. The span of the outer one 
is 7 feet and 6 inches, and 9 feet high. The city wall is 14 feet 
and 9 inches high, surmounted by a parapet 4 feet and 6 inches. 
The width of the wall is 13 feet, and the parapet 2 feet. The south- 
ern face runs east and west ; the western face north and south, 
the eastern face north 350 yards, and then northwest ; the north- 
ern face is irregular. On the northwest side the city is overlooked 
by a hill, part of which is inclosed by the wall. A moat 33 feet wide 
Md 3 feet deep, nearly encircles the city, and enters it near the 
south gate. A canal and paved footpath communicate with the 
suburbs, but the principal means of communication with the sea is 
by a canal further to the 

There are three other commercial ports in the island, viz., Shin- 
kia-mun (Singkamong), Chinkiang (Singkong), and Shaou. 

Shinkia-mun V^ ^ P^ or Singkamong. This is situated at 
the southeast extreme of the island. The town is situated at the 
water's edge, and is a miserable assemblage of huts. The principal 
occupation of the inhabitants is fishing. About 35 junks, of lOO 


&nkamong Harbor. Lookia /. Channd to Tinghae. Aou-shan channel. 

tons burden, and carrying from 30 to 35 men, with 250 smaller 
boats, each containing 5 men, are employed for this purpose. The 
harbor is formed by the island of Loo-kia (which is divided into six 
islands at high water), and is 1^ cable wide, with 4 to 5 fathoms 
abreast the town. The southwest entrance lies between Loo-kia 
and Takan, and has not more than 2^ fathoms at low water. A reef 
and mud spit extend easterly from Takan one cable, and the mud 
extends westerly from Loo-kia 4.^ cables. 

11. M. ship "Pylades" lay between Ta-kan (y^ ^•) and Chusan 
in 5 fathoms, the width here being 2J cables. The high land (600 
feet) on the Chusan shore occasioned the squalls to be sometimes 
very violent. H. M. ship " Conway " lay to the westward of Lookia, 
with the small flat island (w'ith two rocks off it), at the entrance to 
the Sarah Galley Passage, bearing west 0.7 mile in 5 fathoms. The 
distance from Shinkia-mun to Tinghae is 11^ miles. The channel 
along the Chusan shore has deep water. It is not, however, advisa- 
ble for ships, owing to a number of small islands 3 miles to the east 
of the suburbs, which render the passage narrow and crooked. 

Shdh-luh mun ~| 7\ P^, or Sixteen Passages, is the name 
given to this narrow and crooked passage by the Chinese. 

Several islands, with extensive mud banks, confine the channel 
beyond this to half a cable ; occasionally it is one cable wide. Vessels, 
therefore, bound from Tinghae to Shinkia-mun must use one of the 
passages already described, or must pass to the northward of Deer 
Island and the island east of it ; this passage is not above \\ cable 
wide. It has deep water, except at the southeast entrance^ where 
there are only 3 fathoms. 

Between Takan and Aou-shan there is shoal water, to avoid which 
ve.ssels should not stand so far to the northward as to bring the reef 
off the southern end of Aou-shan in line with the crag on Elephant 
Island. The channel between the east end of Chusan and Pooto 
has only 1^ fathom at low water, and off the southeast end of Chu- 
san it is only 2 cables wide, owing to a reef with a stone pillar on 
it, near the centre of the passage. 

After rounding the flat island with two rocks, this Beacon will be 
seen bearing N. 35° E. A course should be steered to pass between 
it and Chusan. Shoal water extends 3^ cables from Lookia, and 6 
cables from the island with the Druid's temple on the summit. To 
avoid which, do not stand further to the eastward, when a cliff islet 
off the east extreme of Chusan is in line with a building on the sum- 
mit of the flat peninsula at the northeast extreme of Chusan. The 
Beacon Rock in line with the cliff islet is a good mid-channel mark. 
After passing between the Beacon Rock and Chusan, keep the cliff 
islet on with the building upon the peninsula, which will keep you 
in the deepest water. The flat is extensive, the 2.^ fathoms line ex- 
lending 1.7 miles. On it were .'several hard casts of the lead. Ves- 
sels therefore, should cross the flat under easy sail. 



Pooto I. Passage to Gretn I. Singkong Harbor and hlandn. 

Pooto g {?E ''he island of Pooto is 3.4 miles from the south- 
east point of Chusan, and 1.6 mile from the east point. The chan- 
nd is termed by the Chinese Lienhwa yang, ^ff '^ y^ or Sea of 
Water-lilies. After passing the flat noticed above, the water deepens 
suddenly to C, and then to 12 fathoms. There is also good passage 
between Pooto and Tsing shan p^ jjj or Green Island, which is 7 
cables wide. The flat extends within 5 cables of Pooto, which 
must therefore be kept on board. The island is 3i miles long, but in 
one part it is only six tenths of a mile broad. A narrow projecting 
point extends from the west side, forming a deep sandy bay, with 
three fathoms in it. A stream runs into the bay, which might be 
used during the northeasterly monsoon, by vessels in want of water. 
There are two reefs in the bay, but they are always above water. 
This island and the Chookia-tsien Group belong to the priests of 
Budha. The temples on Pooto are very numerous, the largest of 
which is situated on the western side of the island, and a broad 
flagged road leads to it from the south side. 

Singkong J^ j^ or Chinkiang. Chinkiang harbor is situated 
at the western extreme of Chusan, and is distant 7i miles from 
Tinghae. From the Inner Harbor to the southwestern point of the 
island, the distance is 4 miles. The passage between Bell Island 
and Chusan is not recommended, owing to the strong tides which 
exist in it. Near the centre is a half-tide rock, with a beacon on it ; 
and two cables to the southwest of it, a rocky patch with only 1^ 
fathom on it. Vessels bound to Chinki ng had, therefore, betti r 
use the passage between Bell Island and Tower-hill. Should, how- 
ever, the other be used, that part of the channel between the Beacon 
and the Chusan .shore will be found the best. 

Between Kiddisol and Chusan there is no danger, the distance 
being rather less than a cable and a half. 

From the southwest point of Chusan, the coast-line is mud (with 
the exception of a small islet) to the point of Chinkiang harbor. 
Anchorage will be found along this shore in from 10 to 12 fathoms. 
■A small i.slet {the Steward) lies midway between Chusan and Kin- 
tang. There are 45 fathoms' water in its vicinity; 2 cables to the 
eastward there is a rocky patch, on which 9 fathoms were found. 

• Chinkiang harbor is formed by three islands (VVae-tiaou ^^ ^K 
Chung-tiaou rf* |^ and Le-tiaou :J^ ^ i. e. Outer-hook, Middle- 
hook, and Inner-hook,) and Chusan ; a reef of rocks lies off" the 
southwest point of the first island, and the mud extends from the 
island ne.-u-ly to the reef. Between Wae-tiaou and Chusan the dis- 
tance is G cables, with 7 to 8 fathoms. The mud extends half a 
cable from the island ; on the Chusan shore is a circular fort, which 
can only be approached along the embankments. 

Opposite the island of Chung-tiaou, the channel is less than a 
cable wide, with 7 fathoms. The passage increases but little in 


Kutsu l. Blackwall L Kintang I. The Sttward. Broken L 

width, until you have passed the island of Le-tiaou, opposite to which 
is the landing-place, and the entrance of a stream, which is naviga- 
ble at high water up to the town, distant 6 cables. Near the beach 
are a few houses. 

Upon the islands forming the harbor, and also on the point near 
the entrance, are extensive quarries of stone. The passage through 
is 1.7 mile long, and being both narrow and crooked can only be 
available for steamers and small vessels. 

Kutsu ^R \b^ or Koo-tsze. To the northward of Le-tiaou, is a 
flat island, Koo-tsze. A reef of rocks extends from it towards the 
island of Chusan, narrowing the passage to one cable, in which there 
is no bottom with 30 fathoms. 

Channel between Blackwall and Chusan. Between Koo-tsze and 
Blackwall or Tsatsu {^ -^ Tsih-tsze), the distance is three cables, 
The eastern side of Blackwall has several deep bays and indenta- 
tions ; a sunken rock lies off the northeast point, distant 1^ cable, 
and between it and Chusan, the water varies from 12 to 19 fathoms. 

Kintang -^ :^. From the Steward (or Pwanyang tsiaou, half- 
way rock) to Kintang, the distance is two miles; near the souths 
(east extreme of the latter is a remarkable saddle hill, which with the 
Cap Rock forms one of the marks for the southern sunken rock, in 
the South, or Straight, Passage. There is a peninsula (connected by 
mud, which is overflown at high water) at the southeast point, from 
which a ledge of rocks extends, the southwestern part of which is 
always above water. Nearly opposite Chinkiang, there is another 
isharp peak on Kintang, which is 1519 feet above the level of the sea. 

Channel between Kintang and Blackwall. Vessels bound from 
Chinkiang to Siaou Sha-aou, or to .sea by the northwest passage, 
must bear in mind that there is no anchorage after leaving Chinkiang 
until to the northward of Blackwall, the distance being 6 miles. 
The channel between Kintang and Blackwall is half a mile wide. 
A small islet lies off the .southeast extreme of the latter. Between 
the two there is deep water, and from the summit of the islet, Chin- 
hae (at the entrance of the river leading to Ningpo) may be seen 
over Kintang, which, abreast of this part of the channel, is very low. 
After passing the islet, there is a long bay on Blackwall Island, from 
the northern point of which a reef extends 1^ cable. Ofi*the north 
extreme of Kintang there is a group of 5 islands. 

Broken Island or Mamuh shan J^ ^ [U . The northern rock 
off Broken Island bears from the northwest extreme of Blackwall 
N. \')° E., 6^ miles. Between it and Broken Island there is a good 
channel. The latter is connected with Chusan at low water ; it is 
about 700 feet high. The ridge of hills at the northwest extreme 
of Chusan rises to the height of 761 feet, and on it are three beacons. 
The entrance to the harbor of Siaou Sha-aou is between Broken and 
Fi.shers Island (Changpih shan ^ ^ Mj ). and is 6 cables wide. 


Harbor. Fisher's J. Pitssages betiveen Sheppey, Chusan, if Blackheath. 

Broken Island is steepto, except on the southeast side, where it joins 
Chusan. A shoal extends 5 cables off the west side of Fisher's 1. 

The harbor is formed by Fish<'r's I.sland and Chusan ; it is two 
miles long and 1.7 mile broad, with a depth of water from 5 to 9 
fathoms. This harbor is well sheltered from all winds, and easy of 
ingress and egress. The coast of Chusan is lined with a mud bank, 
which renders landing (only at one spot, which is at the eastern ex- 
treme of the harbor) diHicult except at high water. Near the land- 
ing-place is a small village; the principal town is situated some di.s- 
tance up the valley from the landing-place. The south shore^of 
Fisher's Island is also an extensive mud bank, a considerable portion 
of which has been inclosed from the sea. Off the southeast extreme 
of the island, the three fathoms' line extends five cables. The depth 
decreases gradually, so that the lead will give warning. The eastern 
entrance to Siaou Sha-aou harbor is 8 cables wide. A small islet 
and a rock lie off the north extreme. They may be rounded close, 
passing between the islets mentioned above and the islets to the 

■ Passage between Sheppey and Chusan. Vessels intending to go 
to the eastward from Seaou Sha-aou may pass either between Shep- 
pey (Lan shan and Sew shan), and Chusan, or to the northward of 
Sheppey ; the latter is the more eligible. The former is 2 cables wide 
in the narrowest part. The Houbland Islands lie between Sheppey 
and Fisher's Island. Ves.sois .should pass between them and two 
small islets, which lie off the southwest side, between which and 
Chusan is the narrowest part of the passage. Having passed this 
islet, vessels may either. stand along Sheppey, or steer a course for 
the open sea. 

Passage between Sheppey and Blackheath. To pass to the north- 
ward of Sheppey, a N. 56' E. course must be steered for a long bar- 
ren island, with a round peak upon it, the distance between which 
and Sheppey is 1.6 mile. The mud runs off the latter half a mile. 
The barren island is steep to, on the southeast shore. In the chan- 
nel, between Kwan shan and Sheppey, are several islets; and in 
standing over to the Sheppey side of the channel, the mud may be 
avoided by keeping the north end of the largest of these islands open 
of the northern extreme of Sheppey. 

Having passed the barren island, a course must be steered to pass 
close to Kwan shan, which lies west from the barren island 1^ mile, 
in order to avoid a reef which is covered at high water. It is distant 
from Kwan shan 2^ cables. From it the barren hill bears N. 85'' 
W., and the highest part of Sheppey S. 26° W. 

Having passed the reef, the large island, mentioned as the mark 
for avoiding the mud bank extending easterly from Sheppey, bounds 
the passage to the southward. A reef extends a short distance from 
its northern extreme. 

Nine Islands. Besides Kwan shan, there are Nine Islands lying 
off the soutlieast end of Tae shan. A reef of rocks liesoff the southren 


A'lne ft. Sheppey I. Its Anchorages. Toe shan. Ktvan shan. 

point of the one east of Kwan shan. The channel then runs between 
these Nine Islands to the north, and the large Passage Island on the 
south. A due west course will carry you along Changtoo and the 
northwest group to the open sea. 

Vessels wishing to anchor under Sheppey, which will be found a 
secure anchorage in the northeasterly monsoon, may haul to the 
southward, after passing the first island to the eastward of the large 
Passage Island, and run between them and a cluster of rocks to the 
eastward. The east extreme of Sheppey is a low cliff, which may 
be passed within a cable ; good anchorage will then be found in five 
fathoms, the water shoaling gradually towards the shore. 

Sheppey. The island of Sheppey is 7.5 miles long, and 5.6 board. 
On the east side are several deep sandy bays. A considerable por- 
tion of the east extreme is separated from the island by a narrow 
channel at high water. The island appears formerly to have been 
two (Lan shan ^a jjj and Sew shan ^S^ I_Ll)' ^'^® \^nA being very 
low, and the coast-line protected from the sea by walls near the 
northern extreme. 

11. M. S. " Pylades " anchored here in the month of February, in 5,^ 
fathoms, six tenths of a mile from the west point of Sheppey, being 
N. 8° W.; the island south of Sheppey bearing S. 54° W. ; and the 
highest peak of Chusan, S. 7° E. To the eastward of Sheppey are 
two cliff islets, the nearest is 1.8 mile distant, and the further 4 J 
miles. South from the western, 2 cables, is a ledge of rocks which 
is occasionally covered; and 0.6 of mile W.NVV. from the eastern, 
is another small islet. The mud bank from Sheppey gradually deep- 
ens to the eastward, the depth of water, when the island of Pooto 
bears due south, being 8^ fathoms. 

Tae sAan fjj \\\. To the northeast of Fisher's Island, 5J 
miles, is the island of Tae shan, which is very populous. The centre 
of the island is an extensive flat, with many villages; near to its 
eastern extreme, the hills also separate, leaving a level plain across 
the island. Midway between Fisher's Island and it are two .^mall 
islets ; and between Barren Island and it are three others, off the 
south end of the westernmost of which is a sunken rock. Rocks 
also extend off the southwest and norJh points of the central one of 
the three. A mud bank extends from the northwest points of Barren 
Island nearly to the first islet of the three, which lie to the NW. of 
it. Between them and Tae shan the bottom is sandy with irregular 
soundings. ^j^ . 

Kwan shan ^ [J.|» The pai5sage between Kwan shan and Tae 
shan is 3 cables wide ; on the Tae shan shore are several small 
islets; the channel is deep. H. M. ship "Pylades" anchored in a 
small cove to the north of Kwan shan on the island of Tae shan, 
and rode out a heavy gale of wind. The cove, however, is too small 
to be recommended, and the deep water in its vicinity is also dis- 


Changtoo or Blackhealk I. E^tsUrn g;roup. Islands north of Poolo. 

To the westward of Tao shaii, the islands extend about lo miles, 
and from its summit, the terminatiou of the group northerly could not 
be defined. ^ ^^ 

Changtoo "R; ^£' To the eastward of Tae shan, and separated 
by a channel 1.5 mile, is another large island, called Changtoo by 
the Chinese, and is probably the Blackheath of Thornton's chart. 
The southern face of this island has many deep indentations, and 
may be composed of several islands, for the time allotted for the sur- 
vey did not admit of a close investigation. 

The breadth of the channel, between Changtoo and the two islands 
to the eastward of Sheppey, is 2.3 miles. 'I'he group of islands con- 
tinues to the ea.stward of Changtoo, and a little to the southward of 
the same parallel, for 25 miles. 

Eastern Group. The easternmost island of this group is in lati- 
tude 30' 7.'45 N., and longitude 122" 46;^' E. From th" anchorage 
under Sheppey, it bears E. 5° S., 27 miles; from the summit of 
Pooto, E. 20" N., 21 miles; from the outer islet east of Chookia- 
tsien, N. 29° E., 18^ miles. It is five miles in circumference, and 
about 500 feet high. 'Inhere is a small village on its northwestern 
side. The shores are precipitous cliffs. The intervening islands 
between this and Changtoo were not examined, their outline there- 
fore has only been inserted in the chart. Two small islets lie N. 
74° E. two miles from the eastern island. 

Coast-line of Chusan. The coast-line of Chusan, after passing 
between it and Sheppey, trends to the northeast. At the distance of 
three miles, there is a small island with a narrow passage between it 
and the shore, and a deep bay to the westward, in which the mud 
dries out a considerable distance, rendering it difficult to land, ex- 
cept at the extreme points. 

Three miles and a half further to the southeast, there is a larger 
island with a remarkable /a// in the hills near its centre; a small 
islet lies half a mile west from its extreme. 

To the eastward are three islands at the distance of, a J, lA, and 
3J miles. The nearest is the largest of the three, and has a patch 
of rocks 2 cables from it to the northeast. Northeast also from the 
centre of the three is another reef, 4 cables from the island. The 
outer island is a narrow cliff with a rock off its northeast end. 

To the northward and northeast of Pooto, are three islets and three 
rocks, which arc steep to, except to the westward of the southern 
and largest of the three, where there is a reef. To the northeast of 
these islands, and 3;^ miles from the summit of Pooto, is a small co- 
nical islet; E. 8° S. 2 miles from it, is a group of 4 sharp pinnacled 
rocks, with several reefs among them. The reef already described 
(when treating of the island of Chookia-tsien) lies S. 42° E., 6J 
miles from these rocks, and is the last danger in the passage. The 
northeast extreme of Chusan is high, rising probably 1400 feet, the 
hills approaching near the coast-line. Aflat penin-ula, with two 
buildings made of stone slabs, forms the extremity of the island. 


To go north of Chtuan. Anchorage near Poolo. Two ways into Sk^pey. 

Ships bound to the north side of Chusan ought to make the land 
in about latitude 30°, when the easternmost island of the northern 
group will be seen to the northward, and the high land of Chookia- 
tsien to the westward. On closing the land, three small islets to 
the eastward of Chookia-tsien will be made out, and also the 
island of Pooto, which may be known by a small lookout-house on 
its summit. Intending to communicate with Chinkia-mun (Sinka- 
mong), the most eligible anchorage will be found to the southward 
of Pooto, for which purpose a course may be steered to pass between 
that island and Lookia, taking care to avoid a half-tide rock which 
lies E. 12^ S., 9 miles from the highest part of Pooto. The best 
anchorage will be found opposite two sandy bays, near the west ex- 
treme. It is recommended not to open the passage between Chusan 
and Pooto, as by standing too far to the westward, vessels may get 
on the flat between Pooto and Chinkia-mun. Good water may be 
obtained from a well in the sandy bay near the temple. 

If bound to Sheppey or Siaou Sha-aou, a group of sharp pinnacle 
rocks must be kept to the southward, when a remarkable island near 
Chusan, with a sudden fall in the land near the centre, will be seen to 
the westward. There are three islands with rocks off them to the 
eastward of it ; when abreast the easternmost of these, one course may 
be steered so as to pass between Sheppey and Kwan shan, in which 
case a vessel should get to the northward of a small cliff island, one 
quarter of the way between Changtoo and Chusan, and keep mid- 
channel between it and Changtoo ; 3J miles to the westward of the 
first cliff island, there is a second, which must also be kept to the 
southward, and you will then be abreast several small crooked islets, 
which lie off the southeast extreme of Tae shan ; Kwan shan lies 2J 
miles to the VV.NW. of the second cliff island, and is high with a flat 
summit ; keep it close on board to avoid the sunken rock near its 
south extreme, bearing from the highest part of Sheppey, N. 26° E. ; 
you may then steer a west course to pass close to Barren Island, from 
whence aS.56° W. course, 5 miles, will carry you to Siaou Sha-aou 
harbor : — or, instead of passing between the islands of Changtoo and 
Kwan shan, you may pass between Sheppey and Chusan, in which 
case keep the Chusan shore on board, passing between it and a small 
islet which lies S. 23" E. from the south end of Sheppey. The 
course then lies between an islet on the Chusan shore and the south 
islet off Sheppey, from thence steer so as to pass to the northward of 
three small islets, and a reef which lies two miles to the westward, 
from whence a west course will carry you past a rocky point, and 
into Siaou Sha-aou, ./]> W yM Small Sand-harbor. 

COM. GL. 13 


Barren Is. Leuconna. Monte Video. Fisherman^s Chain. Tchinaannn I. 

Scdfon 9. 



[This survey was made by Lieuta. Milbank and Nollotb, of H. M. S. 
"Chjlders," Commander G. G. Wcllesley, in 1843.] 

Vf-ssels bound for Shanghai, and not intending to call at Chusan or 
Ningpo, should pass to the eastward of the Chusan Archipelago, 
and make the Barren Islands, which are in latitude 30° 43' N., and 
longitude 123° 7' E. From hence the Amherst Rocks, at the 
entrance of the Yangtsz' kiang, bear N. 58° W., 47^ miles. 

The Barren Rocks are three in number, about 50 feet high, lying 
nearly east and west, and are three quarters of a mile in extent. To 
the southeastward of the eastern rock, is a rock awash, distant from 
it 2 cables. 

S. 31° W., 20^ miles from the Barren Rocks, is Leuconna, which 
appears from the southward as three abrupt and round-topped hum- 

S. 24° W., 19.8 miles from Leuconna, is Monte Video, or Wong- 
shing shan, in lat. 30° 7.'8 N., and long. 122° 46/2 E. ; it has a 
bold and precipitous appearance, and is nearly square. It has a re- 
markable white cliff, which shows very distinctly when the island 
bears NW. by N. 

N. 74° E., 5 miles from its summit, are seven rocks called the 
Four Sisters ; and N. 78° E., 9 miles, are two rocks called the 
Brothers. There is a safe passage between these rocks and Monte 
Video, and also between the rocks themselves, the depth varying 
from 30 to 40 fathoms in the vicinity of these islands. 

Westerly from Monte Video, is a chain of islands extending to 
Tae shan, called F'isherman's Chain. Vessels passing to the east- 
ward of these islands, and bound to Chuoan or Ningpo, should make 
Monte Video, then pass to the northward of Fisherman's Chain, and 
between it and the large island of Tchinsanna. 

The Beehive Rock in this channel bears from Monte Video, N. 
17' VV., I4i miles, and from Leuconna, S. 69° VV., 12^ miles; it is 
about 35 feet high, with a rock awash 3 cables to the eastward of it, 
otherwise the depth of water around it is from 14 to 17 fathoms. 

W; by N. from the Beehive is the large island of Tchinsanna, 
having several smaller islands on its eastern and northern faces. 
The channel between it and Tae-shan is 5 miles wide, and safe. 
Tchinsanna is 8J miles long from east to west, affording good 
anchorages in both monsoons.* 

• Having passed Tchinsanna, vessels will proceed according to the directions 
given in Sect. 8, for the Chusan Archipelago (page 95), or by those for the 
passage between Square Island and Shanghai in Sect. 12, page 104. 


Peenchotoa I. Chintsien shan and LuUu-sa Is. Saddle Is. Tungluh-hwa I. 

Northward of Tchinsanna is Peenchowa. It has several islands 
around it, and between it and Tchinsanna ; it is next to Tchinsanna 
in size, being 6 miles from east to west, and will also afford shelter 
in either monsoon. Off its northeast point, 5 cables distant, is a 
rock awash. 

The islands of Chintsien shan and Leeleu sa lie to the eastward 
of Peenchowa, bearing from the Barren Islands S. 77° W,, 17 miles, 
and from Leuconna N. QP W., 18 miles. Between Leuconna and 
Chintsien shan, is the Childers Rock, which does not always show. 
When on it, the peak of Chintsien shan bears N. 9'' W., the Barren 
Islands N. 70° E., and Leuconna S. 15' E.; the lead gives no warning 
of it, the depth being 24 fathoms close to. 

The two islands of Chintsien shan and Leeleu sa afford very good 
shelter in both monsoons. The former, from the southward, appears 
of an equal height, the latter more rugged, the highest part being at 
its northeast end. There is fresh water at the eastern end of Chin- 
tsien shan. In the bay on the east side of Leeleu sa, is a rock 
which only shows at low water spring tides. It lies nearly in the 
centre of the bay. When on it, the highest part of the rock close 
to the eastern point of the bay is in line with a conical hill over 
the western point of Chintsien shan. Should vessels be caught at 
anchor under these islands with a southeasterly wind, they might run 
through between them, taking care to keep as close as possible to the 
shore of Leeleu sa, as there is a patch of three fathoms in the centre 
of the channel, and three wash rocks further to the northward. 

The bay on the south side of Leeleu sa is smaller than the other, 
with deep water at the entrance of it ; the best anchorage in it is a 
little to the eastward of a rocky point which juts out in the centre 
of the bay. 

Eight miles to the northwest of Chintsien shan is Saddle Island, 
and midway between them is False Saddle, forming the northern 
boundary of the Chusan Archipelago. The two largest of the north- 
ern group are saddle-shaped, about 800 feet high, and of similar 
appearance when seen from the eastward. The northernmost island 
is in lat. 30° 50' N., and long. 122° 41' E. 

To the southwest of North Saddle are the long and narrow islands 
of Tungluh-hwa and Siaoluh-hwa, which are scarcely detached. 
These islands afford anchorage, but not so good shelter as under 
Tchinsann'i, where vessels ought to stop should night or thick wea- 
ther render doubtful the making of the Amherst Rocks, which are 
distant from the northernmost Saddle Island, N. 42° W., 24 miles. 
Having made and anchored close to the Amherst Rocks, follow the 
directions given for entering the Yangtsz' kiang in Sect. 13, on 
page 107. The tides throughout this group are regular, the flood 
sets northwest, and the ebb southeast. 


Thrtt Pastagts xtUo the Tahiah Rivtr. The Triangles. Tiger's Tail Reef. 

Scctton 10. 

By Captain R. CoUinson, C. B., R. M 

The R. Tahiah y%^jX or entrance to the Yung kiang )f^ yJL 
is entered by three passages, (formed by the islets called the Trian- 
gles in Thornton's old charts of 1703,) all of which are difficult. 

The first danger in the southern channel is a rock which is cover- 
ed at half tide, lying N. 70" E., 2^ cables from the- summit of the 
Eastern Triangle, or Tayew shan. If the Inner Triangle, or Passage 
Island, is kept open of the south point of the outer one, this danger 
will be avoided. 

Having passed the east point of the Outer Triangle, keep it and 
the Middle Triangle close on board, to avoid a sunken rock with 8 
feel on it, which lies in mid-channel, and to the southward of the 
latter. When on the reef, a small island, 8 miles to the west of 
Chinhai, is in line with the extreme of the high bluff land beyond it. 
Then steer to pass half a cable east of the Inner Triangle. Then 
steer for the foot of the Joss-house hill at Chinhai, taking care that 
the tide does not set you over to the eastern shore, the water shoal- 
ing to 2 fathoms, five cables from that side. 

The second passage, or that between the Middle and Inner Trian- 
gle, is perhaps the best of the three. A mud spit extends westerly 
from the Middle Triangle 1^ cable, which will be avoided by keefH 
ing the joss-house on the hill open of the west point of the Inner 
Triangle ; pass as before a cable to the eastward of the latter, which 
must not be approached nearer than half, or receded from further 
than IJ cable. 

The channel between the Inner Triangle and the Joss-house point, 
has only 2 fathoms' water ; it is however the broadest and best for 
vessels of light draught. The only danger in it is the Tiger's Tail 
reef, which lies rather more than 1 cable, N. 40° W., from the 
highest part of the Inner Triangle. The marks for the Tiger's Tail 
rocks are Hoo-wu-tsiao, or the little peaked islet at the south end of 
the stakes, in line with River Hill, and also the southeast foot of the 
Joss-house hill in line with the first cone. The Joss-house Point is 
steep to, and vessels will find good shelter under the fort. 

The river is staked across at the entrance, under the Joss-house 
hill, and there are sunken junks on each side of the opening through 

Ningpo ^^ ux. is 11 J miles from Chinhai by the river, which is 
nearly strait, the reaches all lying to the southward of west, except 
one which is short. There are no dangers ; the depth in mid-channel 
varies from 5 to 2^ fathoms. Vessels therefore drawing more than 
13 feet should wait for half flood. The average width of the river is 
two cable.*:. 


Position o/Mngpo and fork of the River. Square J. Friendly b. 

At the city, the river separates into two branches, one taking a 
NW., the other a S. by W. direction.* The latter is barely a cable 
wide, and is crossed by a bridge of boats one quarter of a mile above 
the junction. A spit extends from each point at the entrance to the 
former, and has a depth of from 2^ to 6 fathoms. 

Sectfon 11. 


Part of this and tlie next Section go over the same ground as the directions 
in Section 13. They were made in 1840 and 1842 by Capt. Collinson ; the 
islands in the nortliern part towards Shanghae were surveyed by Mr. Johnson, 
master of H. M. ship "Conway," in 1840. 

N. by W., 3i miles from Square Island, is a Middle Ground, having 
2 to 3 fathoms on it. Vessels therefore should approach the Kin- 
tang shore which is steep to ; if beating through this passage, they 
ought not to bring Square Island to the eastward of south. 

There is a passage inside, and to the westward of this Middle 
Ground, which vessels of 15 feet draught may use ; but it is recom- 
mended not to do so, as the mud dries off the Chinhai shore three 
quarters of a mile, and the water shoals suddenly. When standing 
along this shore, a group of small islands, (the largest of which was 
called by Capt. Giffard of the " Cruizer," Friendly Island,) lies three 
quarters of a mile off shore, and distant from Chinhai citadel 7^ 
miles, under which junks frequently anchor for shelter. Four miles 
further to the northwest is a high bluff head, forming the southern 
extreme of Hangchau foo bay, and called Friendly Bluff. This 
forms a remarkable object throughout the navigation of this part of 
the Archipelago. 

* "The fork of the river of Ningpo is called 'the Mouth of Three Rivers,' 
from the fact that, at this point, there is the confluence of three streams. To the 
northwest of the city, there is a large stream running down through the districts 
of YilyAu and Tsz'ki, which is called the Ydu River, or the Shun River, or the 
river of Tsz'ki . To the east, there is another stream, known under the name of 
the Yung River, which name it retains above the city of iNingpo only the short 
distance of 12 miles, when it branches off in one line to the southwest, under the 
name of the Ying River, and in another line to the southeast towards Funghwa, 
borrowing its name from the same district. There, where the Ying River unites 
with the Funghwa River, it is occasionally spoken of as the Peh-ta kiang, or 
' North Ford river.' At the eastern angle of the city of Ningpo this twin tributary 
'unites with the river of Tsz'ki, and their joint waters flow northeast and north 
in a deep channel, until they enter tlie open sea at Chinhai. From the fork down 
to Chinhai, the river is generally called the Vung kiang. It is also not unfre- 
quently named the Ta-tsieh river, and some parts of it are known as the Siau 
"I^sieh. In English charts and descriptions, it is written the Tahiah, or the Takiah 
river; but the correct pronunciation, as has Just been represented, is Ta-toieh. ' 
Chinese Repository, Vol. Xlll, page 14. 


Mtrth J. Seven Sisters. Seshan Group. Fog Is. Chtpoo Roads. 

N. f W., 15 miles from Square Island, is North Island, being the 
easternmost and largest island of the first group of islands in this 
direction. It is cultivated, and about 216 feet high, and three quar- 
ters of a mile in extent from east to west. Close to it the water 
deepens suddenly to 26 and 32 fathoms. The holding-ground is 
good, but it is too small to afford shelter in strong breezes. 

North from it is a small rock that always shows. W. J N. is the 
nearest island of the same group, distant 3.7 miles, with a safe pas- 
sage between them. The islets west of this are called Tsih tsz'-mei 
J-* OTJ ^fi^ or the Seven Sisters; the navigation in their vicinity 
is dangerous, having many reefs around and between them. 

Leaving North Island to the westward, the easternmost and high- 
est of the Seshan Group will be seen ; it bears north 18 miles from 
North Island. A vessel beating up between these islands should not 
bring the High Seshan to the eastward of north, until within three 
miles of it, for there was found a 3^ fathoms' patch with the island 
bearing "N. by E. The Seshan Islands form three distinct groups, 
the easternmost having one large and five smaller islands with rocks. 
There is a safe passage between them and the main, which is very 
low, and continues so to Chapoo. 

The middle group lies 6 miles to the W.NW. of the eastern, and 
consists of one large and several small islets, the southernmost of 
which is low and rugged, with reefs aroQnd it. There is a safe 
passage between this group and the main. 

The western group consists of two i.slands, 1 1 J miles to the north- 
west of the middle group ; the largest is about 700 feet high, and 
has no passage between it and the main. Having made the Eastern 
Seshan, pass to the northward or southward of it as convenient, — if 
to the southward within 3 miles. Steering westerly from this, pass 
within 2 miles of the middle group, from which in clear weather, the 
high land of Chapoo, bearing west 23 miles, may be seen; also the 
Fog Islands, a group of low rocky islets bearing S. 75' VV., 14 miles. are recommended to keep well to the northward of the Fog 
Islands in approaching Chapoo, as by this they will insure a depth 
of 5 and 6 fathoms; and also if a heavy breeze from the northward 
come oi), can get shelter under the northern shore. 

Chapoo ^ '/m city is situated on the western face of the hills 
forming the eastern point of Chapoo Bay ; from this the land is low, 
risinor again into hills at the distance of 8 miles. The mud runs off 
a long way from the low land between these hills, whose tops are 
crowned with buildings. One of the islands also has a large white 
joss-house on it. Pass within half a mile or less of the point of the 
southern island, then steer for the town, or the termination of the 
group of hills, and anchor in 7 fathoms. You will then be about 
half a mile from the high land to the northeast of the town. The 
anchorage is sheltered from E.NE. to S.SW., around by north. At 
the spring tidfs the veloritv is 5 knots, and the rise and fall vO feet. 


Plover's Shoal. Strong Tides. Bay of Hangchau. Jluchorage at Chapoo. 

About 4 miles south of the southern island off Chapoo is a shoal, 
on which the " Plover " tacked in 3 fathoms, and there is probably 
less water. Should vessels find themselves setting to the southward 
of this, they must anchor. 

Seven miles southwest from Chapoo, during a stay of three days, 
the night tide rose 30 feet, and its velocity was 7^ knots ; while at 
the Fog Islands, ten miles to the southeastward, the rise and fall 
was 17 feet, and the velocity 4J knots; showing a rapid increase in 
rise and velocity as you enter the estuary of the Tsientang River. 

The steamer "Phlegethon," with Capt. Collinson on board, recon- 
noitering and endeavoring to find a channel to Hangchau foo, ex- 
perienced a tide of 11^ knots; at this time he was distant from the 
high land of Chapoo 19 miles, and two from the shore. On a second 
trial at the dead of the neap, the "Phlegethon" had the tide running 
5^ knots at nearly the same place. In traversing the river from side 
to side, which is at this point about 15 miles wide, there was no 
continuous channel found, although some deep spots. When the 
"Phlegethon" was exposed to the above tide, she had an anchor 
down with a whole cable, (having previously lost an anchor and 
cable, when she endeavored to bri)ig up,) was under her full power 
of steam, with sails set, and was still driving. 

It will hardly be needful, therefore, to impress on the minds men 
navigating the Bay of Hangchau, the importance of their paying 
particular attention to the set of their ships. This bay cannot and 
ought not to be navigated at night. The rapid flood-tide setting 
into this bay caused the loss of the transport " Kite," in 1840, 

Capt Bethune adds the following notice of the passage into Chapoo Roads. 

Chapoo is situated on the north side of a bay on the northern 
side of the Bay of Hangchau. The points of the entrance are 5 or 6 
miles apart. Rather towards the north entrance lie North and South 
Islands, about 1^ mile from the shore, and § of a mile apart; they 
are not easily distinguished from the high land in their rear. On the 
top of the high conical hill, forming the starboard entrance, are one 
or two buildings ; and rather more than half-way down is a fort, 
having 4 guns. These are conspicuous objects. The town is situat- 
ed to the left of the hill, in a small nook ; it is defended by a battery 
and breastwork. The soundings decrease regularly from 10 to 3^ 
fathoms close in to the town, and the "Algerine" anchored in 3| 
fathoms mud, distant from the town battery about 500 yards, with 
the following bearings : fort on the hill, NE. by E. i E. ; South 
Island, E. by S. A S. ; remarkable pagoda, W. by S. f S. 

Running for the anchorage, round South Island, at 2 cables' dis- 
tance, and haul up for the junks at anchor, when the fort on the hill 
bears NE. by E. about a mile, you will find from 7 to 9 fathoms 
steep ground, and shelter from all winds but SE. to E.SE. 


The Volcanoea. Jhehoragt near Rugged Is. Course to Gutzlaf I. 

S&ectfon 12. 

N. 76" E., 9 miles from North Island, and N. 45' W., 3^ miles 
from Broken Island, is situated a small group of islands, between 
which and North Island, there is a good channel, and the group 
itself may be approached as convenient. 

N. 50' E. from North Island, distant 9^ miles, is the northwestern- 
most islet of a group called the Volcanoes ; it has a reef north of it ; 
on the highest island, there is a most remarkable conical peak. The 
channel between this and North Island is safe, if it be kept in mind 
that you are not to bring East Seshan to the eastward of north. 
There are several islands between this group and Tae shan, but 
they have not been examined. 

Continuing on the northeastward, the high land of the Rugged 
Islands will soon be seen. The southwestern horn of this group 
bears from North Island, N. 33° E., 24 miles, and from East Seshan 
N. 86° E., thirteen miles. There is excellent shelter between the 
southwest and northwest horns of this group during the southwest 
monsoon. The fleet under Admiral Parker anchored here in the 
month of June, before proceeding up the Yangtsz' kiang. 

During the northern monsoon, vessels will find good shelter to 
the southwest of the whole group, but the ground has not been 
thoroughly examined between it and Tae shan. The whole space 
between the Rugged, East Seshan, Volcanoes, and North Islands, 
is safe, having a depth of from 6 to 7 fathoms. 

N. 33^ E., 3^ miles from the northern horn of the Rugged Islands, 
is a small islet with several rocks to the northwest of it, called the 
Hen and Chickens; and from the same horn GutzlafTs Island bears 
N. 43° E., 12 miles. Leaving the Rugged Islands, a vessel may pass 
on either side of the Hen and Chickens in 6 and 7 fathoms. Be- 
tween the Hen and Gutzlaff Islands, there is also a safe passage with 
6 or 7 fathoms. A vessel may pass on either side of GutzlafT Island, 
but if to the westward of it, she must go very close. It is recommen- 
cd to pass to the eastward of it, and then steer N. 25° E. for the 
Amherst Rocks, which are distant from Gutzlaff Island 24 miles, 
taking care to keep GutzlafT Island on that bearing; for if the wind 
is light, and it is flood tide, a vessel will be set into the Bay of 
Hangchau foo. 

Vessels of light draught may navigate the Yangtsz' ki^ng with 
case and safety, but it will be necessary for vessels above 18 feet to 
make the Amherst Rocks, (which "are 20 feet above the sea, and in 
lat. 31° 9.'3 N., and long. 122° 23.'6 E.,) and to have beacons placed 
for them to sail by. Leaving the Amherst Rocks at a quarter ebb, a 
vessel will carry the flood to VVusung if there is any wind. 


Ariadnt Rocks. llience to fVusung. Course to Shanghai. 

The following courses will insure deep water. From the Amherst 
Rocks S. 72° W., 14^ miles, but care must be taken that the vessel 
really makes good this course, and that the flood tide does not sweep 
her to the northward of that bearing, which is given to clear the 
Ariadne Rocks. The sea breaks on the Ariadne Rocks in strong 
winds, and the lowest tides. The bearings from these Rocks are, 
Amherst Rocks, N. 77° E., 7^ miles ; Shau-e-shan, or Sha-wei ehan, 
N.; Gutzlaff Island, S. 9" \V. 

After passing the Ariadne, should the northeast break or ripple 
be seen, it will be the best leading mark, for the deepest water is 
close to the bank. The course along it will be about NW. ^ W. ; it* 
bears from Shau-e-shan S. 30° W., and is distant from the Amherst 
Rocks, 16 miles. If it is not seen, having run the first course and 
distance, a course N. 61° W. will take a vessel in mid-channel to 
Wusung; but as the strength and set of the tides will materially 
affect the ship's course, vessels are recommended to use the ground 
log, both for course and distance. 

Having run 24 miles on the second course, approach the low west- 
ern land to one mile ; at this time a clump of trees making like three 
will be seen ; keep this distance from the bank until a remarkable 
high tree is seen (if it be clear). At the same time will be seen 
Paoushan Point, which is the sharp angle of an embankment ; when 
within a mile of the High Tree Point, increase your distance from 
the shore, and do not bring Paoushan Point to the northward of W. 
by N. A N. 

The best anchorage off Wusung will be Bush Island, NW. by W., 
and Wusung village joss-pole, S. 41° W., in 8 fathoms. The leading 
mark into Wusung is the joss-poles at the village, S. 41° W. But 
the best leading mark will be for a vessel at anchor in the above 
position, to place one of her boats for a beacon. When the low 
point below the embankment shows clear of Paoushan Point, close 
the western or Wusung shore to half a cable, where there is good 

Proceeding from Wusung to Shanghai, keep the western or left 
bank on board until you open the second creek on the opposite 
shore, which will be a mile above the village ; then cross over and 
keep the eastern shore close on board, the channel being in some 
places scarcely a cable wide. Should the flood run strong, haul over 
as soon as you have rounded the low point opposite the village. 
The narrowest part is opposite to a low point on the western shore 
above the batteries. The bank here forms a point, with a remark- 
able tree on it ; it is 7^ miles by the river from Wusung village. 

Having passed this point keep in mid-channel. Before arriving at 
the town, which is 5^ miles above it, the river takes a sudden turn 
to the southward, and the western or right shore again becomes the 
deiep side. 'I'he mud extends nearly a cable from the point at the 
turning ; between it and the town shore, there is a deep hole, with 
I'Z and 18 fathom*, but off the town there are 3^ and 4 fathoms. 

COM. 01. 14 


Deadmaru Blonde Rock, Anchorage near Square I. JVorih 1$. 

Sectfon 13. 

Thia. survey was made unJer tho direction of Captain C. R. Drinkwater 
Bethune of II. M. S. "Conway," when stationed off the mouth of the river in 
1840. It goes over part of the same course with the two last sections. 

Arriving in the Bay of Nin^o from the eastward, care must be 
taken to avoid a tide rock, which lies a short half mile to the north- 
ward of the DeaHman. The bearings from the rock, by compass, are 
as follows : left extreme of Square Island, N. 6,S° W., or W.NVV. ; 
left extreme of the islet nctrth of Kintang, N. 5' E., or N. ^ E. ; right 
extreme of Dumb Island, S. 52' W. or SW. | W. Passage Islet 
shut in by the south extreme of the Triangles, or the Beacon Hill on 
with the fort (Chaou paou), clears the rock. 

The Blonde Rock, which shows itself at low water, is three quar- 
ters of a mile to the northward of the Deadman. 

There is a patch, with 24' fathoms, southeast by south from Square 
Island, distant half a mile; the Beacon Hill on with the fort also 
clears the patch. The "Conway" lay in a good berth, having Passage 
Islet south, and Square Island east-northeast. This anchorage dur- 
ing the summer season is safe ; but during the autumnal and winter 
months, strong northerly breezes prevail, and then shelter must be 
sought over on the Kintang shore, or off Just-in-the-way, (called 
by the Chinese Hwang-new tsiaou ^ 2p ^,) bringing it to bear 
northwest about one mile. The steam-vessel "Madagascar" anchor- 
ed under Passage Islet during a blow, but was glad to get out to 

A rock awash at low water spring tides, has been seen about 
S.SE., 2 cables from Just-in-the-way. Consequently vessels passing 
to the southward of that island should be cautious not to approach 
too close. 

The reef off the south end of Silver Island, and a 2| fathoraV 
patch to the S.SW. of Square Island, have already been noticed. 

Running to the northward, pass on either side of Square Island, 
and then keep over towards Kintang, so as to bring Square Island 
to bear south as soon as possible ; do not bring it to the eastward of 
this bearing, as the western part of the bay is supposed to be shal- 
low, a patch of 3 fathoms having been passed over, lying N. by VV., 
3 miles from Square Island. 

Proceeding to the northward, you pass the North Islands to port, 
the largest and easternmost being about 220 feet high, with an islet 
north of it. To starboard is a small island, named East Island, with 
3 or 4 islets or rocks north of it ; and to the northward of this lies 
Middle Group, the largest of which has a conical hill on its north 
end. Another of the group, west of the largest, is also high and coni- 
cal ; several islets and rocks lie west of this group, all above water. 


Seshan Is. Hen and Chickens. Gutzlaff I. Dangeroiis Rocks. Shn-wei-shan, 

Vessels may pass to the northward between Kintang and Black- 
wall. The water is deep in the Steward Passage ; but when through, 
anchorage is found in 8 or 9 fathoms. Then keep to the northwest, 
leiving East Island to starboard. A vessel can pass to the eastward 
of Eist Island and of the Middle Group ; but east of the latter, there 
is a bank, which has not been sufficiently examined. The "Conway" 
passed over it in 3 fathoms. 

Steering still to the northward, you make, on the port bow, the 
Seshan Islands. On the starboard bow is a more numerous group, 
called Rugged Islands. Bottom was found at 6 fathoms throughout. 
Over the Seshan Islands, a solitary hill on the main will probably be 
seen, which is in the neighborhood of Chapoo. 

Hauling to the eastward, around the Rugged Islands, a small 
islet, the Hen and Chickens, will be seen ; and also, beyond this, to 
the NE., GutzlafTs Island ; it appears in this direction as a cone, 
and is about 250 feet in height. Gutzlaff s Island is supposed to be 

what the Chinese call Ma-tseih ^ ^^- or ' Horse Rocks,' a name 
which needs verifying. 

To the eastward lies a large group of islands, up to which you 
carry 6 fathoms; to the northward of these, at a distance of 8 or 10 
leagues, lies Saddlejsland, making in this direction one conical hill. 
To port the low land of the main will probably be seen. There is 
anchorage throughout in these parts from 6 to 8 fathoms. 

To proceed still to the northward, steer N.NE. for the Dangerous 
Rocks, These are not at all dangerous, being 10 or 12 feet above 
water; passing these close, steer, if required, to the NW. for Sha> 
wei shan yj? 1^ |Jj or Shau-e-shan. 

To enter the Yangtsz' kiang y!^ -^ "^J^ i. e. Child of the" Ocean, 
with a large ship, it probably would be necessary to station a couple 
of small vessels, one on the edge of the outer bank, the other on the 
spit higher up. She might anchor 4 or 5 leagues off GutzlafTs 
Island, while th^y were being placed. Attention to the following 
directions ought to carry a ship up in 20 feet. 

Leaving GutzlafTs Island, keep it on a S.SE. bearing; and having 
run 7 or 8 leagues, Shawei shan will bear NE. by N. From this 
point the break or ripple on the bank should be seen, and you may 
steer NW. When you have got hold of the land, steer W.NW. 
The low land to port should be visible from aloft; and a tree suffi- 
ciently remarkable will be distinguished. Keep this tree two points 
on the port bow. It must be passed at a distance of at least two 
miles, as the bank extends far out from it. When the tree bears 
S. ^ E., close the port shore to half or three fourths of a mile, steer- 
ing,NW, by W. for a large clump of trees. The soundings will now 
gradually increase to 9 or 10 fathoms. 

The outer extreme of the fortifications at Wusung will be seen 
at 7 or 8 miles distance, abreast a clump called the Treble Trees ; 
run on, keeping from half to a mile off shore, and anchor with the 


Channd near Btuh I. Point Harvey on Tsui^ming. fVinds, Tides. 

eastern fort S. by W., and the extreme of the wall NW. by W. ; or 
you may select any other berth you prefer from the chart. Bush 
Island will be seen, the Bush bearing about north. A bar extends 
some distance from the mouth of the river, with 2^ and 4 fathoms, 
deepening suddenly to 10 and 12 fathoms. Bush Island must not 
be approached nearer than 2^ miles. 

Being in mid-channel betwixt VVusung and Bush Island, steer 
about NW. by W., keeping 1^ or 2 miles off shore, and you will 
shoal gradually from 8 to 4.^ fathoms; this point is about 2 miles off 
shore, abreast of the deepest bight; proceeding, you deepen to 14 
fathoms, until abreast a grove or clump of trees, 17 or 18 miles from 
Wusung. When the west end of the trees on Mason Island begins 
to open of the west point of Tsungming (Point Harvey), steer to the 
northward, opening them gradually, and pass Point Harvey at half a 
mile distance ; it is quite steep. 

From Point Harvey, steer NW. ^ W., on for 3 distant hills and a 
pagoda, approaching no nearer than 2 miles to Mason Island. When 
past it, steer west, keeping about mid-channel. The trees on Mason 
Island must not be brought to the southward of east, to avoid a 
shoal running out from the north shore, one third of the distance 
across. When the Pagoda Hill bears NW., and a large bush on the 
south shore S. ^ W., you are abreast the shoalest part, and must 
steer NW. by W. J W., for Round-tree Point, distant four miles. 
The soundings about this point are deep and irregular. When past 
it, and abreast of a creek and mud fort, the bank is very steep, shoal« 
ing from 20 to 2 fathoms, and then to 4 feet. This you avoid by 
keeping the large bush in sight SE. by E. J E. ; and a course W. by 
N., 8 miles, leads abreast of a small circular fort and other buildings, 
the highest point reached by the " Conway." The whole south 
shore appears very shoal to half or a mile off. The channel from 
this point runs probably about N.NW., but it requires examination. 
Running in from seaward, the most eligible land to make is Saddle 
I. ; no land was seen north of it from the summit of Shawei shan. 

Winds, Tides, 4*c. Off the Seshan Islands, the time of high 
water at full and change, is llA. 45/n. ; rise 12 feet. The flood sets 
W.NW,; the ebb E.SE. Generally off the mouth of the river, it is 
high water on full and change days at about noon, or half an hour 
after. The rise at springs is 13 feet ; at neaps, 10 feet ; once 18 feet 
were noted, but this was probably caused by the ship having swung, 
BO as to change her depth. The stream of the flood comes from the 
eastward, drawing to the southward about its last quarter, passing 
around to the ebb from the westward, and so on around by north. 
The greatest velocity measured was 4 J knots, off the northern 
entrances; but the usual velocity at springs is about Sh knots. 

In the river off Wusung, high water at full and change occurs 
about Ih. 30m. The rise. is uncertain, but ranges from 15 to 5 feet. 
The stream of flood comes ffom southeast, passing around by east to 
ijorthward ; the ebb comes from NW., passing around by south. 


Wtather in the Tangtaz' Kiang. Difficulty of the Entrance of the River. 

At the farthest point reached, high water, at full and change, 
occurred about 4A. 30m. The rise was 14 feet ; the ebb running 8 
hours. The flood at the neaps was nearly obliterated. 

In July, the barometer stood at 29.74 ; and the thermometer at 
78*. The prevailing winds were southeast. 

In August, the barometer stood at 29.78 ; and the thermometer at 
81". The prevailing winds were southeast, easterly, and northerly. 
For a day or two in this and the next month, there was blowing 
weather, with a little rain, at the change of the moon. 

In September, the barometer stood at 29.90 ; and the thermometer 
at 77". The winds variable, but drawing around from southeast to 
north, Mornings were colder than the average temperature, which 
having been taken on the main deck, is not-probably very correct. 
The breezes appeared to increase in intensity at full and change. 
The barometer rose with the northerly winds, and fell with westerly 
and southerly. One hard blow occurred with the barometer at 30.10. 

Sectfon 14. 

By Capt. W. Macfarlane of the " Island queen.''— Dec. 1851. 

The directions given by the surveying officers are, I think, too 
vague to be of much use in practice to strangers; particularly, in 
giving courses and distances to be made good, when there are no 
marks available, and the strength and direction of the tide are 
constantly varying. The Admiralty Chart of 1843 is very correct; 
and every vessel bound to Shanghai should be provided with it. 

Vessels bound to Shanghai should make the Barren Islands or 
Saddle Group in the northerly monsoon, as being the most weather- 
ly land-fall ; but in the southwest monsoon, it is more advisable to 
steer for Monte Video, a bold precipitous island, about forty miles 
southward. If late in the day, anchorage should be sought under 
the Saddle Islands, which affo. ' shelter in both monsoons. 

Leaving the Saddle Islands, keep the North Saddle bearing about 
SE. by E. to pass Gutzlaff Island, at a distance of about fifteen or 
sixteen miles ; and no stranger ought to enter the river without 
seeing Gutzlaff, until some mark be erected for the North Sandhead. 
Thus far, the tide sets NW. by W. and SE. by K., from 1^ to 3^ 
knots ; but it is affected gr(?atly, both in direction and velocity, by 
the prevailing wind. 

Steering on to the north-westward, bring Gutzlaff to bear S.SE., 
and sink it on that bearing, w4iich will be at a distance of about 
twenty-two or twenty-three miles ; after which steer NW. ^ W., and 
if the low land be not soon seen on the port bow from the mast head 
keep more westerly by the lead, which is here a .'afe guide. The 


SaddU b. to Gutclafl. /iorth Bank. South Bank. Tuks. 

deepest water is near the North Bank, which should always be 
approached with caution, as it shoals very suddenly. When the first 
point bears VV^ by N., or W., the water deepens to 6 fathoms; this 
point should be passed about 2 miles off, as the hank extends a 
long way out, and there are several knolls off it, on which ships h>ve 
touched. Having passed the point, gradually close with the shore 
to a mile, and keep it about that distance, until the beacon at Wu- 
sung is seen. There are shoal patches a mile off shore, Blockhouse 
1. bearing north. 

If working up from the Saddle Islands, do not bring Gutzlaff 
Island to the eastward of south, until fifteen or sixteen miles to the 
northward of it, when it may be brought to bear S.SE., and you 
will then be on the edge of the South Bank. You may now stand to 
the westward, nearly into the vessel's draught, bearing in mind that 
the flood sets W.SW. around the SE. edge of it, and the ebb con- 
trary. All vessels should keep as near as possible to this Bank, and 
not wait for a shoal cast to tack when standing to the north-eastward. 

1 think the defect in the directions hitherto given, is chiefly, that 
vessels are not advised to get hold of the South Bank as soon as 
possible ; and coursses and directions to be made good are given, 
where there are no marks available, and the strength and direction 
of the tide are constantly varying. 

From the Saddle Lslands to Wusung, the tide generally sets NW, 
by W. and SE. by E. when fully made, if no cause, such as northeast 
gales or heavy rains interfere ; but the flood makes ^r5< to the 
southward, then SW., and NW. at the entrance of the river; the 
ebb making north, passing by NE. to SE., and it is at turn of tide 
that most caution is necessary to avoid being set out of the channel. 
I have found the set of the ship pretty correctly by the deep sea lead, 
and have, on several occasions, gone up the river at night by its 
guidance. Having passed the first point, which the "Conway's" 
surveyors mention to be distinguishable by a large tree (although I 
could never make out any tree there sufficiently remarkable), work 
up from three-quarters of a mile to two miles off shore, and do not 
wait for a second shoal cast on the North side. The narrowest part 
of the channel is where the house i •• Blockhouse Island bears NE. 
by E. It is here about 1.^ mile wide. 

When the ships at Wusung are open, a peaked tower near the 
town of Paushan will be seen to the westward ; and on the embank- 
ment in front of it, a. beacon, which must be kept a little open to 
the southward of the tower, until another large beacon at the en- 
trance of the Shanghai river is on, between two joss-poles behind it 
painted red, and bearing W.SW. This last is an excellent mark for 
the channel, which is very contracted. The beacon may be brought 
a little open on each side of the poles, and the water shoals gradual- 
ly on each side; but the tide does not set exactly fair through. 

The foregoing remarks apply to vessels of a heavy draught, say 
eighteen feet. Small craft may use much more freedom, closing. 


Guides to Wvsung. Paushan Beacon. Light Vessel wanted off JVorth Sand. 

with the South Bank when Gutzlaff is twelve or fifteen miles off to 
the southward, and working up with the lead for a guide, never com- 
ing over half three fathoms, if near low water, to the north-eastward. 
The southern shore is to be depended on all the way ; but when 
within 10 miles of Wusung, the bank is very steep, and should not 
be approached under f of a mile. 

I offer the following suggestions for rendering the navigation of 
the Yangtsz' kiang comparatively safe and simple, which may be 
effected at a trifling cost, considering the valuable trade of Shanghai. 
There is, off the southern end of the North Sand, a spit or patch, 
having 4 or 5 fathoms close to on each side, which is the principal 
danger on entering the river ; and every vessel wrecked hitherto, 
with one exception, has been on this spit. I would therefore recom- 
mend that a Light Vessel should be placed in the bight, between 
this spit and the main bank, where, with good heavy ground-tackle, 
she would ride out any weather. A vessel of one hundred tons or 
thereabouts, strongly built, on the principle of the Light vessels at 
the Sand-heads of the Hoogly, would be large enough. She should 
be fitted with a light, to be distinguishable from a ship's light or 
those that the fishermen often show ; and visible at least seven miles 
distant. She should be supplied with two good coir cables, as well 
as with chains, in order to enable her to ride to the high sea that 
sometimes occurs ; and she should also be provided with a life boat, 
and a European should continually be on board, sufficiently ac- 
quainted with the river, and with the indications of the weather, to 
warn vessels, by signal or otherwise, of approaching danger. 

In addition to the light, I would place a buoy off the NW. end of 
the spit, and another off the south end, which, I think, are all that 
would be necessary in any ordinary weather ; but in standing in 
from sea, I am decidedly of opinion that a stranger Should not at- 
tempt to run in, unless certain of getting within the bar, if there are 
indications of bad weather ; but rather, he should seek anchorage 
among the islands, or else put to sea for the night ; the former would 
be preferable in heavy weather, for unless a good sailer, a vessel 
would not fetch up again in the NE. monsoon. The tides are so 
strong, and at times so uncertain in direction, that the best acquaint- 
ed persons can not hope to keep a correct reckoning at night ; and 
it would prove very rough riding, should a ship attempt to anchor 
between Gutzlaff Island and the North Sands in a gale. 

I think it quite useless to attempt to erect a beacon on the Sand, 
with the means that would be available here ; as the tide runs with 
great velocity, and I am not aware that any part of the patch has 
less than nine feet water on it. The flood often comes in with a 
heavy bore or roller, when a southerly wind is blowing ; and I do 
not think that a sufiicient foundation could be formed to justify the 
expectation of a beacon standing the combined action of the wind 
and tide. No doubt a beacon might be placed on the North Sand 
itself, where it dries, in many ways — for instance, by sinking a foun- 


Beacon on the Sand, Beacon on Amhent Rocks. Beacons on shore. Poles. 

dation in iron tanks ; but it would be at a greater distance from the 
channel, and altogether it would be less useful than a floating light. 

The following suggestions were made by Admiral Cochrane in 
1846 for erecting beacons, and placing guides to facilitate the en- 
trance to the Wusung River. The entire cost of the light vessel 
and beacons were estimated at about $2200, with an annual charge 
of $360 to maintain the crew of the vessel. Since they were made, 
the introduction of steam tugs has obviated the ne^ of some of the 
beacons, but not of the light-vessel spoken of by Capt. Macfarlane. 

"The difficulties attending the navigation of the Yangtsz' kiang from ita 
entrance to the Wusung river, commence after passing Gutzlaff's Island and 
losing sight of it, which frequently is the case in foggy weather, when not 
above eight or ten miles from it, although on a clear day the island is visible 
at the distance of 27 miles. 

"On losing sight of the beforementioned island, there is nothing to guide 
the eye until you have advanced far up the river even in clear weather, and 
as the land on the southern bank is very low, you must go considerably fur- 
ther in hazy weatlier to obtain an object to do so ; in the meantime the lead 
is the only guide, but which, from the velocity and irregularity of the tides or 
current, will not indicate how far a vessel has ascended the river, nor can one 
be very sure always as to the side of it on which he may be ; and the north- 
ern bank is dangerous to approach in consequence of deep water running 
close up to the sand. 

" Under these circumstances it is mast desirable that vessels entering this 
river should have marks leading from one to another until so far advanced in 
it as to be able to carry four fathoms water within two or three miles of the 
Bouthern shore. For which purpose, as well as to conduct a ship in safety into 
the Wusung River, and from thence to the port of Shanghai, it is recommend- 
ed that the following arrangements should be made: — 

" Ist. On thp starboard hand going in, a stone beacon to be erected on the 
Amherst Rocks, elevating them twenty feet higher than they are at present 

"2d. A Chinese boat, with a beacon pole raised upon her fifty feet high, 
■urmounted by a suitable top, to be anchored within the Horse-shoe of Uie 
sand called '^'Tungsha.^ Hereafter a light boat may be substituted for her. 

"3d. One beacon, fifty feet high, on the right bank of the river, placed, if 
possible, eo as to be taken up on losing sight of GutzlafPs I. in hazy weather. 

" 4th. One beacon forty feet high on a point already chosen by Capt Col- 
linson, and which will bear from the beacon boat S.SW. 4 W. by compass, 
seven miles. 

" 5th. One pole with a suitable top placed near the angle of the fort of 
Paushan, which, coming on with a whitewashed mark already placed, to 
be a leading mark to the entrance of the Wusung river. 

" 6th. Three high poles, painted in different colors, to replace three trees 
now existing, as marks for advancing in the river ; and one painted board, six 
feet square, elevated forty feet, to be placed under these poles where & tem- 
porary board now exists. 

" 7th. One transporting buoy properly moored on the port-hand entrance 
to the river. 

" 8th. Three other similar buoys, t) be placed as marked by Capt. Collin- 
son, to indicate the narrowest pass of the river to Shanghai ; and to answer 
at the same time as warping buoys through the said narrows." 



Position of places from Cape of Good Hope to Double Peak. 

Sectfon 15. 

This list appertains entirely to the surveys m Sections 2, 3, 8, 9, and 12> 
and the positions are given nearly according to the latitudes of the places, 
commencing at the south. Many of those already given in the surveys are 
here omitted. 

Place ai*d Spot ; with the Chinese characters pj ^^^ 


Cape of Good Hope, 

Dodd's I- :(t |j£ Pehting, ... - 
Chapel Island, JS^ iff Tungting. - - 
Iloo-e tow bay; east point, [g] g§ Weitau. 
Chimmo Bay ; pagoda; m Mp ^ Ku-s^u tah. 
Islet in Chinchew Bay, - - - , . 

Ockseu I. ; high part of West I. ^ J^ Wukiu. 

Lamyet I. ; western peak. Chungtung shdn. 

Double island, 

Pagoda, -. - - - ... 

Three Chimneys; summit, 639 feet. 

South reef, ... . . . 

Turnabout I.; highest part it m Niu shin. 
Ilaetan ^ |Jj Kiun shan ; peak, 1420 feet. 
North rock, - - - ^. j^- 
White Dogs; breakwater. ^ y^ Peh-kiuen. 

^*^'^>''ISJtl Iflr Fuhchau fu. 

pagoda, 1^ ^ J^ L6-sing tih. 

temple, jfiS ^ Fuh-tau. 

Sharp Point, 586 feet. - . 

Outer reefs, 

Sea Dog, ... ... 

Matsooshau ; summit, j^ tjtH \\\ Matsu shdn. 

Changche shan; do. -^ ||r? l\\ Changki shdn. 

Alligator Island, "^ yl? Tung.shd. 
Larne Rock, - ..... 

Larne islet; highest part, .... 
Yung.tseigh ; do. 853 ft. ^B jrk Tungyung. 
Spider peak, ... ... 

Double peak, | Th^paps, 1 190 feet high.' -" 
Pihseang shan; peak, 1l^Mi1| Pehsiiiiigsh^n 

Fuhchow foo < 

N. Lat. 

Dcg. Min, Dec 

E. Long. 

Deg. Min. Dfc 

23" 14.' 

116' 47.' 

24 26.6 

118 29.4 

24 10.3 

118 13.5 

24 31. 

117 31.5 

24 42. 

118 42. 

24 45. 

118 44.7 

24 59.3 

119 29.1 

25 12.3 
25 15.8 
25 22.2 
25 22.1 
25 23.1 
25 26. 

119 36. 
119 42.3 
119 41.9 
119 45.3 
119 51.5 
119 58.7 

25 35.7 
25 45.4 
25 58.1 

119 51.3 
119 50.8 
119 57.6 

26 05. 

119 20.6 

25 59.6 

119 29.1 

26 08.7 

119 39.8 

26 08.3 
26 05. 
26 05.2 
26 09.2 

119 42.4 

119 51.5 

120 04. 

119 58.2 

26 14. 

120 01.8 

26 09. 
26 15.8 
26 21.3 

120 25.8 
120 14.2 
120 14.8 

26 23.2 
26 30.6 
26 30. 
26 36.1 

120 31.2 
120 04.2 
120 10. 
120 11.2 

26 42.4 

120 226 





Position of Places belween Taeshan Group and Sheipoo. 

Placb. AND Spot ; .WITH THE Chinese characters 
AND Pronunciation is the Court Dialect. 

High T. jjjg^-jll Fuyau shan, summit, 1084 ft. 
Taeshan group; highest, ^^ m 'J';iish;'in. 
Sunken rocks between Pihquan and Taeshan. 
Pihquan; three chimneys, JIJ^ ^ Pehkwan. 

Rooks north of Taeshan, I ^ outlier rf" - - 
^ r Observatory I. - - - - - 

2 South islet, - 

2. Eastern islet . . . . . 

^ ^ Cone islet, - ^^ irl- i " " ' 
^ Nanke shan; h. part. ^lIjJ[l|Nank' shan. 

|[pihkeshan; do. ;(tll^|l|Pehkish^n. 

Entrance to Wanchow foo, ^f^ <).|»| ]^' - - 

Half tide rocks W.SW. of Miaoushan. - 

Miaoushan ; ^^|J-| ^Vi'yau shan, h. p. 737 ft. 

Tongtan shan, E.poiiitJI^^iJj'l'ungtau shan. 
Coin island ; 183 feet. 

Laouka; peak,^ ^ |Jj Kii'iki sh^n. - - 
Pesan; summit, ^ [Jj Pi shdn. - - 

Taluk shan; do. 771ft. ^ ^ [1| TAluh shiin. 
East islet off Teaou pangmun. - - - 
Chikhok; summit, 7t)l ft.^;^|JjTsihkushan 
o Heacbuh shan, finger rock, ~l> ^Jt* ill " " 

c [^ Northern islet. ..... 

Entrance to Tnichow foo o IH/ffiP - - 
Chuhseu;>f^ f^Chuhsii, highest part, 671 ft, 
Tungchuh sen; ^j^^Jj Tungki shan do. 

IT , S ^'S^ P'*''^ of South I. 320 feet 

Heshan group, < ° , . , kt* i 

^ ^noi-'liernislet,|mjHehshan. 

St. George's I.; bay on south side. - j . 
Tafuh tow, ;^ ^^ g^ T^ftih tau. - 
Learning; peak. ---... 
Islets of Sanmoon; easternmost. - . . 

Deg. Min. Dee. 

26° 56.' 1 

26 59.2 

27 02.4 
27 00.7 
27 03.5 
27 05.6 

, 27 26.3 
27 20.3 
27 27.6 
27 27.3 
27 27.2 

27 37.3 

27 57.5 

27 48.4 
27 51.6 

27 48. 

27 50. 

27 59.2 

28 05.5 

28 06. 

28 15.9 

28 22.4 

28 23 

28 26.2 

28 28.9 

28 31.8 

28 39.1 

28 40.5 

28 42.2 

28 50.8 

28 55.2 

29 06.2 

29 05.8 

29 02 1 

29 Oil 

^. L^ng. 

D-g. 1 

UiD. Dec 








































































Position of Places between Cape Montague and Saddle L 

Place and Spot; with the Chinese charactebs 
AKD Pronunciation in the Court Dialect. 

N. Lat. 

)eg. Mio. Dec. 

E. Long. 

Dtg. Min. Dec. 



122 02.5 













































122 23.5 





122 03.2 












41. ' 

Sheipoo city, ^ ^ Shih-pii. - - - 
Cape Montague; high. part. 738,;^ §^ [Ij 
Half-tide rock, - - - - . - 

The Bear ; peak, -j^ S Jj Tdinuh shfin. 

Patahecock; high p. A^^ Pahtsz' kioh. 
Whelps; centre. - - - - - - 

Mouse, i3 jj^ ? Shu shan. - - . . 
Mesan and Laniet ; highest p. [JO !p^ Sz' tsidu. 

Buffalo's Nose; "T^^M-I Niupi shan, high p. 
Front Island ; high part. 

Lowang cape, y^ ;|^ Luh-hvvang. - - - 
Tree-a-top, JU')|«| Ijffl Wanchau sii. - - 
Beak head; E. extreme ^|p^ Tunglo kwei. 
Vernon I.; E. extreme J^ IpC |lj Hiaki sh^n. 
Kitto, |||J ^ Ki-tau. 

Suburbs of'IMnghae, temple hill. {l|si Tautau. 
Roundabout Island. - - *'^^*^^ . 

Bell Island, ^ ^ Matsin, - - - . 
East islet off Chookia tsien. - . . 
Reef near the same. 

Chuttatham; cone, j^ ^ ^ Chnkia tsien. 
Just-in-the-vvay, ^ <^ ^ Ilwangniu tsiau. 
Kintang peak, -^^1 Kinting. - 
Steward, ^ '^B^ ^ Pwanyang t-si-iu. 

Pooto I. ^ ji'tl P'''t^- - 

Broken I.; highest part ^^ g jj^ Marauh shan. 

Landing place, yJ>Vy Siausha, . . . 

Fisher'.s Island, ^ Q |X| Changpeh sh.ln. 
.Monte Video ; Summit. - . . . 
Houbland I., highest part ^jijTaishdn. 
Sheppey island, ^ ^ ^| Lfmsiu shan. 
Blackheath, ^ ^ [Ij Ch^ngtu shSn. 
Barren Island, - - - - . 

North Satjdle Island, - - . 

29° 12.'8 

29 10 

29 15.3 

29 23.5 

29 21.9 

29 29.4 

29 32.7 

29 36.5 






















































Shantung Promontory. Alceste I. Chuha hnn. Shamo. Toki . 

Section IG. 

These observations were compiled from the journals kept on board H. M.'s 
ships " Wellesley," " Pylades," and others forming Admiral Elliot's squadroa 
in 1840. Only those paragraphs which refer to places north of Shanghai are 
here introduced. 

On the 3l3t of July, 1840, H. M. ship " Wellesley " left the Kew- 
shan Group for the Gulf of Cheihle. 

Shantung Promontory . From our leaving the Kew-shan Islands 
until the 4th of August, being then in lat. 35° 12' N., and long. 123" 
35' E., the wind was from the southeast with misty weather. It 
then drew round to the S.SW., still continuing hazy. On the morn- 
ing of the 5th of August we observed the Promontory of Shantung, 
a high bold point, with a rugged termination towards the sea, and 
a small pagoda near its end. 

Alceste Island is small but high, and appears surrounded by reefs. 
A rock, high above water off its northeast point, bore S.SE. when 
on with the north point of Shantung. There is a small i.sland about 
5 miles to the westward of Alceste Island. The promontory north- 
west of Shantung is high and rugged, having a small barren island 
near it ; opposite to the island is a bay with a sandy beach. 

Kungtung |]^ (i|jpj (Kungkung-tao) and Chefow ^ ^. The 

north rock of the Kungtung Group is high and square. Cape Chefow 
is high, and at a distance from the eastward, appears like an island ; 
to the southwestward is a remarkable hill with a top resembling a 
chimney. . 

Chuhshan yj \1\. At 6 P. M., with the northern rock of Kung- 
tung bearing S. by W. i W., and Chefow SVV. J W., Great Chuh- 
shan was plainly visible from the poop, NW. by W. ^ W., about 11 
leagues distant. The ship anchored for the night in 11^ fathoms, 
with the Great Chuhshan NW. by W. | W. ; Cape Chefow. S.SW. 
I W. ; north rock of Kungtung, S. by E. easterly. Very little tide 
or current was found at this anchorage. Weighed the next morning 
at daybreak, and carried regular soundings of 12 to lOJ fathoms 
towards the Great Chuhshan, which is higher than the island in its 
vicinity, and although of a very barren appearance has a small village 
on its SE. side, and cattle were observed on the hills. Little Chuh- 
shan bears N. 85" 40' E. from Great Chuhshan, distant about 3 
miles. » I rfs 

Shamo ^ ^ A small island, named Shamo, lies N. 57° W. from 
Great Chuhshan, and N. 15" W., about three miles from Little Chuh- 


Villages on Toki. Macfutng shih. Qxioin. Houki. 

Toki ^*^ ^ lies about 7 miles to the northwestward of Shamo. 
The " Welle sley" subsequently visited tfie island twice; it is mode 
rately high, and has a high peak near the centre ; it is nearly the 
form of a right-angled triangle, the shortest sides being those upon 
the south and west. There are four villages upon the southern side, 
and one or two on the side facing the northeast. This island is well 
cultivated, and fresh provisions, vegetables, and water may be ob- 
tained. On the ship's first visit, 34 bullocks were procured, which, 
though small, were in good condition ; a quantity of poultry, eggs, 
and vegetables, and from the wells at the villages upon the south 
side of the island, 30 tons of water were obtained in a day. On the 
second visit, 15 bullocks were procured. The " Wellesley " was 
anchored in 10 fathoms muddy bottom, with Machang shih, a small 
but high islet off the southwest end of Toki, bearing N. 78° E., and 
Toki from N. 64° W. to N. 56° E. A rock high above water off 
the southeastern end of Toki bore N. 78° E. ; Great Chuhshan, S. 
45;^° E. The ship was 910 yards S. 11° 20' W. from the south- 
eastern point of a little bay, at the head of which is a small village. 
This point is in lat. 38° 9' 20" N., and long. 120° 52' 17" E., or 
1° 16 30" west of the Pagoda Hill on Chusan. Variation, 1° 20 W. 

The whole of this part appears perfectly clear with regular sound- 
ings ; the little rock at the southeastern end of Toki, and the small 
island of Machang shih at the southwestern end, may be passed within 
a cable's length. The whole of the channels between these islands 
are said to be clear, with the exception of the channel between Toki 
and the islands north of it, nearly in the centre of which there is 
said to be a small sunken rock, with about 5 feet water on it, and 
deep water all a round. The information respecting this rock was 
derived from the people at Toki. 

Quoin or Kiaoushan. The " Wellesley " passed twice between 
Toki and the Quoin, and twice between the Quoin and the island 
south of it, called Se Keusan in the charts, carrying in each case 
regular soundings lOA to 14 fathoms. There is also a very good pas- 
sage, with the same depth, between the Heshan or Miaotao Islands 
and Keusan. In a strong wind from the north we anchored under the 
Quoin in 12 fathoms, with that island bearing from N. to N. 26°E., 
about one mile distant ; Chuhshan bearing S. 68° E., and Toki from 
N. 47° E. to N. 72° E. In the Admiralty charts, a rock is laid down 
to the southward of the Quoin, but we found it perfectly clear in that 
direction. -^ 

Houki "f^ ^. The island to the southward of it, called Houki 
(on the charts written Keusan), has a reef running some little dis- 
tance from its northern end, and another off its eastern end. 

From the Quoin, H. M. ship " Wellesley" sailed from Toki on the 
18th of September at 6 a. m., with the tide running to the westward, 
carrying a depth of 10 and 10^ fathoms' water from the anchorage, 
until passing the southeast end of Mouki, where it deepened to 13 
and 14 fathoms, then shoaled again to 10 a)id 9 fathom.s. 


Heshan Is. Tangchowfoo Bay. Marks into it. Channrl. 

Heshan, or Miaotao Group. When passing the west point of the 
Heshan islands, to which we gave a berth of 3 miles to avoid a reef 
that extends from the west point in a southwest direction IJ to 2 
miles, and which broke when we passed it, after having rounded the 
southwestern point of the Heshan island, we hauled up gradually to 
the eastward, carrying a depth of 7 fathoms. The first anchorage 
was in GJ fathoms, good holding-ground, with the western Heshan 
island bearing from N. 38" W. to N. 15' VV. ; and Long Island, or 
Chang shan, the easternmost of the group, from N. 53^ 40' E. to 
S. 78° E. 

The next day, we weighed and ran further to the E.NE., and 
anchored in 6 fathoms' mud, with a rocky islet off the West Heshan 
bearing N. 62" 40' W.; the SW. point of Long Island or Changshan 
being N. 3° E., distant f of a mile ; Bluff Point, with a fort on it at 
the west side of the entrance to Tangchow foo, bore S. 15' 20 E. ; 

and the pagoda on the hill over Tangchow foo, S^ >U\ tflf S, 6° 
20' E. Variation, V 32' W. .52. /ii n* 

There is an extensive and good anchorage under these islands. 
The holding-ground is good, and soundings regular from 6 to 7 
fathoms' water, and sheltered from all winds, except the westward, 
and even with a strong wind from this quarter the land is sufficient- 
ly near to prevent any sea from rising ; and should it blow so hard 
from the westward as to prevent a vessel riding in safety, she might 
weigh, or slip and run out through the eastern passage. We could 
discover no danger to the southward of these islands, except the shoal 
running off the southwestern point of the Heshan Islands, and a spit 
extending IJ mile or more from the southwest end of Chang shan. 
This spit has irregular soundings, 4J and 2 fathoms, and the latter 
depth near to its southern extreme. A small round hill, with a heap 
of stones on it, forming the extreme of the land to the northeastward 
of a village on the central island, kept open of the southwest point 
of Long Island, N. 30° W., will lead outside the shoal in 5 fathoms. 
The southwest point of Long Island is a low bluff, of a reddish 
color. The hill which forms the mark is low ; and to the northeast 
of the village is another hill higher than this, having also a heap of 
stones on its summit. 

Another mid-channel mark is to bring two distant points on the 
main land in one line with each other, bearing S. 73' E. When the 
whole of Toki comes open of Long Island, N. 4° W., you will be to 
the eastward of the shoal, and may haul out to the northward. 

As a stranger may have some difficulty in distinguishing the lead- 
ing marks, he had better keep nearly as possible in mid-channel be- 
tween Tangchow foo and Long Island, not coming too near the main 
to avoid a reef of rocks which extends 2 or 3 miles to the northward 
from the east of Tangchow foo, with deep water near it. 

The south side ef Long Island, to the westward of the spit, is 
clear, with 6 and 7 fathoms within half a mile of the beach. There is 


Miaotao Group. From Toki to the Pei-ho. Shaluytien Is. and Shoal. 

also the same depth near the south side of Middle Island ; between 
these two islands a deep bay is formed, with a depth of 3 fathoms, 
where small vessels might be well sheltered. The southwest point 
of Long Island is in lat. 37° 54' N., and 120° 48 30" E., or 1° 20' 
15' W. of Pagoda Hill in Chusan. 

The Miaotao Group is composed of 4 principal islands, and some 
rocks or islets. To the west are the Greater and Lesser Keshan 
1& jXj or Black Islands, the small middle island is Miaotao ^R ^| 
or Temple Island), and Chang shan .& jjj or Long Island, consi- 
derably the largest, is the easternmost. The harbor for Chinese 
junks (which is the port of Tangchow foo), is the bay formed be- 
tween Miaotao and Chang shan. 

From Toki towards the mouth of the Pei-ho. From the Q,uoin, the 
"Wellesley" steered a W.NW. course towards the Pei-ho, carrying 
regular soundings 12 and 14 fathoms' water, until in latitude 38° 41' 
N., and longitude 118° 15' E., when it shoaled to 9i fathoms, and 
then decreased gradually to 6, in which depth the ship was anchored 
in lat. 33° 55^' N., and long. 118° 4' E. From this anchorage the 
land (which is very low near the entrance of the Pei-ho,) could 
scarcely be distinguished in clear weather. The Chinese call this 
river the Pei-ho Q 4p\, or White River, but the branch leading 

up to the city of Tientsin fu ^ ^^ Ry- usually takes its name from 
that place. 

At another anchorage in 6 fathoms, in lat. 38° 58' N., and long. 
118° 7' E., a fort at the entrance of the Pei-ho, seen from the mast- 
head, bore N. 87° W. by compass. 

About 7 miles to the eastward of this anchorage is the southwest 
point of an extensive shoal, composed of coarse sand and rocks, to 
avoid which, when running in for the anchorage off the Pei ho, a ship 
should keep 2 or 3 miles to the southward of 38° 59' N., until the 
water shoals to 8 or 7 fathoms, when they may keep to the northward, 
anchoring so as to be sheltered from the sea which sets in during 
strong NE. winds. ^ . «. „-» 

The Shaluytien Islands rp ^ m are low and apparently barren. 
The Chinese name, which signfies ' fields of sand,' very well des- 
cribes them. The southernmost islands has a small temple 
upon it, which, standing alone and upon an elevated spot, is conspi- 
cuous. We passed on two occasions about 8 or 9 miles to the south- 
ward of the island, carrying 12^ to 14 fathoms, but the " Volage" had 
20 fathoms within a mile of the island. The temple is in latitude 
38' 55' N., and long. 118° 37.J E,, by good observations taken both 
times in passing. 

From the Quoin, the anchorage off the Pei-ho is W.NW., and the 
distance 46 leagues, with regular soundings of 12 and 14 fathoms. 
After a strong southeast wind, we were set considerably to the north- 
ward ; therefore, iu running to the westward, care must be taken to 


Mouth of the Pei-ho. Tuvglsze kow Bai/. End of the Great Wall. 

avoid the dangerous shoal off the Shahiytien Islands. The latitude of 
the southern island is 38"* 53' N., and longitude 118° 45' E. ; from 
this, the shoal extends about VV.NW. The northwest end bore 
from the anchorage off the Pei-ho, which was in latitude 38° 58' N., 
and longitude 118° 8' E., N. 87" E., 9 miles. The southern part of 
the west end is very steep ; in three casts we shoaled the water 
from where we lay at anchor with the shoal bearing N. J W., in 10 
fathoms, to 8, 6, and 3. This part is composed of rocks and shingle, 
leaving a channel for junks between it, and a line of sand extending 
to the eastward. The depths of water over the bank are 1, ^, and 
lA fathoms ; some places are dry at low water, with numerous tishing 
stakes, and affording shelter for junks. From the west end, the shoal 
trends to the northward and N.NE., about 4 miles, and then east- 
ward, making a channel for trading junks between it and the shoal 
that extends from the main. 

Good anchorage and smooth water were found in lat. 39° 1', and 
39^ 2^ N., in 6 fathoms, particularly during northeasterly gales, at 
which time vessels off the Pei-ho ride heavily. 
. In running for the anchorage, having sighted the southern Shaluy- 
tien, which is low and has deep water on the south side (17 fathoms 
lA mile distant), steer due west, and do not come to the northward 
of lat. 38" 54'. You will soon^shoal your water to 9, then 10, and 12 
fathoms. The latter depth you will carry until the west end of the 
shoal is north of you. The soundings then will decrease, gradually 
towards the Pei-ho, to 8 and 7 fathoms, when you may either haul up 
for the anchorage off the latter place, or more to the northward under 
the lee of the west side of the shoal. 

High water at lOA. 45w. ; rise and fall, 10 feet; at the anchorage 
off the Pei-ho the flood tide sets to the northwest, and ebb to the 
southeast. Along the south side of the shoal, the flood follows tlie 
direction of it W.NW., at the rate of 4J knots per hour at spring 
tides ; and the ebb to the southeast at the rate of 3 knots ; on the 
west side it sets to the northward, but not with so much velocity. 

H. M. ship " Blonde" anchored off the mouth of the Pei-ho in lat. 
38° 56' N., long. 118° 9' E., in 7 fathoms' water. The rise and 
fall of the tide was 7 feet. 

On the the 16th of August, the "Blonde" weighed for the water- 
ing-place at Tungtsze kow, in Chinese Tartary. The delineation of 
the coast-line in this neighborhood in the Admiralty charts appeared 
correct. >rj^ -- ,^ 

Bay of Tungtsze kow fllfl "J' ^. On the 18th of Aug., we were 
in lat. 39° 45' N., and long. 120° 3' E., in 8 fathoms' water, when the 
towers on the Great Wall were distinctly seen, bearing from N. by 
W. to N., distant 5 leagues. Thence the ship steered to the east- 
ward, having regular soundings in II to 16 fathoms, when, in lat. 
39° 12' N., and long. 120° 24' E., the water suddenly shoaled to 10 
fathoms: for a* i^hort period after which we had 16 fathoms, until 
approacliing the anchorage which is 8^ fathoms ; the north point 

<;iLF OF CHEIHLE. 1~1 

Bay of Changhing. . Tides in Gidf of Cheihle. Bar in the Pei-ho. 

bearing N.NW. ^ W. ; village, E. f N. ; remarkable hill, E. ^ S. ; 
watering-place, E. by N. J N. ; south point, S. J W. The latitude 
was 39' 30' N., and longitude by chronometer, 121" 20' E., and by 
lunar observations, 121' 16'. Variation, 2° 50' VV. High water at 
2A. 30/n. Direction of tide, W.NVV.; rise and fall, 9 feet. 

On a nearer approach to this bay, the north point appears abrupt, 
and is of a reddish color, sloping toward the north, and perpendicular 
towards the sea ; it cannot well be mistaken for any other part of the 
coast. The bay is extensive, being 7 or 8 miles wide, and affords 
ample room for any number of ships ; but within 2 or 3 miles inside of 
the point where the watering bay is, there are only 3^ fathoms at low 
water, and it is prudent not to approach nearer. This is on the south 
side of the bay at Changhing ^ ^, opposite to Fuhchow ^ ijJJ 
on the main. 

The terminus of the Great Wall is in lat. 40° 4 N., long. 120' 2 

E., and near it is a large town called Shan-hai wei lL| tS* ij^T 
or the garrison of the Shan-hai kwan |X| "/W S^ trfb gate through 
the Wall, which leads into Manchuria and Corea. 

Tides in the Gulf of Chcihle. At the anchorage off the Pei-ho, 
about 16 miles from the land, it was high water on full and change 
days at 4 o'clock p. m. Flood tide set to the northwestward, and ebb 
to the southeast. Its velocity was 1^ knot per hour during spring 
tides; rise and fall about 7 feet. At Toki and the Keshan Group, the 
tides are very irregular. While at anchor off Toki, the stream ran 
22 hours to the westward, while the water rose and fell by the shore. 
High water on full and change days about 8A. SOm. 

The entrance of the Pei-ho is seriously injured for purposes of 
navigation by the bar at its mouth. When the British steamer 
" Madagascar" was there in 1840, she found 12 feet only at high 
spring tides, and managed to get over it at that time by being light- 
ened to 11^ ft. At low water there were only 3 or 4 feet. The 
largest sized junks are obliged to discharge some of their cargo 
before they can get up to Tientsin. When the American steam- 
frigate "Powhatan" lay off the mouth in 1854, lieut. -commanding 
Stevens, in the screw steamer " John Hancock," made a survey of 
the mouth, and found only 9 ft. at high water, and 3 ft. at low 
water. A difficulty of this nature must always prove a serious 
obstacle to Tientsin ever becoming a place of great foreign trade. 

COM, lit. 16 


Winds and Currents on Coast. Currents near Baahees. Mvice in going up. 

The following remarks concerning the winds and currents in the 
Formosan Channel, are the result of a long experience, and deserve 
attention. The last paragraph is by Captain Thomas Rees, the 
others from Capt. T. B. Smith of the British ship " Wanderer." 

«' Winds prevail from E.NE., chiefly until the Formosa Straits are open, 
when they come down N. by E., and N.NE.; about the Bashces, NE. and 
E.NE. winds prevail with a very turbulent sea; reaching to the SE., found an 
undeviating strong wind and heavy sea from NE., but stretching out of this to 
the northward along the east coast of Formosa, the wind is easterly and variable, 
until well to tlie north of that island, when we had it heavy from N.NE.; and 
it may be considered a general rule, tliat when the wind creeps round to the 
south of east of it will speedily fly round with the sun to the north, and blow 
with redoubled fury. Heavy northwest gales sometimes blow for several days 
together upon this north coast, reaching far into the offing. 

" Currents set strong from the east, until the Formosa Straits are open, when 
they usually trend down the China Sea more southerly. On approaching 
Formosa, found little or no current under the lee of the Pescadores. About 
Botel Tobago Xima, the current divides, one stream setting strong to the west 
through the Bashres, the other branching off" to the north along the east side 
of Formosa. In *!ie open sea to the? north of that island, it is very mutable in 
direction and velocity, governed by the prevaihng wind, but setting fast to the 
south during the strong northerly gales so often experienced in that locality. 

" General Remarks. The paffeage up against the NE. monsoon involves 
considerable wear and tear, and is very trying to sails and spars, as it is one 
continued series of heavy weather — almost a constant double reef breeze with 
a very turbulent sea. At\er leaving the Bashees, the chief difficulties of the 
passage seem to be over. 

" On departing from the Lemas, it is best to hold the coast close on board, 
using every legitimate means of obtaining easting, and evading the constant 
adverse current which here prevails, by working up in the smooth water of the 
safe bays by day, and if blowing hard coming to, when anchorage is attainable, 
until the gale is over ; standing boldly to the eastward when the wind permits, 
and again seeking in share, when it becomes adverse. This is the trying part 
of the passage, and requires a watchful perseverance. 

" After passing the south point of Formosa, the passage either to the east or 
west of the Madjicosimah group may be adopted, according to the wind. The 
latter offers the advantage of a favorable current which sets with some velocity 
up to the north. Having advanced to the north of Formosa Head, the most 
favorable tack may be pursued, wind veering from north to east in the offing 
with an occasional gale from the N W. ; it is best to avoid the land until a lead 
in can be made to windward of the Kewsan, where a well sheltered anchorage 
may be obtained under the islands. 

" The barometer fails to be of much use on this coast for ordinary gales, 
rising very high with the prevalent northerly stormy weather. After veering 
round southerly, the wind sometimes comes down with sudden violence from 
the north, when sail should be immediately reduced, but the gales are never 
of long continuance." 

" The wind blows for not less than nine montlis down the coast of Kwang- 
tung province. A vessel coming out of the Lema Channel, when such is the 
case, ought always, if possible, to work up within about twenty miles of the 
shore. Repeated trials have proved the correctness of this advice ; for whenever 
ships have stretched out far to seaward, making long tacks, they have always 
had to encounter so much stronger wind and more heavy sea, that their progress 
being wholly stayed, they have found, when again fetching the coast, that 
they had gained nothing." 



The following sailinff directions for ships going to the nev^ opened ports 
in Lewchew and Japan, were prepared by officers in Commodore Perry's 
equadron in the expedition to those countries in 1853 and 1854. 

^ Sectron 1 


% Lieut. SUas Btnt, U. S. A". 

This is the principal sea-port of the island, and perhaps the only 
one possessing the privileges of a port entry. 

Its inner, or " Junk harbor," has a depth of water of from two to 
three fathoms, and though small, is sufficiently large to accommodate 
with ease, the fifteen or twenty moderate sized junks which are 
usually found moored in it. These are mostly Japanese, with a' few 
Lewchewan and some small coasting craft, which seem to carry on 
a sluggish trade with the neighboring islands. 

The outer harbor is protected to the eastward and southward by the 
main land, whilst in other directions it is surrounded by merely a 
chain of coral reefs, which answer as a tolerable breakwater against 
a swell from the northward or westward, but affords of course, no 
shelter from the wind. The holding-ground is so good, however, 
that a well found ship could ride out here almost any gale in safety. 

The clearest approach to Napa from the westward, is by passing 
to the northward of the Amakirrima islands, and sighting Agenhu 
Island, from whence steer a SK. course for the harbor, passing on 
either side of Reef Islands, being careful, however, not to approach 
them too near on the western and southern sides, as the reefs below 
water in these directions are snid to be more extensive than is 
shown by the charts. 

After clearing Reef Islands, bring Wood Hill to bear S.SE., when 
stand down for it, until getting upon the line of bearing for South 
Channel. This will carry you well clear of Blossom Reef, yet not 
so far off but that the White Tomb and clump of trees or bushes to 
the southward of Tumai Head (see View, No. 3 on chart,) can be 
easily distinguished. An E.NE. J E., or E.NE. course will now take 


Oar Channel into J^apa. ^ortk Channel. Blotsom Reef. 'Spar Buoys. 

you in clear of all dangers, and give a good anchorage on or near 
the Seven Fathom Bank, about half a mile to the northward and 
westward of False Capstan Head. This channel being perfectly 
straight, is more desirable for a stranger entering the harbor, than 
Oar Channel, which, though wider, has the disadvantage of its being 
necessary for a vessel to alter her course some four or five points, 
just when she is in the midst of reefs which are nearly all below tl^e 
surface of the water. 


Bring the centre of the island in Junk Harbor (known by the deep 
verdure of its vegetation), to fill the gap between the forts at the 
entrance of Junk Harbor (see View, No. 2 on chart,) and steer a S. 
E. l^ E. course, until Capstan Head bears east, when haul up to E. 
NE., and anchor as before directed. 

The North Channel 

Is very much contracted by a range of detached rocks making 
out from the reef on the west side, and should not under ordinary 
circumstances be attempted by a stranger ; as at high water the reefs 
are almost entirely covered, and it is difficult to judge of your exact 
position, unless familiar with the various localities and land marks. 
To enter by this (North) Channel, bring a remarkable notch in the 
southern range of hills, in line with a small hillock just to the eastward 
of False Capstan Head (see View No. 1 on chart), and stand in 
this range S. by E. ^ E., until Tumai Head bears E. J N., when 
open a little to the southward, so as to give the reef to the eastward 
a berth, and select your anchorage. 

There is a black spar-buoy anchored on Blossom Reef half-way 
between its East and Western extremities, a red spar-buoy on the 
point of reef to the W.NWestward of Abbey Point, and a white 
spar-buoy on the southeast extremity of Oar Reef. Flags of corres- 
ponding colors are attached to all these buoys, and they afford good 
guides for the South and Oar Channels. There are two large stakes 
on the reefs on the eastward and westward of North Channel, 
planted there by the natives, this being the channel mostly used 
by junks trading to the northward. 

An abundance of water can always be obtained at the fountains 
in Junk River, where there is excellent landing for boats. There is 
a good spring near the tombs in Ttimai Bluff, but unless the water 
is perfectly smooth the landing is impracticable ; and under any 
circumstances it is inconvenient from the want of sufficient depth, 
except at high tide. 

•Vote. — The spar-buoys above described, were securely moored at the time 
they were placed in their respective positions in June 1853, by order of Com- 
modore Perry, but may be displaced, or entirely removed, by the heave of the 
»ea, or bv the natives, anl should therefore not be entirely relied upon. S Be.nt. 


Course to Oonting. Channel into the harbor. Harbor of Simoda, Rock I. 

Sectfon 2. 

By Lieut. Wm. B. Tfliiting, U. S. JV. 

Oonting harbor is on the northwest side of Lewchew, and distant 
about thirty-five miles from Napa. 

Sugar Loaf Island, an excellent landmark, lies about twelve miles 
to the W.N Westward of the entrance. The island is low and 
flat, with the exception of a sharp conical peak near its eastern 
extremity, which rises to a height of several hundred feet 

Passing to the northward of Sugar Loaf Island, an E.SEasterly 
course will bring you to the mouth of the harbor, and to the north- 
ward and westward of Kooi Island. It is advisable' to heave to 
here, or anchor in twenty or twenty-five fathoms' water, until boats 
or buoys can be placed along the edges of the reefs bordering the 
channel, for without some such guides, it is difficult for a vessel of 
large draught to find her way in between the reefs, which contract, in 
places, to within a cable's length of each other, and are at all times 
covered with water. 

The ranges and courses for the channel, are first : — Hele Rock in 
range with Double-topped Mountain, (see View on chart) bearing 
S. 37° E. Steer this course, keeping the range on until Chimney 
Rock bears S. f E. ; then for Chimney Rock, until Point Conde 
bears S. 49° E. ; then for Point Conde, until entering the basin of 
Oonting, when anchor, giving your ship room to swing clear of 
the reef making out to the northward of Point Conde, and you 
will be as snug as if lying in dock, with good holding-ground, com- 
pletely land-locked, and sheltered almost entirely from every wind. 
Good water is to be had at the village of Oonting. 

Sectfon 3. 

By Lkut. Wm. L- Maury, U. S. A*. 

Vessels bound to the harbor of Simoda, from the southward and 
westward, should make Cape Idzu, from which Rock Island bears 
E.SE. J E., distant about 6 miles; and if the weather is at all 
clear, the chain of islands at the entrance of the Gulf of Yedo will 
at the same time be plainly visible. Between Rock Island and the 
main land, there are a number of rocks awash and above water, 
which the Japanese junks freely pass ; but a ship should not attempt 
a passage inside of Rock Island, unless in case of urgent necessity, 
particularly as the north-easterly current, which sweeps along this 
coast, seems to be, at thi.s point, capricious, both in direction and 


Oho Sima. Cape DiamgjuL Meac Simat Rocks in Simoda Harbor. Centre I. 


Giving Rock Island a berth of a mile, the harbor of Simoda will 
be in full view, bearing N. i W., distant five miles. Vandalia Bluff, 
on the east side of the entrance, may be recognized by a grove of 
pine trees on the summit of the bluff, and the village of Sasaki, 
which lies about one third of the way between it and Cape Diamond. 
Cape Diamond is a point making out to the eastward of the entrance 
of the harbor. Standing in from Rock Island, you will probably 
pass through a number of tide rips, but not get soundings with the 
hand lead, until near the entrance of the harbor, when you will be 
in from 17 to 24 fathoms. 

Should the wind be from the northward and fresh, a vessel 
should anchor at the mouth of the harbor, until it lulls or shifts, or 
until she can conveniently warp in, as it is usually flawy and alway.s 

Approaching from the northward and eastward, a vessel can pass 
on either side of Oho Sima, from the centre of which. Cape Diamond 
bears W.SVV. | W., distant about twenty miles. Between Oho 
Sima and Simoda no dangers are known to exist, but the north- 
easterly current must he borne constantly in mind, particularly at 
night and in thick weather. Its general strength is from two to 
three miles per hour ; but as this as well as its direction, is much 
influenced by the local winds, headlands, islands, dtc, neither can 
be relied upon. Should Oho Sima be obscured by thick weather 
before reaching Cape Diamond, endeavor to sight Rock Island, for 
there are no very conspicuous objects on the main land, by which a 
stranger can recognize the harbor at a distance, and the shore 
appears as one unbroken line. 

To the westward of the harbor, there are several sand beaches, 
and three or four sand banks. These can be plainly discerned when 
within six or eight miles, and are good landmarks. 

A vessel from the southward and eastward should p.ass to the 
westward of the island of Meac Sima, which may be known by a 
remarkable snow white cliff on its western side. There is also a 
white patch on its summit, to the northward of the cliff. From this 
island the harbor bears N.NW., distant about 25 miles. 

There are but two hidden dangers in the harbor ; the first is the 
Southampton Rock, which lies mid-channel, bearing N. ^ VV. from 
Vandalia Bluff, about three fourths of the way between it and 
Centre Island. This rock is about 25 feet in diameter, and has two 
fathoms' water upon it. It is marked by a white spar-buoy. 

The second is the Supply Rock, bearing S. by W., a short distance 
from Buisako islet; it is a sharp rock with 11 feet water upon it. Us 
position is designated by a red spar-buoy. Both of these buoys are 
securely moored, and the authorities of Simoda have promised to 
replace them, should they by any cause be removed 

Centre Island, which receives its name from being the point from 
which the Treaty limits are measured, is high, conical, and covered 
with trees. A cave passes entirely through it. 



Guides into Simoda. Ukona Rocks. Rock I. Centre I. Buoys on rocks. 

In the outer roads, or mouth of the harbor, a disagreeable swell 
is sometimes experienced, but inside of the Southampton Rock and 
Centre Island, vessels are well sheltered, and the water compara- 
tively smooth. Moor with an open hawse to the southward and 

There are good landings for boats in Simoda Creek, and at the 
village of Kakizaki. A harbor-master and three pilots have been 
appointed; wood, water, fish, fowls and eggs, also sweet potatoes 
and other vegetables, may be procured from the authorities. It is 
necssary to supply them with casks to bring the water off. 

Latitude of Centre Island, 34° 39 49" N., long. 138° 57' 50' E. 
Extreme rise of tide, 5 feet 7 inches; mean rise, 3 feet. Variation, 
52' westerly. High water, full and change, 5/trs. 

To make the foregoing directions more easily comprehended, 
they have been rendered as concise as possible, but to furnish furthef 
information to navigators bound to, or passing the port, the following 
additional remarks are appended. 

The harbor of Simoda is near the southeastern extremity of the 
peninsula of Idzu, which terminates at the cape of that name. To 
the northward of the harbor, a high ridge intersects the peninsula, ■ 
and south of this, all the way to the Cape, it is broken by innumerable 
peaks of less elevation. The harbor bears SVV. by W. from Cape 
Sagami, at the entrance of Yedo Bay, distant about 45 miles. 

Rock Island is about 120 feet high, and a third of a mile long, 
with precipitous shores and uneven outlines. It has a thick matting 
of grass, weeds, moss, &c., on the top. From the summit of this 
island, overfalls were seen, bearing N. ^ W., distant a mile, or a 
mile and a half, which may have been caused by a rock or reef. An 
attempt was made to find it, but the strong current and fresh wind 
prevented a satisfactory examination. The Japanese fishermen, 
however, deny the existence of any such danger. N. by W. from 
Rock Island, distant 2 miles, are the Ukona Rocks, though they 
generally appear as one. The largest is about 70 feet high. Between 
these and Rock Island, the current was found setting E.NEasterly, 
fully four miles an hour. 

Centre Island bears from Rock Island, N. ^ E., distant 5J miles ; 
and from Ukona Rocks, N. by E. ^ E. distant 3^ miles. Buisako 
islet lies N,NE. from Centre Island. It is about 40 feet high,] and 
covered with trees and shrubs. 

Should the buoys on Southampton Rock be removed, the east 
end of Centre Island on with the west end of Buisako, will clear 
the rock to the westward. Off the village of Susaki, and distant 
one-third of a mile from the shore, is a ledge of rocks, upon which 
the swell is always breaking ; give them a berth of two cables in 
passing. Due west from Vandalia Bluff, about one-third of the way 
to the opposite shore, is a deep hole, with upwards of 30 fathoms 


Shiruhama. Redfield Rocks. Opening of Yedo Bay. Plymovih Rocks. 

Approaching from the eastward, the harbor will not open until 
you get well inside of Cape Diamond. To the northward of Cape 
Diamond, is the bay of Shirahama, which is quite deep, and as it 
has also several sand beaches, it may be mistaken for Simoda; but 
as you approach this bay, Cape Diamond will shut in the Ukona 
Rocks and Rock Island to the southward ; whilst in the Simoda 
Roads, they are visible from all points. 

Cape Idzu, Latitude, 34" 32' N. ; Long. 138° 51' E. 

Rock Island, Latitude, 34° SIT N. ; Long. 138' 57' 16" E. 
To the southward and westward of Meac Sima, there are two 
patches of dangerous rocks, 15 or 20 feet high, which have been 
named Redfield Rocks. They are in lat. 33° 56 13' N., long. 
138° 48' 31" E.; and In latitude 33° 57 31" N., longitude 138° 49' 
13" E. These positions may not be strictly correct, but it is be- 
lieved they are not much out of the way. 

.N'ote. — Since this survey was made, an earthquake has been experienced 
at Simoda (Dec. 1854), during which the bottom of the harbor was thrown 
up with great violence, the town overwhelmed with the surge, and perhaps 
some new dangers made ; none, however, were discovered by the U. S. St'-F. 
" Powhatan," in Jan. 185.5, but great caution is necessary in entering the 
harbor, until this survey has been revised. 

Sectfon 4. 

By Lkut. Wm. L. Maury, U. S. M 

"Vessels from the southward, bound to this bay, should pass up 
to the westward of the chain of islands lying oif the Gulf of Yedo, 
and are cautioned against mistaking the deep bight of Kawatsu Bay 
for the entrance of Uraga channel ; for on the NE. side of this bay, 
there is a ledge of rocks several miles from the shore, bearing from 
Cape Sagami about W.NW., distant ten miles, upon which one of 
the vessels of our squadron grounded. A stranger without a correct 
chart would naturally make this mistake, as the opening of the 
channel is not seen at a distance from this quarter, the shore appear- 
ing as an unbrok^i line. 
^ The entrance to the channel bears from the centre of Oho-sima, 
NE. by N., distant about twenty miles. Stand in upon this line, 
and the Saddle Hill to the northward of Cape Sagami will be readily 
recognized, as well as the round black knob on the eastern side of 
the channel. On approaching Uraga, the Plymouth Rocks will be 
plainly seen ; give them a berth of half a mile to clear the IngersoU 
Patch, a sunken rock with but one fathom on it, and which is the 
only known danger in the channel, 



Anverican Anchorage. Webster I. Susqnelinnna Bay. -Yokohama Baif 

Between Plymouth Rocks and Cape Kami-saki, the ground is 
clear, and the anchorage good, if care be taken to get pretty well 
in, so as to avoid the strong tides which sweep round the latter with 
great rapidity. A spit makes out a short distance to the southward 
of Kami-saki, but to the northward of the Cape the shore is bold 
and the water very deep. 

On rounding Cape Kami-saki, if bound for the city of Yedo, steer 
NW. by N., until Perry Island bears S. by W. | W., so as to clear 
Saratoga Spit, which extends well out from the eastern shore ; then 
haul up, keeping Perry Island dpon this bearing, until the beacon 
on the low point to the southward of Yedo, bears W.NW. This 
clears the shoal off the Point, and here there is good anchorage in 
about ten fathoms' water, in full view of the city of Yedo. 

At this point our survey terminated ; the boats, however, found a 
clear channel with plenty of water for the largest vessels several 
miles farther to the northward, and within a few miles of the city. 

If bound to the American Anchorage, steer NW. from Cape 
Kami-saki, and anchor in 8 or 10 fathoms' water, withPerry Island 
bearing S.SE., and Webster Island SW. by S. 

To the southward of Webster Island there is also good anchwage 
in 6 and 7 fathoms. Near this anchorage there are also two snug 
coves, very accessible, in which vessels may conveniently repair and 
refit. ^ 

Susquehanna Bay, three miles W.NW. from Cape Kami-saki, is 
well sheltered, but it contains a number of reefs and rocks, and ip 
therefore not recommended as an anchorage. 

Mississippi Bay is four miles north of the American Anchorage, 
and well sheltered from the prevailing winds. Upon anchoring it is 
necessary to give the shore a good berth, to avoid a shoal which ex- 
tends out from a half to three quarters of a mile. The conspicuous 
headland, or long yellow bluff on the north side of this Bay, is 
called Treaty Point ; a shoal surrounds the Point from two thirds of 
a mile to a mile distant. Between the American Anchorage and 
Treaty Point, the soundings are irregular, shoaling suddenly from 
12 to 5 fathoms on a bank of hard sand. 

To the northward of Treaty Point, and N.NW. from Cape Kami- 
saki, distant 14 miles, is Yokohama Bay. To reach this anchorlige, 
bring the wooded bluff which terminates the high land on the north 
side of the Bay to bear N. by W. AW., and steer for it until Treaty 
Point bears SW. by S. ; this clears the spit off the Point ; then haul 
up about NW. by N. for the bluff over the town of Kanagawa, and 
anchor in 5^ or 6 fathoms, with the Haycock just open to the east- 
ward of Mandarin Bluff. Mandarin is the steep bluff a mile-to the 
northward of Treaty Point. . . * - 

A flat extends out from the northern shore of this Bay, between 
Kanagawa and Beacon Point from one to two miles : off Mandarin 
Bluff there is also a shoal extending a mile to the northward, 

COM. UL. 17 


Sbxo/Yedo Baa- Treaty Point. Ifinds, Tides. Harbor of HakodnJi. 

The Bay of Yedo is about 12 miles wide and 30 deep, with ex- 
cellent holding-ground, and capable of sheltering the fleets of the 
world. Our survey embraced the western shore only, from Cape 
Kami-saki to Beacon Point. We had no opportunity of examining 
the eastern side. The soundings from Treaty Point across in an 
E.SE. direction are regular, and 3 fathoms were found about a mile 
and a half from the opposite shore. A reconnoissance was made of 
the western shore of Uraga channel only. 

During our stay in the Bay from the 17th of February to the 18th 
of April, the weather was generally fine, being occasionally inter- 
rupted by strong winds and heavy rain. The gales came up sudden- 
ly from the southward and westward with a low barometer, and 
continued for a short time, when the wind hauled round to the north- 
ward and moderated. We had no easterly blows ; in fact the wind 
was rarely from this quarter, except when hauling round from the 
northward (as it invariably did) by east to the southweurd and west- 

The tide is quite strong out in the Bay ; and off the tail of Sara- 
toga Spit, Perry Island and Cape Kami-saki, its velocity is much 
increased; but at the anchorage in the Bay of Yokohama it was 
scarcely felt. At Yokohama the Japanese authorities supplied us 
with wood and water, and a few vegetables, fowls, eggs, oysters, and 

Latitude of Cape Sagami, 35° 06' 30" N. ; Longitude, 139' 40 ' E. 

Latitude of Webster Island, 35° 18' 30" N. ; Longitude, 139° 
40' 34" E. 

Latitude of Treaty building. North end of Yokohama, 35° 26 ' 
44 ' N.; Longitude, 139° 40' 23" E. 

Variation, 25 Westerly. High water full and change, 6 hours. 
Rise and fall at Yokohama, 6 feet. 

aectfon 5 

By Lieut. Wm. L. Maury, U. S. A". 

This spacious and beautiful bay, which for accessibility and safe- 
ty is one of the finest in the world, lies on the north side of the 
Straits of Sangar, which separates the Japanese islands of Nippon 
and Yesso, and about midway between Cape Siriji-saki * (the NE. 
point of Nippon), and the city of Matsmai. It bears from the cape 
NW. J W., distant about 45 miles, and is about 4 miles wide at 
the entrance, and 5 miles deep. 

• Saki in the Japanese language means cape, consequently it should be more 
properly called Cape Sirija ; but to prevent mistakes it has been thought 
advisable to adopt the entire Japanese names. 


Guides into Harbor. Town. Peak of Komaga-daki. Spit near Entrance. 

The harbor is the south-eastern arm of the bay, and is completely 
sheltered, with regular soundings and excellent holding-ground. It 
is formed by a bold peaked promontory standing well out from the 
high land of the main, with which it is connected by a low sandy 
isthmus, and appearing in the distance as an island, may be readily 
recognized. The town is situated on the north-eastern slope of this 
promontory, facing the harbor, and contains about 6000 inhabitants. 

Approaching from the eastward, after passing Cape Suwo-kubo, 
named on our chart Cape Blunt, which is a conspicuous headland 
12 miles E. by S. from the town, the junks at anchor in the harbor 
will be visible over the low isthmus. 


Rounding the promontory of Hakodadi, and giving it a berth of a 
mile to avoid the calms under the high land, steer for the sharp peak 
of Komaga-daki bearing about North, until the east peak of the 
Saddle, bearing about NE. by N., opens to the westward of the 
round knob on the side of the mountain ; then haul up to the north- 
ward and eastward, keeping them open until the centre of the sand 
hills on the isthmus bears SE. by E. f E. (these may be recognized 
by the dark knolls upon them). This will clear a spit which makes 
out from the western point of the town in a N.N Westerly direction 
two thirds of a mile ; then bring the sand hills a point on the port 
bow, and stand in until the western point of the town bears SW. ^ 
W., when you will have the best berth, with 5 J or 6 fathoms' water. 
If it is desirable to get nearer in, haul up a little to the eastward of 
south for the low rocky peak, which will be just visible over the slop- 
ing ridge in the southward and eastward of the town. A vessel of 
moderate draught may approach within a quarter of a mile of 
Tsuki Point, where there is a building-yard for junks. This portion 
of the harbor, however, is generally crowded with vessels of this 
description ; and unless the want of repairs, or some other cause 
renders a close berth necessary, it is better to remain outside. 

If the Peak or Saddle is obscured by clouds or fog, after doubling 
the promontory, steer N. by E. ^ E. until the sand hills are brought 
upon the bearing above given, when proceed as there directed. A 
short distance from the tail of the spit is a detached sand-bank with 
3^ fathoms on it, the outer edge of which is marked by a white 
spar-buoy. Between this and the spit there is a narrow channel with 
5 and 6 fathoms' water. Vessels may pass either side of the buoy, 
but it is most prudent to go the northward of it. 

Should the wind fail before reaching the harbor, there is a good 
anchorage in the outer roads, in from 25 to 10 fathoms. 

Excellent wood and water may be procured from the authorities 
of the town, or if preferred, water can be easily obtained from 
Kamida Creek, which enters the harbor to the northward and east- 
ward of the town. 


ff'ateritig-place. Supplies. IngersoWs Visit to Kagosima Bay, 

The season at the lime of our visit was unfavorable for procuring 
supplies ; a few sweet and Irish potatoes, eggs and fowls, however, 
were obtained, and these articles at a more favorable period of the 
year, will no doubt be furnished in sufficient quantities to supply 
any vessels tl^at may in future visit the port. Our seine supplied 
us with fine salmon and a quantity of other fish, and the shores of 
the bay abound with excellent shell-fish. 

During our stay in this harbor, from the 17th May to 3d June, 
the weather was generally pleasant until the 1st June, when the 
fogs set in. It was usually calm in the morning, but towards the 
middle of the day a breeze from SVV. sprung up. 

Latitude of the mouth of Kamida Creek, 4V 49 22" N., Longitude, 
140" 47' 45 E. Variation, 4" 30 W. High water, full and change, 
5 hours. Extreme rise and fall of tide, 3 feet. 

Our chronometers were rated at Napa, Lewchew, from the posi- 
tion of that place as given by Captain Beechy, R. >'■ 

Scctfon 6 

This fine bay is situated on the southwest part of the island of Kiusiu, 
and forms the entrance up to tlie city of Kagosima, the capital of the princi- 
pality of Satsuma. It is smaller than the Bay of Yedo, but equally secure, 
and remarkable for the beauty of its shores and scenery.* It was visited by 
Admiral Cecille in 1845, and has more recently been examined (Nov. 1854) 
by Lieut.-Com. John Rodgers U. S. N., in the U. S. S. Vincennes, who made 
a reconnoissance of the southern part. The following remarks were drawn 
up by Capt D. IngersoU of the American ship "Morrison," which went into 
thi.s bay and that of Yedo in 1837 ; the first vessel in recent times to intrude 
on these waters; her captain has been justly commemorated by having his 
name given to the " IngersoU Patch " near Gorihama, by Commodore Perry ; 
and to the " IngersoU Rocks," mentioned in the last paragraph of this extract, 
by Admiral Cecille. The whole of his remarks respecting his visit to Japan 
will be found in the Chinese Repository, Vol. VI., page 401, &.c. ; the 
following sentences are all that are now of sufficient value to be inserted, 
the preceding surveys having superseded them. 

" In running down the coast to Kagosima Bay, the barometer was 
low for some days ; 29.55 was generally the blowing point ; but there 

* The following para£rraph from Krusenstern's Voyage describes its outlines : 
" This bay, of whicli Cape Tschitschagoff forms the southeast point, and Peak 
Homer the northwest, had a very picturesque appearance, a number of small 
islands lying in irregular shapes on the northwest side of it, two of which, form- 
ing a large bow in appearance, were very remarkable. The whole bay, except- 
ing to the north, is surrounded by high mountains, whose summits were cover- 
ed''with the most beautiful verdure. Peak Horner stands on a point of land, 
and seemed to rise out of tlie sea, adding very much to the picturesque appear- 
ance of the countrv 


Entrance to Bay. Soundings. Volcano I. Patch of Rocks 

was no bad weather, only a lack of wind. Krusenstern mentions the 
same circumstance. Cape D'Anville on Kiusiu, I made in latitude 

" The entrance to Kagosima Bay cannot well be mistaken, because 
Kaimon-daki or Mount Horner, which forms the SW. point, is a very 
conical, regular mountain, t'rom the sea to the peak. I made its longi- 
tude 130° 32' E. From the south- point of Kiusiu, (or Cape Tschi- 
tschagoff by the Russians,) up 16 or 18 miles, the eastern part of the 
bay is clear, as I went up on that side as far as the first village, which 
is hidden by a cliff until bearing about E.SE. Our anchorage was on 
the western side, about 5 miles NE. of Mount Horner, in a small bay 
^ of a mile deep, the points bearing N E. by E. and S W. by W., about 
3 miles apart; village on a kind of shelf at the bottom of the bay NW. 
by N. The bottom was hard, coarse black sand, like cannon powder, 
poor for holding. The depth 100 yards from beach 4 fathoms, deep- 
ening gradually to 18, 2^ miles off. We anchored in 7, with the above 
bearings, exposed from S.SE. to SW. by W., and from S.SE. to 
E. ; the land was from 10 to 12 miles distant. During our stay here, it 
was cloudy squally weather, so that no observations were obtained. 
The wind was light, except in squalls from southward, bringing in 
a large swell. After getting out, the ship was drifted within one mile 
of the NE. part of Jakunosima Island, where are 52 fathoms mud. 
Southerly winds prevailed on this part of the coast, probably the tail 
of the SW. monsoon ; easterly about Yedo. Across Kagosima Bay, 
the soundings are 50 fathoms mud. There are about the bay several 
conical, perforated rocks, through which the water flows. 

" I made the centre of the north part of Tanega-sima in long. 131" 2' 
E.; but was unable to determine the latitudes of most of the points 
mentioned : as near as I could judge, they are laid down correctly 
on Krusenstern's chart. Volcano Island has, running from its NE. 
part, a ledge or reefs, (some above the water, others awash,) that 
extends half the distance to St. Julie Island, which may be 2^ miles 
from it to NE.; one of these looks like a junk under sail. From the 
SW. part of the island there is also a cluster of rocks (about 100 
yards in diameter, breakers and all) about li miles distant with green 
water between them. In a deep ravine on the east side of Volcano 
Island, yellow smoke ascended from three points, enveloping its 
summit. Southeast from. St. Clair there is a high but small haycock- 
shaped rock or island, about 5 miles distant; when bearing westward 
it forms one cock ; when bearing north two. 

'* In latitude 30° 50 N., long. 129° 27' E., is a cluster of pointed 
high rocks or islands, not mentioned by former navigators, but being 
so near the track to Nagasaki, the Dutch have, probably, their true 



Scctfon 1. 


The tables of duties on exports and imports in this and the next section are 
numbered according to the tariff of 1843; each table has five columns, which 
contain the duties reckoned in a different way : — 

Col. Ist shows the duty in the Chinese currency of taels, mace, candarecns 
and cash, as stated in the Chinese edition of the Tariff. 

Col. 2d contains the same duties in dollars and cents, at the usual exchange 
of 1000 dollars for 717 taels. 

Col. 3d contains the actual sums to be paid to the Chinese government in 
dollars and cents for duties, reckoning them in sycee at the cost price of 
$1525 for 1000 taels, or about 7 per cent premium. 

Col. 4th contains the amounts in the first column reckoned in English cur- 
rency, but giving the duty at so much per cwt. and lb., where it is ptxid and 
catty in the Chinese, except such articles as are rated by the pieqe, yard, 
hundred or thousand. 

Col. 5th contains tlie amounts in the first column reckoned in French cur- 
rency of francs and centimes, but giving the duty at so much per 100 kilo- 
grannmes (i. c. 220.i lbs. av. or 165J catties), instead of per pecul or catty, ex- 
cept when the rate is per piece, yard, hundred or thousand. 


1 Alum 

2 Aniseed stars 

do. oil, 

3 Arsenic, 

4 Bangles, or glass armlets ., 

5 Bamboo screens and ware... 

6 Brass leaf, 

7 Building materials, 

8 Bone and horn ware, 

9 Camphor, 

10 Canes of all kinds, 

11 Capoor cutchery 

12 Cassia, , 

do. buds 

do. oil, 

13 China-root, 

14 Chinaware of all kinds 

15 Clothes, ready made 

16 Copper, tin, and pewter-ware, 
il7 Corals (or false coral) 







nge of 
in sycee 

T. M.C. 

D. C. 

D. C. 









7 63 

7 5 









1 5 






1 5 






(J 3 



7 5 
























per ctet. 
or lb. in 

2 64 


2 64 

1 5 















per 100 



F. c. 
6 31 

63 11 
9 47 
6 31 

2 52 
18 93 

12 m\ 

18 93 

3 82 
3 79 
9 47 

2 52 
6 31 
6 31 
6 31 
6 31 




18 Crackers and fireworks, .... 

20 Fans, as feather fans, &c ., 

21 Furniture of all kinds, , 

22 Galangal 

23 Gamboge 

24 Glass & glassware of all kinds 

25 Glass beads, 

26 Glue, fish glue, common, &c. 
87 Grasscloth of all kinds 

28 Hartall (or orpiment) 

29 Ivory ware of all kindes 

30 Kitty sols, or paper umbrellas 

31 Lackered-ware of all kinds... 

32 Lead, white, 

33 Lead, red, 

34 Marble slabs 

35 MatB,straw,rattan,bamboo,i&c. 
:<6 Mother -o'-pearl ware 

37 Musk. 

38 Nankeens, cotton cloths {and 
coarse Canton nankeens . 

39 PicturesjUtz, large oil painting, 
rice or pith-paper 

40 Paper fans 

41 Paper of all kinds 

42 Pearls (i. e. false pearls)... 

43 Preserves and sweetmeats. 

44 Rattan work of all kinds,. 

45 Rhubarb 

46 Silk, raw, Nanking or Canton 


Silk, raw, coarse or refuse . . 
Silk organzine,8ilk ribbons and 

silk thread of all kinds . ,. 
Silk piece-goods 

47 Silk and cotton mixtures, silk 

and woollen mixtures, and 
goods of such class 

48 Shoes and boots of all kinds.. 

49 Sandalwood ware 

50 Soy 

51 Silver ware and gold ware... 

52 Sugar, raw, white and brown 

53 Sugar-candy of all kinds 

54 Tin foil 

55 Tea of all descriptions 

56 Tobacco of all kinds 

57 Turmeric , 

58 Tortoise-shell ware , 

59 Trunks of leather 

60 Treasure (i. e. foreign coin).. 

61 Vermilion 








.\rticle8 unenumerated in this tariff 


T. M. c. 

7 5 

1 5 






2 5 












2 5 







2 5 




Five per 






nge of 

per cwt. 

per 100 






in sycee. 



D. C. 

D. C. 

L. S. D. 

F. C. 



3 9i 

9 47 



7 61 

18 92 



5 04 

12 62 




2 52 




I 26 



10 1 

25 35 



2 6i 

6 31 



2 6i 

6 31 



2 6i 

6 31 



5 04 

12 62 



2 6i 

6 31 



1 5 24 

63 11 



2 6i 

6 31 



5 04 

12 62 



1 3 

3 16 



2 6i 

6 31 




2 52 




2 52 



5 04 

12 62 



2 61 

62 86 



5 04 

12 62 











2 6i 

6 31 



2 6i 

6 31 




6 31 



2 6| 

6 31 




2 52 



5 04 

12 62 



2 10 41 

126 22 



13 7i 




2 10 41 

126 22 



3 5i 

151 57 



15 14 

37 87 




2 52 



5 04 

12 62 



2 0^ 

5 05 



2 10 41 

126 22 



1 3 

3 16 




4 42 



2 64 

6 31 



12 74 

31 78 




2 52 




2 52 



2 10 41 

126 22 



per box. 




ad val 

15 14 i 37 861 

■ cent. 




Sect [on a. 


1 Asafnctida, 

y Beeswax, 

3 Betel nut, 

4 Bicho-de-mar,lst sort,or black, 

do. yd sort, or white, 

5 Birds-nests, 1st sort or cleaned, 

do. 2d sort, or good mit;tl!\ng 
do. 3d sort, or uncleaned, ... 

6 Camphor, (Baroos) 1st quality, 

or clean, 

do. 2d quality, or refuse 

7 Cloves, Ist quality, or picked 

do. 2d or mother cloves 

8 Clocks, watches, telescopes, 

glassware, writing-desks, 
dressing-cases, jewelry, cul- 
lerv, hardware, &c , «fec.. 

9 Canvas, of 29 @ 39 yds. by 24 

@ 31 inches wide 

10 Cochineal, 

11 Cornelians, 100 stones estimat 
ed at 6 catties 4 taels. 

Cornelian beads, 

1'/? Cotton, raw, allowing 5 per 
cent, for tare 

13 Cotton Manufactures, viz : — 
Longcloths, or white shirt 

ingrt, 29 @ 39 yds. by 31 @ 
37 ins 

Longcloths, gray or unbleach- 
ed, American domestics, 29 
@ 39 yds. by 28 @ 41 ins 

Twilled cloth or drillings, 
white or gray 

Cambrics and muslins, )9i (a 
23i yards by 41 @ 46 ins. 

Chintz and prints, 24 @ 28 yds. 
by 41 @ 46 ins 

Hdkfs., large, over 36f ins .. 
do. small, under 36§ ins .. 

Ginghams, pulicates, dyed 
cottons, velveteens, silk & 
cotton mixtures, linen &. 
cotton mixtures, and all kinds 
of fancy goods, 

14 Cotton yarn, & cotton thread, 

15 Cow Bezoar, 

16 Cutch, 










\ Spanish 



catty I 
pecul ! 




1 000 

5 per 








00 10 



D. C. 

1 12 
6 94 


nee uf 
in st/cee 

D. C. 










per cut. 
or lb. in 

\ Duties 
per 100 


£, S. D. 

cent, ad val 




















1 5 

12 7\ 

2 6i; 


9 I 

K. C. 

12 62 
12 62 

1 89 
10 10 

2 52 
63 II 
31 78 

6 31 

5 Oi 124 73 

2 6.i 62 86 

7 6| 18 92 

2 6i 6 31 


1 5 2\ 


63 11 



cent, 'ad val 
1.40 I J 52A 
1 40 1 52i 
0.42 ; 046 

2 10 4| 126 22 

2 Oi 5 05 

10| 1 16 









1 16 

1 54 



5 Oi 12 62 
5 0^1124 73 
1 <o\\ 3 79 

Dl'TtF.S oN iMPOKTja. 



24 Giuns 

17 Elephants' Teeth, viz. 
Ist quality, whole,. 

do. 2d quality, broken, 

18 Fishmaws, 

19 Flints, 

20 (xlasB, glassware, and crystal 

21 Gambier, 

22 Gmseng, Ist quality, 

do. 2d quality, or refuse, 

J^ote Of every hundred catties 
of foreign ginseng of what- 
ever sort, one fifth part is to 
be considered of superior 
quality, and four fifths of 
inferior quality. 

23 Gold and silver thread, viz : 

lat quality, or real, 

2d quality, or imitation 

Benjamin or benzoin, 



Gums unenumerated, 

25 Horns, buffalo and bullocks'. 

26 Horns, unicorn or rhinoceros' 

27 Linen, fine, 2() @ 30 yards by 

27 31 ins ... 

Linen, coarse, or linen and 
cotton mixtures, silk and 
linen mixtures, &c., 

28 Mace, or flower of nutmeg, .. 

29 Mother-o'-pearl shells, 

30 Metals, viz :— 

Copper, unmanufactured, as 
in slabs, pigs «fcc., 

Copper, manufactured as in 
sheets, rods, &c., 

Iron, unmanufact'd as in pigs, 
do. manufactured, as in 
hoops, bars, rods, 

Lead, in pigs or manufactured 



Tin plates, 


Steel, unmanufactured, Eng- 
lish or Swedish, 

Unenumerated metals, 

31 Nutmegs, 1st sort, or cleaned 

do. 2d sort, or uncleaned, 
02 Pepper, (Malay) 

33 Putchuck, 

34 Rattans, 












40 00 
00 50 

5 per 


38 00 


5 Q 
10 per 
30 00 


5 per 








4 00 

1 000 
4 00 

5 per 
20 00 

nge of 
in sycee. 

2 10 



4 86 


4 17 






J 40 

D. C. 


ad val 

i are raff'' 
15 86 

ad val 


ad val 
1 52i 

per ciet. 
or lb. in 

£ S. D. 

1 02 
10 1 
7 61 

9 11 7 
17 71 

5 0i 
2 6k 
2 6* 
10 1 
15 U 


5 0i 

per 100 


F. C. 

50 71 
25 35 
18 92 


1 89 


131 15 

15 63 
3 79 

12 62 
6 31 
6 31 

25 35 

37 87 

3 72 

12 62 
2 52 

1 .52 I 

5 0a 12 62 

2.2) i O 7 6| 
0.154 06 

1 .52i 

ot .48 

,«b. .48 
ad val 


1 5 

2 0^ 
2 04 

15 14 

2 0i 
10 1 
5 0i 
2 04 



6 31 
1 26 

1 90 
3 47 
5 05 

12 62 

5 05 

38 20 

5 05 

25 35 

12 62 

5 05 

9 47 

2 52 

COM. (it. 









33 Rice, paddy, and grain of all 

36 Rose M aloes, oil of, , 

37 Saltpetre ; sold only to govern- 

38 Shark's fins, Ist sort, or white, 
do. '-id sort, black, 

39 Skins and furs, viz : 
Cow and ox hides, tanned or 


Sea otter skins, 

Fox skins, large 

do. small, 

Tiger, leopard, marten skins. 
Land ottcT, raccoon, shark's 

Beaver skins 

Hare, rabbit, ermine,. ... 
41 Smalts, 

41 Soap, perfumed soap 

42 Stockfish, «&c., 

43 Seahorse teeth, 

44 Treasure & specie of all kinds, 

45 Wine, beer, spirits, viz 

do. do. in quart bottles, 
do. do. in pint bottles,., 
do. do. in casks, 

46 Woods, viz : Ebony, 



Unenuincrated woods, 

47 Woolen manufactures, viz : 

Blankets of all kinds, 

Broadcloths, Spanish stripes, 
iaAit-cloths, «&c., per 141 ins 
Long ells, cassimeres, narrow 

woolens, flannel, &c., 

Dutch Camlets, 

English Camlets, 

Imitation camlets, bombazetts 

Bunting (narrow). ' 

Unenumerated woolen goods, 
silk and woolen, cotton and 
woolen mixtures, i 

48 Woolen Yarn, pecut ' 

Articles unenumerated in the tariff. 






1 000 


00 75 

10 per 




o per 
5 per 



in aycee 

V. c. 





D. C. 











7 63 







0.71) doi 119 





0.f5 i 
0.02 . 

ad val orem 


jter cwt. 
or Ih. in 

£s. D. 


1 64 

1 5 Oi 
2 6i 

2 6:1 

9 1 




2.3^11 io 




cent, ad valjorem. 
4 17 4 68 'O 15 li 
cent, ad valjorem. 



per 100 



F. C. 

12 62 

3 79 

12 62 

6 31 

6 31 

11 13 

1 12 


1 12 

14 81 

37 25 

3 72 

50 71 

6 31 


25 35 

7 45 

3 72 

6 31 

1 90 

6 31 



1 15 


1 15 




37 87 

* This is reckoning blankets by the pair. 

♦ By the yard 

X By the piece of 21 yards 
II By the piece of 40 yards. 
§ Each of these three kinds are reckoned by the piece of 55 yards. 


Dues on nhips. Mode of reckoning; sycee when paying duties. Agar-agar. 


On vessels of the burthen of 150 tons and more, accord- t M c D c 

ing to the registered statement .per ton 5 0. .0.76 

On vessels of less burthen than 150 tons, according to 
the registered statement „ 1 0..0.154 

On vessels bringing a carcro of rioe without other goods, 
and taking in cargo outwards ,, 2 5. .0.38 

On vessels arriving with a cargo of rice, without other 
goods, or with ballast, and going away again in ballast None. 


Inwards per registered ton $0.05 

OuTwards .1. .......; „ „ 0.05 

A'ote. — The duties when paid in pure sycee silver, as stated in the third column 
of figures, vary somewhat according to the premium on syc^si ; the average 
cost-price of ,$152-'> for 1000 taels, or about 7 per cent, premium, has been 
taken, according to the following calculation . — 


Duty to be paid 1000 1000 

Difference of scales 3 3 5 .... 3 3 5 

Melting, &c 12 3 12 3 

I0l.=r3'"8~0 1015 3 8 

Premium 5 per cent 50 7 6 9 Pram. 10 per cent.... 101 5 3 8 

i(K)6 i~r9 iTie y 1 8 

At 717 taels per $1000 $1486 96 At 717 th per $1000 "~$"l557T77 

Average of these two calculations, $1522.36 per 1000 taels. 

Section 3. 


This section is not intended to include a description of the numerous articles 
of use or luxury, as flour, stationery, coal, garments, &c., &c., which are 
brought to China chiefly for the consumption of foreigners, although many of 
them may be taken by the natives to a limited extent. The numbers attached 
to some of the paragraphs are those they bear in the tarifl" on the throe 
preceding pages. The Chinese names are those the articles bear in the i&tiS, 
and their pronunciation is uniformly given in the court dialect. 

Ao.\R-AOAR, 4:t 'ffel ^V shik htm tsdi, or )V^ ^fc hdi tsdi. This 
is the Malay name for the glutinous jelly made chiefly from a marine 
facus (Gigartina tenax); it is brought from the Archipelago, as well 
as made here from other species of seaweed, and is applied to many 
useful purposes. The bamboo frame-work of lanterns is covered 
with paper saturated with this gum, which when dried, is semi- 


Amber, real ani foist. Ambergris and Us tests. Arrack. 

transparent ; it is also used in the paper and silk manufactures. It 
is incomparable as a paste ; and is not liable to be eaten by insects. 
Between 400 and 500 peculs are imported annually, mostly in native 
vessels and at various ports, at a prime cost of 81^ to $2 per pecul. 
Its cheapness and admirable qualities as a paste, render it worthy the 
attention of other countries. It is sometimes cooked for food by the 
Chinese. , , yp^ w . 

Ambkr, called JJX, Ju hu peh ; false amber, IpC M^ Jp kid hu 
peh. This fossil is found on the shores of several islands of the Indian 
Archipelaj^o, and in some small quantities on the coasts of China 
and Annam. A considerable part comes from the eastern shores of 
Africa. It was formerly much prized for ornaments and incense, 
and in China for court beads; but other substances, cheaper and 
more odoriferous, have superseded its use as a perfume. Transparent 
pieces of a lively yellowish-brown color are the best, and if insects 
are embedded in it, the value is greatly increased ; if the pieces are 
foul and opaque, they are almost valueless. The price varies from $8 
to $14 per catty, according to the quality and size of the pieces, the 
finest being carved into beads. False amber is brought from India, 
and sold in Canton at prices almost as great as those which the 
genuine article bears. 

Ambergris. This resembles amber somewhat in appearance, and 
is used for nearly the same purposes. Ambergris is a substance caus- 
ed by disea-se in the intestines of the spermaceti whale ; 362 ounces 
have been taken from the body of a single whale. Most of it, however, 
is picked up after strong winds, on the shoresof the numerous islands 
in the Indian and Pacific oceans. Good ambergris is a solid, opaque, 
ash-colored or marbled, fatty, inflammable substance, with little black 
sp >ts within, much lighter, but somewhat resembling wax, and gives 
off an agreeable, fragrant odor when heated. The Chinese test its 
goodness by throwing some of it, scraped very fine, into boiling hot 
tea, where, if pure, it will itself equally through the fluid. It 
has little taste or smell when cold, but when handled emits a fragrant 
odor. It swims on water. The pure white, which is apparently 
smooth and homogeneous, should be rejected, as it is commonly 
factitious. or -teE ^nn 

Arrack, called Sd ;j5E-4f^ ^'^i^ isvi, from the Malay name. 
This spirituous liquor is distilled from different substances in the 
several countries where it is manufactured ; on which account that 
made at different places varies much in strength and taste; the three 
principal kinds are made in Batavia, Goa, and Colombo. That from 
the former place is the strongest, and is distilled from a mixture of 
62 parts of molasses, 3 of toddy or palm wine, and 35 of rice. The 
process of making it so much resembles that for distilling samshoo, 
that the two have scarcely any perceptible differences in taste or 
effects. For arrack, the rice is first boiled, and after cooling, a 
quantity of yeast cakes are added, and the whole pressed into baskets, 
in which condition it is placed over tubs, and left for eight days ; the 


Arrack. AaaJ'ietida, and its uses. Bark. Beeswax. Betel-nut. 

liquor which flows off is distilled, and then mixed with the molasses 
and toddy, and all left to ferment for a week in large vats; after the 
fermentation is over, the arrack is distilled one, two, or three times, 
according to the strength required. When pure, this spirit is like 
whiskey in taste and color, and produces the disease and distress among 
the natives which ardent spirits everywhere cause ; its intoxicating 
qualities are often increased by the infusion of other substances, as 
cubebs, hemp-seed, &c. Very little is brought to China, and alto- 
gether in junks. The arrack produced at Goa is sweeter than that 
which comes from Java, being made by repeated distillation from 
toddy, and is preferred by the Hindus to the Batavian on that 
account. - ^^ 

1. AsAFCETiDA, Called I'Pj ^^ ecc7. This is the concrete juice 
of the Ferula asafcetida and Persica, two trees which grow in Per- 
sia. To obtain it, the roots, after the earth is removed, are covered 
with leaves to defend them from the sun ; they are then cut off 
transversely, and the thick milky juice exudes and thickens on the 
wound ; this when hard is scraped off and another section made, 
and the operation repeated until the root is exhausted of juice. 
The gum is nauseous and bitter, and as it grows old loses its efficacy. 
The masses are composed of grains, of a variegated color ; the best 
color is a pale-red, having the grains nearly white ; the odor should 
be penetrating, and when the piece is broken, the fracture ought to 
bear a marbled appearance. It is brought from Bombay, and some- 
times in native vessels, and ranks high in the materia medica of the 
Chinese physician ; it is exhibited in cholera, in syphilitic complaints 
and worms. 

Bark or shu p{, "^^ ^^ is brought to Canton for dyeing from 
Siam and the Archipelago; the greater part consists of sapan bark 
to dye red. Mangrove bark has been instroduced to some extent 
for dyeing leather. \xt ujsj *-»-» nJtt ^ mi< 

2. Beeswax called /f Hi yang Idh or ^ fl^ mieh luh ; f^ J3it 
chuen Idh, or wax tiles, is the name for the large cakes. This article 
is brought from the Indian Archipelago, though the Chinese also 
collect it themselves. In the islands where the bees are found, the 
the wax in the forests, disregarding the honey, which is little in 
natives collect quantity and worthless. The islands of Timor and 
Timorlaut afford beeswax in sufficient quantity to form an important 
article of export ; the Portuguese formerly sent away 20,000 peculs 
annually to China and India, at a prime cost of $5 per pecul ; Chi- 
nese traders took it from Macao. Wax is also brought from Borneo 
to Singapore for Chinese consumption. It is employed to some 
extent to incase the soft tallow in large candles, but nearly all that 
comes to Canton is used in making envelopes for pills, to conserve 
their ingredient?. 

3. Bktel-nut or ^^ reR pin Idng, a word in imitation of the 
Malayan pinang : the leaf is called 0n ^^ lau yeh The leaf of the 



Preparation of Betel-nut. Pepper leaf. Extensive tise as a masticatory. 

betel pepper (Piper betle), and the nut of the areca palm {Areca cate- 
chu), together constitute this article, improperly called betel-nut, 
which is used as a masticatory so universally throughout the East. 
But as an article of commerce, the nut is always sold separately, 
under the name of 'betel-nut,' so called because always used with 
the leaf of the betel pepper. 

The habit of chewing this preparation has extended from the 
islands, where the palm grows, to the continent of Asia, and it is now 
used from the Red Sea to the Pacific Ocean. The areca nut is the 
fruit of a slender, graceful palm, about six inches in diameter and 
thirty feet in height. The tree produces fruit from the age of five to 
twenty-five years. The nut, when the husk is taken off, resembles a 
nutmeg in shape and color, but is a little larger and harder. The 
annual produce of a tree averages fourteen pounds ; and the culti- 
vator can sell it at about half a dollar a pecul. The betel pepper i.s 
the vine which furnishes the leaf, and for which alone it is grown. 
The flavor of the raw leaf is herbaceous, with an aromatic, slightly 
pungent taste. It requires a rich soil where there is abundance of 
water, and it is thought that the tree on which it is supported, 
affects the quality and quantity of the produce. The leaf is cultivated 
throughout the south of Kw.ingtung, that from the district of Haifung 
bearing the highest reputation. The masticatory is prepared for 
use here in the same manner as in the Islands, except that the Chinese 
usually color their lime red. 

When used, the nut is cut into thin slices, and wrapped in the 
raw fresh pepper leaves, adding a dab of shell lime, enough to give 
them a flavor. All cla.sses of people among the Islanders, male and 
female, are in the habit of chewing it. "It sweetens the breath." 
so say those who use it, " rectifies and strengthens the stomach, and 
preserves the teeth ;" it also gives the teeth, lips, and gums a dark 
red color, which is e.steemed among the Malays a mark of beauty in 
proportion to its darkness. There is perhaps less objection against 
its use than that of tobacco as a general masticatory ; its narcotic 
properties are not so great, and the taste is more pleasant. Persons 
of rank carry it prepared for in splendid cases, suspended tVom 
their girdles, and a present of one of them is regarded as a mark 
of friendship. Among some of the inhabitants of the Indian 
Archipelago, to refuse, on meeting a friend, to accept the betel-nut 
is regarded as a serious offense. So interwoven into their ideas has 
the practice become, that figures of beauty are taken from it, and a 
face is not accounted comely, unless the mouth be stained of a dirty 
red round the outside of the lips. The Chinese dislike this coloring, 
and take pains to keep the teeth white. 

The nuts, when prepared, are of two sorts, the boiled and the raw ; 
the one is the nut alone, the other the nut cut into slices and boiled 
with a small quantity of cutch and then dried. Another method of 
curing is to split and dry them hastily over a fire, or to dry them 
slowly without splitting. The entire nuts, with or without the husk, 


Btcho-da-mar and Us varieties. Birds-nests, their nature and collection. 

are imported into China from Java, Singapore, Siam, and Penang. 
The tree also grows in Hainan, and large quantities find their way 
thence into the country. Betel nut is not so extensively used in the 
south of China as in the Archipelago; and in the north it is rather a 
luxury, and chewed without the leaf. ^. j^ 

4. BiCHo-DA-MAR, bicke-de-mcT , or tripang, called hai shin f^ ^ 
or sea-ginseng. The superior is known as white, and the inferior as 
black bicho-de-mar, being at least two (and perhaps more) distinct 
species of Holothuria. This marine slug forms one of the most 
important articles of commerce between the islands of the Indian 
Archipelago and China. It is found on all the islands from iNevv 
Holland to Sumatra, and also on most of those in the Pacific, in the 
greatest abundance on small coral islands, especially those to the 
south and east of the Siih'i group. Macassar and Manila are entre- 
pots, but the foreign importation is chiefly in small vessels which 
collect it from the natives. It is an ill looking fish, not unlike a big 
sausage, and has but few powers of locomotion in common with 
other g asteropudce ; when the animal is captured, the short tentaculaj 
are folded up under its body. It is sometimes two feet long; but 
commonly from four to ten inches, and its girth two or three. It 
is taken with the hand by the natives, who spear or dive for it ; and 
after it has been cleansed, dried, and smoked, it is fit for sale; about 
a thousand slugs make a pecul. For a long time the Chinese 
were the sole carriers of the article ; but since the beginning of the 
century, foreigners have been engaged in tlie trade. In the market, 
bicho-da-mar appears hard and rigid, and has a dirty brown color 
caused by the smoking ; when brought to the table it resembles pork- 
rind in color and consistency. The Chinese cook it by itself, or 
with other dishes, and consume large quantities under the belief that 
it is an aphrodisiac. They divide it into about 3U varieties, priced 
from $80 to $IJ per pecul, but one must be well acquainted with 
the article to distinguish them. _^, ^^^ 

5. Birds-nests, called yen wo, ^' \'^) or swallow's nests, are 
assorted into the kiodn yen *B* 5[p^ i. e. mandarin nests, ckang yen 

Att, 11 " 4tll F— ti -U— 

{ft :^ or common nests, and the mdu yen ^p ;^nli or hairy nests, 
otherwise known as clean, ordinary, and uncleaned. These, which 
owe their celebrity only to the whimsical luxury of the Chinese, arc 
brought principally from Java and Sumatra; though they are found 
on most of the rocky islets of the Indian Archipelago. The nest is 
the habitation of a small swallow (Hirundo esculmtn), and is entirely 
composed of a gelatinous substance elaborated by the bird from a 
species of seaweed (Gelidium) like carrageen moss, which it collects 
on the beach ; externally, the nests resemble ill-concocted, fibrous isin- 
glass, and are of a white color, inclining to red ; their thickness is 
little more than- that of a silver spoon, and their weight from a quar- 
ter to half an ounce. When dry, they are brittle and wrinkled ; the 
size is rather larger than a goose-egg ; the dry, white, and clean 



Birds-nests difficult to procure. Their preparation, sorts, and amount. 

are the most valuable. They are packed in bundles, with split rattans 
run through them to preserve their shape. 

The quality of the nests varies according to the situation and ex- 
tent of the csves, and the time at which they are taken. The best 
specimens are procured before the young are fledged ; if they contain 
eggs only, they are still valuable; but if the young are still in the 
nests or have left them, the whole are then nearly worthless, being 
dark colored, streaked with blood, and intermixed with feathers and 
dirt. The nests are procurable twice every year, nor is the harvest 
increased if the caves are neglected a year or two ; some of the 
rajahs keep guards constantly stationed near the caves to prevent 
intruders entering them. The best are found in deep, damp caves, 
which if not injured will'continue to produce indefinitely. It was 
once thought that the localities near the sea-coast were the most 
productive ; but some of the most profitable yet found, are situated 
fifty miles in the interior. 

The method of procuring these nests somewhat resembles that of 
catching birds on the Orkney Isles. Some of the caves are so pre- 
cipitous, that no one, but those accustomed to the employment from 
their youth, can obtain the nests ; ' being only approachable,' says 
Crawfurd, ' by a perpendicular descent of many hundred feet, by 
ladders of bamboo and rattan, over a sea rolling violently against the 
rocks. When the mouth of the cave is attained, the perilous task 
of taking the nests must often be performed by torch-light, by pene- 
trating into recesses of the rock, where the slightest slip would be 
instantly fatal to the adventurers, who see nothing below them but 
the turbulent surf making its way into the chasms of the rock.' 

After they are obtained, they are separated from feathers and dirt, 
are carefully dried out of the sun and packed, and are then ready 
for the consumer. The Chinese, who are the only people that pur- 
chase them for their own use, bring them in junks to this market, 
where they command extravagant prices. The best, or white kind, 
often being worth $3800 per pecul, which is nenrly twice its 
weight in silver; the middling kind is worth from .$1200 to $1600 ; 
and the worst, or those procured after fledging, $150 or $200 per 
pecul; it is according to these three qualities, that. the duty is 
levied. A large part of the best kind is sent to Peking for the use 
of the court. It appears, therefore, that this curious dish is an article 
of expensive luxury among the Chinese only ; how they acquired the 
habit of using it is only less singular than their persevering in it. 
They consider the birds-nest soup as a great stimulant and tonic, 
but its best quality, perhaps, is its being perfectly harmless. Not 
a little labor is bestowed to render it fit for the table ; every feather, 
stick, and impurityof any kind, is carefully removed by forceps and 
knives; and then, afier being washed it is stewed into a soft jelly, 
like isinglass, which owes its taste almost wholly to the ingredients 
added to the dish. The sale of birds-nests is a monopoly with all 
the governments in whose dominions it is found*. It is estimated by 


Baroos Camphor ; its properties and origin. Cardamoms are of two sorts. 

Crawfurd thirty years ago, that about 243,000 pounds, at the value 
of -f 1,263,570, were ajinually sent away from the Archipelago, most 
of which came to China. Java alone sent about 27,000 /6s., mostly 
of the first quality, estimated at $60,000. The most of the trade has 
been and still is in the hands of the Chinese and Portuguese ; no 
satisfactory data for the amount or value of the importation at present 
can therefore be ascertained. 

6. Camphor, called ping pien, 7]^ H^ or icicle flakes, is divided 
into clean or Malay ^ 'j^ ^ ti* tsing ping pien, and jj^ ^^ ^ 
ni ping pien, or refuse ; other names are ng R4j Iwig ndu, or 
dragon's brains, and y]^ ^ ^ po-lo hidng, or Borneo perfume. 
This sort of camphor comes from Sumatra and Borneo, where the tree 
is confined to a small extent of countr^y. In Sumatra, the best gum 
is obtained in the district of Baroos, and hence all similarly good, 
brought from those two islands, is called Baroos camphor. The tree 
( Dryohalanops camphor a) is a splendid tall plant, often five feet in 
diameter, and found nowhere else in the world. The natives cut down 
the trees in the forests, split them open, and scrape the gum from 
the fragments in small pieces. It is said that not a tenth of the trees 
yield gum, and before killing them it cannot be ascertained whether 
they are productive or not. It is divided into three sorts ; the beat 
is in crystallized lumps of a roseate white, occurring in the fissures 
of the tree as a concrete essential oil ; the second is somewhat 
brownish, with but few sticks in it; while the last and worst is the 
refuse scrapings. All sorts are brought to China. The proportion 
between the prices of Malay and Chinese camphor is as 100 to 1 for 
the best; the former is more fragrant and not so pungent as the lat- 
ter, but it is altogether the fancy of the Chinese which causes the diP- 
ference ; and the high price they willingly pay for this curious produc- 
tion is a remarkable instance of the cost men will go to when they be- 
lieve a thing will cure their ailments. It is a trifling article of trade, 
and most of it is smuggled. *^ _y^ ^»j 

Card.\moms, peh tau kau 'pi ^f, ^£ i. e. white nutmegs. There 
are several sorts of these, produced by various plants in diflerent 
countries, but the lesser and greater are the principal. The lesser 
cardamoms are obtained from a small shrub (Amomum repens) which 
grows on the coast of Malabar. They are the capsules of the plant, of 
a bright yellow color, a pungent smell, and when good are plump and 
broken with difficulty, possessing a sweet aromatic flavor ; and the 
seeds when chewed impart a grateful warmth to the mouth. They 
should be well dried. The greater cardamoms are the fruits of the 
Amomum. cardamomum, a tree which grows in Cochinchina, Sumatra 
and Java. The seeds are blackish, triangular, and longer and larger 
than those of the other kind, inferior in pungency and flavor. Both 
are occasionally used as an expectorant among the Chinese, who 
chew them. As an article of trade, cardamoms are hardly known iii 
this market. 

CO.M. (it. 19 


Cloves, groufth and cxirt. Mother Cloves, the fruit. Clocks, Jewelry, Ifc. 

7. Cloves, J "f^r f^"g fii^ng, or "j 7^ -^ tiz' ting hiang. 
These are the unopened flowers of a large tree (Caryophyllu aroina- 
ticus), which grows in the Moluccas Islands, and is cultivated in 
Sumatra and Mauritius. The tree is shaped like the pear tree, the 
bark is smooth, and the iwhole plant has a strong aromatic odor. 
When an exotic, the tree does not begin to bear till 9 or 10 years 
of age, but .in its native soil, it is usually productive at 5 or 6 years. 
The buds appear about the first of May, and during the four following 
months are perfected : they are green at first, then yellow, and finally 
change to a blood-red color ; soon after this the flowers open, and in 
three weeks the seeds are ripe. " It blossoms early," says Herbert, 
" but becomes exceedingly inconstant in complexion, from a virgin 
white varying into other colors ; for in the morn it shows a pale green, 
in the meridian a distempered, red, and sets in blackness. The cloves 
manifest themselves at the extremity of the branches, and in their 
growing evaporate such sense-ravishing odors, as if a compendium of 
nature's sweetest gums were there extracted and united." The buds 
are gathered very carefully by the hand in order that the trees may 
not be injured, and are cured by placing them on hurdles over a slow 
fire for a few days, and afterwards in the sun, until they are thoroughly 
dried. The average produce for an orchard is 6 to 10 lbs. from each 
tree; some trees have been known to yield 150 lbs. in one season. 
The best cloves are large, heavy, have a hot acrid taste, and an oily 
feel. Those which have had the essential oil extracted are shriveled, 
and usually want the knob at the top. The weight of a lot is often 
increased by setting the baskets near a vessel of water to absorb moist- 
ure. The Chinese use them sparingly for food, and consume a portion 
in distilling oil from them, to use in perfumery. Fancy work-baskets 
and other articles are often made from cloves by fastening them toge- 
ther with wire. -T^-r^L. r-i-T-^K* 

Mother cloves, y tf J 'Q* hid tang ting hiang, or -jij- J ^^ 
mii ting hiang, are the fruit of the plant, and have been of late years 
imported from the Straits. 'I'he price averages from $10 to $12 per 
pecul. They are used by the poor for much the same purposes as 

the others. ^t rtA /osc »^ t=i' jtxm 

8. Clocks, H R^ M '*'^' '""*^ chung; watches H^ J^ ^ 
ski shin pidu ; telescopes, =^ J|^ ^ tsien li king ; writing-desks, 
5^ ^ "^ sic tsz' hok; dressing-cases, ;;fei(]^ ^'j^ sho chwang hok; 
jewelry, kin shau skih -^ "g ^^. One half of the importation 
of clocks, watches, music-boxes, hardware, 6lc., may be regarded 
as British property, and the other half as F'rench and Swiss. Twenty 
or thirty years ago, at least half a million dollars' worth of these 
articles used to be imported, but latterly the trade has fallen ofi", as 
the Chinese make clocks and watches now for themselves, except the 
steel-part of the machinery, as main-springs, &,c., which they purchase.- 
Wooden clocks are taken to a considerable extent, bul not bo much 
as ten years ago. 




Canvas. Cochineal. Coir, Us varietks. Coral, its uses. 

9. Castas, fan pv, ^ ^ or li pu, ^ flj. This is used al- 
most entirely by the foreign shipping, and its sale does not extend 
much among the Chinese. Canvas topsails are sometimes seen upon 
boats and junks, where they are used in fair winds, as mat sails are 
not so light and flexible. ^^ _. 

10. CocHiNE.^L, or yd Idn mi, ^/y ^ "^ is brought chiefly 
from the United States. The insect (Coccus cacti) has been material- 
ly improved by culture, and the article is now divided into wild 
and domesticated; the latter being collected thrice in a year. The 
climate and situation of China and Japan being similar to Mexico, 
perhaps the cultivation of the plant, and domestication of the insect 
would be successful in these countries; both have failed in India, 
Java, and Spain. In selecting cochineal, care should be taken that 
the color has not been occasioned by art ; the best sort is '* large, 
plump, dry, and of a silver white color on the surface." A watery 
infusion dyes scarlet ; an alcoholic produces a deep crimson ; while 
an alkaline gives a deep purple color. It is occasionally imported 
from Mexico ung-irbled, but most of it comes from America in the 
garbled state. , . .^ 

Coir, called J^J* ^ y^ i, or \^ tsung. Cocoa-nut coir is imported 
in small quantities in native vessels, either from Hainan or its vicinity, 
or from the Archipelago. Most of the coir used by the Chinese is 
made from the bark of the tsung or gomuti palm (ChamcBrops), a 
most useful tree found throughout the southern provinces. It is 30 
feet or more in height, and furnishes a quantity of bark annually. The 
loose bark is stripped off in large sheets from the trunk of the tree, 
and when steeped in water the fibres separate in short wiry threads, 
of a dark brown color. It is the material from which the Chinese 
make cordage, cables, mats, sinnet, brooms, rain-cloaks, sandals, 
hats, trunks, brushes for block-printing, and other articles. The price 
for the prepared coir is about $4 per pecul. In the Archipelago the 
gomuti or ejoo, as this substance is called by the Malays, is collected 
in Borneo and Amboyna for cordage and similar purposes ; the thread 
sells at $1.51) or 12 per pecu!. 

Coa.\L; the precious red is called shan hit Wf^ |5fl; the inferior 
or false is known as tu shdn hv, ^ Jjffl fjB and kid shdn hv, j|£ }M 
Jj^ ; skih hwa, ^ M^ is a name for common .rhite coral. Various 
sorts are brought from the Indian Archipelago in native vessels, 
partly from Manila, where it centres from the Samar Is. and the 
Bisayas, and partly from Singapore and India. The black is the most 
prized, but the fine red is more common and useful ; it is wrought 
into official knobs or buttons and beads, and the fine specimens sell 
for high prices. The manufacture of ear-rings, finger-rings, and other 
ornaments consumes the inferior sort, which is priced at $20 to 
$100 per pecul according to the density, color, and size of the pieces. 
Fancy pieces of white branch coral and madrepores are also .sought 
fur to adorn the grotesque plants and fancy ruck work in Chinese. 



Cornelians or agates. Cotton. Cotton Manufactures, leading sorts. 

gardens. In former years, considerable quantities were imported in 
the E I. Company's ships from the Mediterranean, viJL England ; and 
fine pieces of red, which are not often found in the Indian Seas, still 
find a good market. 

11. Cornelians or agates; the beads are md nau chu J^ Jg JU^, 

and the pieces 3^ J^ ^ \^ md ndu shihpien. These are brought 

from Bombay, to which place they come from Rajpepla in Guzerat, 
not far from the city of Broach. They are brought in the rough, 
and also manufactured into beads. They have not heretofore usual- 
ly passed through the custom-house. The Chinese make ankle 
rings, ear-rings, armlets, snuff-bottles, bead &,c., from these gems, 
some of which are beautiful specimens of manufacture. 

12. Cotton, or mien hwd *^ xi^ ; the chief varieties are Bombay, 
rat Jh^ yuen hwd or soft bales ; Bengal ^^ vi/ kang hwd, or hard 
bales; Madras, "^ vlfdng pdu, or square bales; Palembang, -jg 
VH kiu kiang. The average annual import into Canton for the last 

fourteen years has been 244,629 bales, of which 171,000 bales were 
Bombay, 35,677 bales Bengal, and 37,752 bales Madras; in the 
years 1847 and '48, there were about 5500 bales of native growth 
brought from Shanghai, but since then this sort has nearly cea.sed 
to come. In 1851 a failure in the native crops caused very high 
prices to rule in the Canton market, and produced an import from 
India in 1852 of 409,213 bales ; that of the following year, however, 
being smaller than since 1841, viz., 147,182 bales, showed that under 
ordinary circumstances consumption could not take off more than 
about the average of the fourteen years, which may be computed at 
241,548 bales. The maximum consumption was in 1852, 303,711 
bales, and the minimum in 1854, when the influences of the rebellion 
were felt in all trade, 135,511 bales. Canton is the principal mart for 
foreign cotton, and the foregoing statistics may be taken as a cri- 
terion of the extent of the trade generally The market of Amoy 
takes off about 40,000 bales annually, but with few exceptions the 
supplies of that market are drawn from Canton. The average annual 
value of the trade cannot now be estimated at over 5J to 6 millions 
of dollnrs, exclusive of the duties, which amount to about $400,000. 
American cotton has ceased to be an article of import. Cotton is 
always quoted in taels and mace in the prices-current. 

13. Cotton Manufactures are white longcloths, peh ydng pu, 
t^l \^ /fu ; gray shirtings, and domestics, f© 1^ V^ '7|f yuen sek 
ydng pu; twilled cottons, drillings, ^a- a/ ^fi si^ wan pk ; cambrics, 
muslins, ^ ^ ^ kid shd pu ; chintz, prints, ^H >^ /^ yin 
hwd pii ; handkerchiefs, -^- fpy shau peh ; ginghams, lidu tiau kin 
Mn {^ rh ; pulicates, ki fung kin, j^ ^ \\] ; colored cottons, 
yuen sehpii'^^ ^ 'TO ; velveteens, tsienjung pu, ^ ^5^ ffl > ^^'^ 


Fancy Cotton fabrics unsaleable. Cotton Yarn and Thread. Cow Bezoar. 

and cotton mixtures, ^^ xffi aFj sz' mien pu ; woolen and cotton 
mixtures, ^- i|^ Afi rndu mien pii, and perhaps a few other sorts. 
The staples of these fabrics are grey and white shirtings from 
England, drills and sheetings from the United States. Ten years 
ago, Canton was the great mart for all these staples, but since then 
the port of Shanghai has gradually and naturally drawn the trade 
away from its southern competitor, the great consuming districts of 
such fabrics being in the provinces bordering upon the Yang-tsz' 
kiang. In ordinary times Shanghai can annually take 1^ million 
pieces grey, and 500,000 pieces white shirtings, 300,000 pieces drill- 
ings, and 100,000 pieces sheetings. Canton has of late years con- 
sumed about 400,000 |J5. grey, and75,000ps. white shirtings, 500,000 
■pes. drillings, and 310,000 pes. sheetings and jeans. Anioy takes off 
nearly 100,000 pes. grey and white shirtings annually, and Fuhchow 
lately has consumed about 25,000 pieces. Chintzes have been greatly 
overdone during the last few years, the China markets can only take 
off a very limited quantity. The principal market for the goods of 
this description sold in the North is Japan, taken there by the 
Chinese from Chapn. Handkerchiefs have likewise been overdone, 
and there is no appearance of any increase to consumption. Ginghams, 
velveteens, pulicates, satteens, and every kind of fancy goods, 
have been repeatedly tried, but they do not take with the people, 
and are not likely to ; one reason being that silks are more elegant 
and durable, and the style of dress among the Chinese allows no 
light fabric. ,^ . . ,^ , ^ 

14. CoTTo.v Yarn and Cotton Thread, f ip ^y mien sha or ^^ |^ 
mien sien. This article comes from England, the import from the 
United States, which in 1844 amounted to 1500 bales, having quite 
ceased. The consumption of this article has steadily increased dur- 
ing the last ten years, but it is questionable whether any increase 
will take place, unless foreign privileges in the empire become ex- 
tended. In 1845 the importation did not exceed 6000 bales, while 
in 1852 it reached 16,000 bales; in 1853, only 14,000 bales were 
imported, but this may be partly accounted for by the effects of poli- 
tical occurrences at Amoy. Assortments of Nos. 16 to 24 and Nos. 
18 to 32 are the most saleable; the extent and value of the trade 
may be estimated at 45,000 peculs annually, at .$25 a pecul, say 
$1,125,000. Canton can take off 10,000 to 1 1,000 bales, and Amoy 
4 to 5000 bales. Both water and mule yarn are used, but very 
little of the latter. ^^ ^^ 

15. Cow Bezo.'VR, '^ JIf niu hwong. The concretions found in 
the stomachs of goats were called bezoar in Persia, but the name is 
now used to designate that found in other animals, as the cow, horse, 
boar, camel, dtc. That produced by the goat sometimes sold for 
ten times its weight in gold, but it is not now sought after. The 
composition of bezoar differs often in the same kind of animal, as 
well as in dissimilar species. The true bezoar is well counter- 
feited by pipe-clay and ox-gall. The genuine throws off only a small 


Cudbear. Cutch, a dye. CtUlery. Dammar. ElephanCs Teeth. 

scale when a hot needle is thrust into it, and in hot water it remains 
unchanged; when rubbed on chalk, the trace should be yellow, but 
green on quick lime. That found in the camel is esteemed as a 
yellow pigment by the Hindoos. The cow bezoar brought from India 
is valued in this market at from §20 to $25 a catty, and is used as a 
paint and in medicine. ^. ^^ 

Cudbear, called tsz' fan ^ ^f or carnation powder, is a dried 
lichen used in dyeing violet, purple, or crimson ; it is procured from 
the Lecanora parellus or tartarea, which are collected in France 
and Sweden. Its colors are not durable when employed alone, and 
it is therefore used as a body to other expensive dyes, as indigo, 
cochineal, doc, to make them more lively. It is used but little by 
the Chinese. ^ 

16. Cutch, or Catechu, nrk cha ^^ ^^, was for a long time 
regarded as an earth, brought from Japan ; it is an astringent extract 
obtained by boiling the heart wood of the Acacia catechu, a tree 
growing near the gulf of Cutch. It is imported from India; that 
brought from Bombay is friable, and of a red-brown color, and more 
hard and firm than that from Bengal. The cakes resemble chocolate, 
and when broken have a streaked appearance. Good cutch has a 
bright uniform color, a sweetish, astringent taste, melts in the mouth, 
and is free from any grittiness. But it varies considerably even 
when good; some kinds being ponderous and compact, others very 
light and friable; some more and others less astringent; which 
differences seem to result from the manner and the seasons in which 
it is obtained. The Chinese use it to a large extent as a brown dye 
and medicine, and people whose employment injures their feet, some- 
times rub it on the skin to harden it ; the value varies from $4 to 

$5 per pecul. ; /*ti fla -rf vfcsri 

Cutlery, tiek ki, tdu kien, i^ ^ff yj ^J as swords, knives. 
The consumption of knives is extending a little, almost wholly in the 
cheapest sorts ; padlocks, hinges, locks, and other small articles are 
also taken. , , 

Da.m.mer, or Damar Pq r^ ^'^ pd ma yv. This is a kind of 
indurated pitch exuding spontaneously from .several species of pine 
in the Indian islands; there is a hard sort, and a white, softer kind 
It is found in big lump.s, under the trees or on their trunks, and 
in large quantities. It is mixed with a softer kind which makes it 
less brittle ; and is then used for paying seams in boats, and other 
wooden vessels. It is brought to China in native vessels, probably not 
to a very large amount, as the native preparation of lime, oil and 
rattan oakum serves the same purpose. It can be obtained in Borneo 
for 5'J cents per pecul. 

17. Elephani'.s teeth, or sidvg yd ^& ^JP 5 the pieces are call- 
ed yd sui ^ ^&. These are obtained in South Africa, and import- 
ed from Bombay; but the best and largest part is brought from Siam 
in juuk.s ; a good deal finds its way into China direct from Burmah. 


■ Fishmatos. Flinls. Glass and Windoiv Glass. ' Gambier. 

They should be chosen without flaws, solid, and white; for if crack- 
ed or broken at the point, or decayed inside, they are less valuable ; 
every tusk, and also the cuttings and pieces, however, are useful to a 
greater or less degree. The largest and best weigh from o to 8 to a 
pecul, and decrease in size to 25 in a pecul ; a large sound tusk often 
sells for $150 or more.^^ 

18. FiSHMAws, or ^ Ajt y" tu. These are the stomachs of 
sharks, and are used as an article of luxury among the Chinese. 
They are of a cartilaginous nature, and need only to be properly 
dried to fit them for the market ; they are of a yellowish tinge, and 
are cured by stretching them in the sun. If they become damp, 
they soon decay and are then worthless. They are brought from 
India and the Archipelago. Fishmaws, birds-nests, deer and buffa- 
loe's sinews, biche-de-mer, shark's fins, and some other curious ani- 
mal substances, are eaten by the Chinese, chiefly for their supposed 
aphrodisiac properties. . 

19. Flints, ho shih yC -^ »• c- fire-stone, are brought from 
Europe in the rough, sometimes as ballast ; they are used in tinder 
boxes, and in the glass manufactories; the importation is gradually 

20. Gl.\ss J|x im A^ t10 w. po li shwui tsing hi, and J^' ^ /I 
po It pien, or window glass. Fifty years ago, the importation of 
broken glassware was an important item in the trade at Canton, and 
is still brought a little, but the Chinese have since so much improv- 
ed as to make much of their own glassware. They have known how 
to make glass and other vitreous compounds for ages, but the manu- 
facture of table ware is recent. Their glass-houses are small estab- 
lishments, and the number in Canton alone is very great; the work- 
manship of some of their ground lamp-glasses is highly creditable ; 
elegant crystal and Bohemian ware, window-glass, pier-glasses, and 
domestic glassware, are all imported to some extent. Colored glass 
panes are also made in Canton, and the demand and assortment have 
both increased within ten years. j^ ,. ..^^^ 

21. Ga.mbikr, or pin ling kiau, ^^ ^\ *^ i. e. betel-nut fat. 
This is sometimes confounded with cutch, and the properties and 
uses of the two are similar. Gambier is obtained by boiling the leaves 
of a vine ( Uncaria gambier ) , in caldrons for five or six hours until 
a strong decoction is formed ; they arc then taken out and strained 
above the boiler, while the extract is boiled almost to dryness, when it 
is cooled and the water drawn oft*; a soapy substance remains, which 
is dried and cut up as it is wanted. It is of a brownish yellow color, 
and everywhere used in the Archipelago to chew with betel-nut, 
being first mixed with a little lime. Large quantities are brought 
from Singapore and Java, at a prime cost of 81.75 per pecul, for 
dyeing cottons and hemp ; the color is at first an oker yellow, which 
soon changes to a dirty brown. It is also u.sed to tan leather; the 
proportion of tannin in gambier is seven or eiglit times that in oak 


Ginseng, crude and darified. Gold and Silver Thread. Gums. Gum Benzoin. 

22. Ginseng, or jin-san A ^ ; clarified is ckti tsing san sii tih, 
l^j; /^ 0i. Ig 6^J ; crude is ydng san sii V^ ^ f^. This is the 
dried root of th* Panax quinquefolia, though it is probable that the 
Chinese and American plant are different species. It is obtained in 
Manchuria in the wilds north of Corea, and also in the United States, 
and is considered by the Chinese as a panacea. All the ginseng 
collected in the empire is imperial property, and a quantity is annually 
sold to faithful subjects, who have the privilege to purchase it at its 
weight in gold. The roots arc about the size and length of a man's 
little finger, and when chewed have a mucilaginous sweetness ; and 
if good, will snap when broken. They should be sound, firm, and 
free from worm-holes; the clarified is translucent, which is made by 
steaming, skinning and drying it in the United States. The crude 
is the natural dried root. The Chinese prefer that which comes from 
their own woods, even when they can see no difference. When first 
brought from America, the profits were 500 or 600 per cent. ; but 
the price has declined to a very moderate profit, owing in a good 
degree to the increased expenses in collecting the root in America, 
for such is the coyness of this plant that it cannot be cultivated. 
Clarified ginseng varies from $80 to $120 a pecul ; the crude, from 
$35 to $70 a pecul ; five per cent, is allowed for loss in weight on 
this article. 

23. Gold and Silver Thread called kin yin sien ^ ^ ^^, 

divided into the chin ya or real, and the wei ^^ or imitation. It 
is imported from England and Holland ; the Dutch is considered to 
be the best. It is used in embroidering caps, purses, shoes, ladies' 
dresses, and ornamenting other similar objects. The quantity im- 
ported is great; but being of great value in little bulk, is usually 

24. Gums. Besides the gum-resins here mentioned, a few others 
are occasionally brought, as gum arable, stick lac, copal, gum animi, 
and rosin ; damar and gamboge also properly come under this 
designation. *t; Q ^ 

Benzoin or Benjamin, -^ ,^, ^ ngan sih kidng. This balsam 
is the concrete juice of the Styraz benzoin, which is cultivated in 
Borneo and Sumatra, in a rich moist soil. When the plants are 
seven years old, an incision is made in the bark, and the gum is 
carefully scraped off for three years; this first gathering is called 
head; the brown and inferior, produced during the next eight or 
ten seasons, is called belly ; the tree is then cut down, and all the 
gum scraped from the fragments, ^s foot: the first quality, varying in 
price at the emporia, from $50 to $100 per pecul ; the second from 
$25 to $45 ; and the worst from $8 to <rf20 per pecul. The gum is 
brought from the interior in large cakes, which require to be soften- 
ed by boiling before they are packed ; care should be taken to free 
them from external impurities. Good benzoin is full of clear, light 
colored ypots, and when broken exhibits almond-like portions whiter 


Gum Olibanum, and Us itses. Myrrh and Bddliurru Dragon's Blood. 

than the rest. Leaves, sticks, and bark are mingled with the inferior, 
opaque brown sorts ; it is almost tasteless, but when rubbed or heated 
gives off an extremely agreeable odor. The Parsees import benzoin, 
but the total amount is not great; native vessels occasionally bring it 

Olibanum, ju hidng ^fL ^ i. e. milk fragrance ; <flMj«i j|^ <L »• ^^ 
peach milk, is a term for the best sort. This is the frankincense or 
thus of the ancients, and is used in China for burning in temples and 
for making plasters. It is collected by incision from the Bostoellia 
thurifera and glabra, large trees found in India. I'here are two 
principal sorts ; the drops of the best are very brittle, of a light yel- 
low, varying to red or brown, opaque or semi-transparent, sticky 
and splintery when broken. The inferior is a dirty grey, and mix- 
ed with impurities. It has a balsamic smell, a sharpish bitter taste, 
and when chewed adheres to the teeth, and gives the saliva a milky 
color. It burns with a pleasant fragrance and much smoke, leaving 
a black ash. In market, olibanum is not often badly adulterated ; 
the boxes each contain one cwt. Garbled olibanum is valued at $6 
per pecul, and the ungarbled at $2 or $3 per pecul in the Canton 
market. .^^^ _«j 

Myrrh or ^X ^ moh yoh. This gum is brought from Bombay, 
and is obtained by incision from the Balsamodendron zeylanicum. 
That which comes to China is not the same article as the Arabian, 
being quite opaque, of a blockish red color, greasy fracture, and 
softens by the heat of the hand ; it has an acrid, warm and bitter taste. 
The pieces ought to be clear, semi-translucent, and unctuous, but 
it has usually other gums mixed with it. Loureiro says the berries 
of the Laurus myrrha afford a kind of reddish oil of the odor of 
myrrh, which is used in Cochinchina for purifying ulcers, and sup- 
poses the East Indian myrrh is obtained from it. The price varies 
from $4 to $18 per pecul in the Canton market, but the importa- 
tion has almost ceased in the past few years. 

Bdellium is a gum-resin obtained from an Amyris, but that which 
comes to China is only another name for an inferior sort of myrrh ; 
both of them are probably much adulterated in this part of the 
world, compared with pure myrrh. . ^ , ^—^ 

Dragon's Blood, or lung yen hidng ]|§ )5s ^, is the dry resinous 
substance which covers the fruit of the Calamus draco, a sort of rat- 
tan growing in Borneo and Annam, obtained by melting or boiling it 
ofT. The good is of a bright crimson when powdered, and semi-tran- 
sparent to the light. The tears are usually the firmest, and the most 
resinous and pure. If it is black when powdered or very friable, it 
is inferior. It is often adulterated with other gums; the genuine 
melts readily and burns wholly away, is scarcely soluble in water, 
but fluent in alcohol. Its uses are various in medicine, painting, 
varnishing, and other arts. The best is procured at Banjermassing, 
and comes to this market from Singapore in reeds, selling at $15 to 
§35 per pecul. 

COM. av. ■■iO 


Gram. Horns. Rhinoceros' Horns. Lintn. Mace. Molher-o'-pearl Shells. 

Gram, or split ppas, pq J^^ peh tait, is imported from India to 
some extent; it is bought by the Chinese for grinding and making into 
bean-curd and cakes, of which they consume an incalculable amount; 
the Indian grain is larger and whiter than the native, and epicures 
think it richer. ^ ^^ 

23. Horns, niu kioh ^X" J^, and Bones of various animals are 
brought from the adjacent countries and islands, and form an import- 
ant article of import with the native vessels. The horns of buffaloes 
and oxen form the largest part, but those of deer and goats are also 
brought to make into hartshorn, which is considered a good remedy 
4n nervous ailments. Buffaloes' horns are worked into lanterns, 
sjome of which are of large size and highly elegant; the manufacture 
of small opium boxes annually consumes many hundred peculs, 
besides what is cut into handles, ferules, rings, canes, paper-knives, 
combs, and other useful articles. The bones are carved into buttons, 
and small fancy articles. _, -, 

26. HoR\s, rhinoceros', or /ip J^ si kioh. The best sort comes 
from Cochmcliina, and sell at times for ^HOQ apiece; an inferior 
sort comes from India, of which son.e probably are from southern 
Africa, which sell for $30 and upwards apiece. The Chinese carve 
the finest pieces into elegant cups, cornucopias, doc, but most of the 
importation is used as a medicine; it is also sent to Japan by the 
Chinese. ^ r^ ,, » 

27. Linen, md pu Jj^ 4l1 or cAu^ pii YJ -tjJ, is almost entirely 
purchased by the foreign community, nor does its importation in- 
crease; the Chinese wear no under garments, strictly so called; and 
their own grasscloth is cheaper than foreign linen. Cotton and linen, 
coarse linen drilling, and silk and linen mixtures, are all included 
under this head. .^ ^ _^,_ _ii- ^ 

28. Mace, tau kau hied S jnS "VC or yuh ktoo htod JE y^ 4tl 
This is the reticulated arillus of the nutmeg, 3Iyristica tnoschata, 
whose properties it has in a less degree. Good mace is horny and 
oily, red when gathered, but turns to an orange when sprinkled with 
salt water and dried ; it has a pleasant, aromatic odor, with a pungent, 
bitterish taste. It is packed m bales, and care is requisite that it 
be not too dry or too wet, as both alike injure it. There is an 
inferior kind of mace got from a wild nutmeg found in Malabar, 
which externally resembles the true; it has a resinous taste and is 
but slightly aromatic. Mace has nearly disappeared from this market 
within the last few years. jg^^ m ^ ji^ rit *J^ 

29. MoTHER-o'.PEA«L shells, -^ Pf '^X «/«« »«« '^oh or i^ hp. nX 
hai chu koh, are brought to this market from the islands of the 
'Pacific and Sooloo seas. It is a small trade, and does not increase 
much, owing to the scarcity of suitable sound shells. There are 
seven qualities of naker, the best of which comes from the Avicula 
.perlirre; .species of ihe Ilaliotis, Placiina, and Unio, also supply it. 
(A large proportion of that which is brought to Cluiia is re-exported 


Copper little used. Sorts of Iron imported. Spelter. Tin. 

in the shape of fancy articles, seals, and pearl buttons of different 
qualities. Large, thick shells are the best, and those should be 
chosen of which the naker or inner surface is not discolqred, decayed, 
or fractured. 

30. Metals. The consumption of metals from abroad depends 
very much on their price, rather than on a need which nius: be. 
supplied ; when high, the native mines furnish some of them cheaper. 
The Chinese have mines of lead, quicksilver, iron, calamine, tin, 
and copper. „ ^^ .^ 

Copper, tung picn ^ji^ Yf and tung tidu ^\>\ 1|^« i.e. copper slabs 
and copper rods. South American copper is brought to this market 
from England and the United States, but it is scarcely ever landed ; 
much of that in slabs is sent on to India, and that in sheets, rods, 
and bolts is used by the foreign shipping. The Chinese in a few 
instances sheath their vessels with copper ; the Siamese and Cochin- 
chinese often do so. The copper found in Japan contains gold in 
alloy ; it occurs in the market in small red colored bars, six inches 
long, flat on one side and convex on the other, weighing 4 or 5 lbs. 
each ; this copper is the most valuable of any found in Asia ; the 
Chinese bring it from Japan to Chapii in small lots. 

Iron, tick pan ^i mW, tieh tidu ^5 -jj* tieh sien %Jj^ &S tiehfii 
^p ^M* '• ^" '"^^^ sheets, rods, wire, and hoop ; is an article of import- 
ance in this market ; pig iron is not imported. Bar iron frt>m 1 to 
3 inches wide, and square and round rod of ^ inch and less, are the 
common sizes. Bar is worth from $1.80 to $2.60 per pecul ; nail 
rod from •*44 to ^4f ; wire from ^7 to 8 ; and hoop about $4 per 
pecul. The demand for iron is more uniform than for any other 
metal, and doubtless it is the convenient shapes in which it is 
imported that induces the Chinese to take it. 

Spelter or ^ i& peh yuen. This is the zink of commerce, used 
in the manufacture of brass : it is in plates of half an inch thick of 
a whitish-blue color, which sell at 85.^ to $6 per pecul. There was 
formerly a monopoly of spelter, so that no foreigner could either buy 
or .sell it ; the consumption has decreased to a trifle, as tutenage and 
white copper prevent much consumption of foreign spelter. The 
cash used in Cochinchina is made of zink, adulterated with iron and 

Tin ^ sih or 7^ ^^ ynng sih. This metal is found in the is- 
land of Banca. It occurs in both Chihli and Hunan, but the metal 
is not abundant in China. Banca tin is cast into ingots weighing 
from 20 to 60 lbs. : that of a superior quality is called ' Banca tin,' 
while the inferior, known as 'Straits' tin,' is obtained chiefly in the 
Malayan peninsula ; and is not unfrequently adulterated with lead. 
The former sells for about .$21, and the latter for $16 or $17 a pecul ; 
the consumption of foreign tin has decreased during the last few- 
years, and the annual importation does not now reach r>000 peculs. 


T\n Plates. Quicksilver. SUel. Lead and its uses. JS/ulmegs. 

Tin Plates, ma kau tieh ^ M ^ or sih pien ^^ /-( are brought 
from England and America in boxes containing 112 /6s. or from 80 
to 120 plates, and sell for about $6 to 7 per box. The demand for 
them is steady but not large, jj^ ^^ 

Quicksilver or shwui yin /y^ fpc is brought from Europe in iron 
flas-ks; the mines in California now more than supply the demand in 
China, which is altogether not over 12,000 flasks annually, each 
about 75 /6s. at a total value of $400,000. Quicksilver is frequently 
adulterated with lead or tin : the fraud can be detected by boiling it 
to evaporation, when the other metals will remain ; if the quantity 
of extraneous metal is great, the quicksilver feels greasy, and cleaves 
to the skin, while the pure runs off clean. Its market value is very 
fluctuating. In 1790 it was priced at 35 to 40 taels per pecul ; in 
1848 at §130 ; and in 1855, at §60. 

Steel, or kdng ^|p9. Both Swedish and English rough or blistered 

Rteel are the kinds usually imported. The importation increased for 
several years, but latterly the demand has fallen off. The Chinese 
are not skilled in making steel articles, and their cutlery is a bur- 
lesque on the name. j_ ^^ 

Lead, or heh yucn ^ $p. This metal comes in the forms of pig 
and sheet lead. The price varies from $7.50 to $9 per pecul. 
Lead, comparatively speaking, is scarce in Asia and in the Indian 
islands. The annual import has fallen from 40,000 peculs ten years 
ago, to 5000 or 6000 peculs at present, the greatest part of which 
comcS"from England. The American importation is trifling, but 
usually bears a higher price. The lining of camphor boxes, tea-chests, 
and canisters consumes a large proportion of the lead brought to this 
market. The mode of making the sheet is very simple and expe- 
ditious. Two tiles, covered with several thicknesses of paper, are 
placed near the melted lead, and the workman, lifting the upper one 
with its edge resting on the lower tile or stone, pours the liquid 
metal on the under one, and instantly drops the one he holds in his 
hand ; the sheets are made into the requisite form by soldering. The 
art of dropping the upper one in such a manner as to make the 
sheet of a uniform thickness is the only difficult part of this simple 

operation. l >wv — ddr 

31. Nutmegs ; the cleaned are shang tang tow kau ^ ^Q^ ^^i 
the uncleaned are "& ^& iM "^^ tsau kau lien koh. These are the 
nut of the Myristica moschata, which grows native in the Banda 
isles, and is cultivated at Singapore, and other places. " The nut- 
meg," says Sir Thomas Herbert, " like trees most excellent, is not 
very lofty in height, scarce rising as high as the cherry ; by some 
it is resembled to the peach, but varies in form of leaf and grain, 
and affects more compass. The nut is clothed with a defensive 
husk, like those of a baser quality, and resembles the thick rind 
of a walnut, but at full ripeness discovers her naked purity, and the 
mace chastely entwines (with a vermilion blush,) her endeared fruit 


JVulmegs, kinds and deceptions. Opium, four sorts ; tests of good. 

and sister, which hath a third coat, and both of them breathe out 
most pleasing smells. The mace in a few days, (like choice beau- 
ties) by the sun's flames becomes tawny ; yet in that complexion 
best pleases the rustic gatherer." The plant bears three crops in a 
year, buds, blossoms, and fruit appearing at once — but the fruit re- 
quires nine months to become perfect. Good trees will produce 
from ten to twelve pounds of nuts and mace annually, but the aver- 
age of the trees in an orchard is 65 oz. or about two peculs to an 
acre. Nutmegs of a lightish-gray color, a strong, fragrant smell, an 
aromatic taste, large, oily and round, and of a firm texture, are the 
best. The holes made by insects eating into the kernel, are often 
neatly filled up, or they are distilled for the oil, or digested in alco- 
hol for the perfume, and then passed off as fresh ; these deceptions 
can be ascertained by the inferior weight. They are dipped in lime- 
water to preserve them from worms, or packed in layers of dry chu- 
nam. In commerce, nutmegs are divided into royal and queen, the 
former are of an oblong, and the latter of a round shape ; the cul- 
tivated sort is also called female, and the wild, the male nutmeg. 
In the China market, nutmegs form an insignificant article of com- 

Opium, or d pien ?a J-*' ; Benares is called ku ni -^ j^ ; Patna 

kung ni /^ ^ ; Malwa, peh pi M ^ ; Turkey, kin ni -^ 4S 

or golden dirt ; the native is called o-fu-yung Udf ^^ ^. This is 

the concrete juice of the Papaver somniferum, a poppy cultivated 
in India and Turkey. 'J'he cultivation of it is a strict government 
monopoly in British India; in Malwa and other native states it is 
free, but the drug is subject to heavy duties in its transit to 
Bombay. That raised in Behar (called Patna in commerce) and 
Benares is superior to the Malwa, and both are preferred by the 
Chinese to the Turkey opium. Good opium is moderately firm in 
texture, capable of receiving an impression from the finger ; of a 
dark yellow color when held in the light, but nearly black in the 
mass, with a strong narcotic smell, and free from grittiness. That 
produced in different countries, however, varies considerably, and 
experience alone can determine the best article. The value increases 
for a short time by age ; but this soon ceases to be the case, and 
Turkey opium in particular deteriorates unless carefully preserved 
from the air. Opium is adulterated with leaves, dirt, and other 
substances; if very soft it is not usually good. The trade is now 
carried on by means of ships stationed off" t\ve five ports and at other 
points on the coast, as Chinchew and Swatow, to which the drug is 
carried in small vessels; there is comparatively little sold by mi- 
gratory vessels to the east of Hongkong, but the towns on the west 
are supplied by trading lorchas and native boats. No efforts have been 
made by the Chinese authorities to suppress the traffic, that deserve 
to be mentioned, since those of Commissioner Lin in 1839, and the 
war with England which ended with the Treaty of Nanking, and 



Pearls. Pepper, while and blad: Putchuck. Raltana of two qualities. 

proved to thoni tliat no legislative action could stop its use. The 
amount grown in India annually increases, although at a loss to the 
E. I. Company, and the quantity to be put up at auction is to be 
reduced ; the luunber of chests consumed in 1854 and 1855 was not 
far from t>5,000 chests annually, less than in the three previous years, 
but the sums expended uj)on the drug have been about the same for 
six years past. .^ . 

Pearls, yong rhu, J-f- fe5f{ are brought from Bombay to the value 
of 8300,000 and upwards annually, but no duty can possibly be 
levied on them : they are sorted into classes by their shape and size ; 
the smallest sort are taken by fanciful invalids as a medicine. The 
larger portion of the import goes to the northern cities, where ladies 
use them for ornaments in ear-rings and headbands ; for no Chinese 
lady considers herself elegantly dressed without a crescent-shaped 
headband on her forehead studded with pearls, to contrast with her 
black hair. jj- ,. 

32. Pepper, or p(li \iJA hu fsidu. This .spice is the fruit of the 
Piper nigrum, a vine found in Sumatra, Malacca, Borneo, Siam, 
Java, &.C. The fruit is collected semiannually ; the vine bears when 
three years old, and continues to do so for about seven. As soon 
as the fruit has changed from a green to a red color, it is picked 
and put upon mats to dry, and afterwards separated from the fruit 
stalks, and when dried thoroughly is ready for market. Good, black 
pepper has a very pungent smell, an acrid and hot taste. The largest, 
grained and smoothest skinned is the best. Pepper is distinguished 
in commerce as the white and black, the former being the seed 
deprived of its skin by immersing in water and rubbing between 
the hands; but the difference of price is hardly sufficient to pay for 
the extra labor. The pepper from Penang and Sumatra is superior 
to that which comes from Java and Borneo ; about a million and a half 
pounds are annually brought to China in foreign bottoms. Native 
vessels also bring a good deal. The Chinese use it as a tea in sick- 
ness, as well as a spice ; the consumption is mostly confmed to the 
northern provinces. _. -- 

33. PtTCHL'CK, or muh liiang/^ 'p*, is the fragrant and spicy 
root of a species of the thistle tribe (Aucklandia), growing wild in 
Cashmere, where it is collected by the natives under the name of 
hooth, and sent to Calcutta and Bombay. In color and smell it is 
not unlike rhubarb; becomes mucilaginous when chewed, and gives 
off a pleasant smoke. It is sometimes reduced to a powder and mixed 
with clay and fine cedar dust, and then burned by the Chinese as 
incense in temples ; but the greatest portion of the import is shaved 
into thin slips, and taken as a tonic and gentle stimulant in union 
with other simples. , . 

34. Rattans, or shd tang '^ /f^ are furnished by two species 
of palm (Cnlamu$ usitatus and Calamus maxinius), spiny, climbing 
plants found wild in the Malacca peninsula and most of the islands 
of the Indian Archipelago, but in the greatest perfection in the south 




Rattans Sf their uses. Rice Sf other Grain. Rose Maloes. Sago, how made. 

of Borneo and the Battak country in Sumatra. Coarse sorts grow 
to the length of 150 feet or more, and when cut require only to be 
stripped of the epidermis, which is done by drawing the stem 
through a notch in a tree, then doubled and tied up in bundles con- 
taining a hundred each. As they require no cultivation, the natives 
are enabled to sell them at the emporia from 5 to 6 cents a bundle. 
Such as are black or discolored, or those from which the glazing 
flies off on being bent, should be rejected. They are imported to 
the extent of 50,000 peculs annually in foreign bottoms, besides 
what are brought in native vessels. They are divided into Banjer- 
massing and Straits, the latter comprising the inferior qualities from 
Sumatra and Malaysia. The Chinese use them for withes, and weave 
them into chairs, mats, baskets, beds, &/C. — A score of bamboo poles 
for joists and rafters, two or three dozen fathoms of rattan ropes, 
and a supply of palm-leaves and bamboo mats for a covering, make 
a common house for the poor in the south of China; five dollars will 
construct a dry tenement. 

35. Rice and all grains, yting mi -j^ y^, y^^g f'^eh 'Ix. ^t, 
wu kuh J^ <&« Rice is the statF of life among the Chinese, and 

the importation of it is encouraged by all possible means. Formosa, 
Lu'^onia, Siam, Bengal, Arracan, and the Indian islands, especially 
Bali and Lombock, supply great quantities. The price given for 
cargo rice varies from $1^ to $2\, rising in seasons of scarcity to 
$3|, and for very good, to $4 per pecul ; the trade is very fluctuat- 
i)ig. It is "illegal to export rice from the country, and even the 
shipment of it from one port to another requires a special application 
and permit ; one reason for this is the responsibility laid upon the 
local magistrates to keep their own districts supplied with food. 
Rice is the only article for importing which the Chinese government 
has ever given a bounty ; ginseng the only article ou which a high 
duty is levied to protect the domestic produce ; and opium and salt 
the two now made contraband. _h- ^ ^ . 

36. Rose M,\LOKs, or sii hah yri ^^ 'p yUi. This is a thick scent- 
ed gummous oil of the consistence of tar, obtained by pressure from 
beans, and called gvrmola in Bombay ; it is brought from Persia and 
Upper India to Bombay, and when good has a pearly appearance ; it 
is used in making plasters among the Chinese, and frequently also 
as a purge. .^ » ^ » 

Sago or si kirh mi |Sj jjEjj TJ^, is brought to some extent in native 
vessels. It is the farina from the stem of several species of palm 
found in the Archipelago, the Mctrozylon sagus and ((tvis furnishing 
a large portion. The trees are cut down just before flowering, sawed 
into logs, and split down to the pith, when the pulp is taken out, 
beaten with mallets and washed until only the mealy powder remains. 
The meal is cooked by baking. It is made ready by sewing it into 
bags made of the leaves of the tree, seven of which weigh about 
a pecul : all the sago tamping, as these bugs are culled, is brought to 


Saltpeire. Shark's F»na, two sorts. Deer's Sinews. Skins, Furs, and Hides. 

Singapore for refining and granulating. This is done by mixing it 
with pure water, and rubbing the paste into little grains by forcing 
it through a seive into an iron pan over a fire. When well cured, 
it has a pearly lustre, is slightly reddish, and dissolves in hot water 
into a starch. There are manufactories in Singapore for making 
sago, from whence many thousands of peculs are annually exported, 
principally to England. ^,^^ ^ 

37. Saltpetre, ydng sidu {^V^, was formerly prohibited, the 
Chinese being under the impression that foreigners exported it for 
making their own powder ; it is not common or choap in the south 
part of the country. It is brought from Singapore, to which port it 
is carried from Sumatra, being found in caves and other covered 
places ; and from India, where it is obtained by lixiviating the soil 
in nitre beds. The province of Chihle supplies large quantities of 
saltpetre. *,, ,^ 

38. Shark's fins or sha cki ^ ^. The fins of the shark are 
sought for from the Indian Ocean to the Sandwich Islands to supply 
this market. The chief supply is from Bombay and the Persian 
Gulf. They are fat, cartilaginous, and when cooked into soups, are 
esteemed by the Chinese as a stiniulant and tonic. They should 
be thoroughly dried and kept from moisture. About five hundred 
fins are contained in a pecul ; they are sorted into white and black. 
The price is from 86 to $60 per pecul. There seems to be little 
choice as to what species of shark the fins are from, but those of 
a whitish color are valued higher than the black sort. Sharks, dog- 
fish, and rays of air kinds, form a common article of food among the 
people on this seacoast. ^ ^^ ^ ^^ 

Sinews of the deer and buffalo, luh kn }f^ j^f} or ni(t kin "^ ^ 
are eaten by the Chinese under the impression that they are pecu- 
liarly strengthening. The latter are collected in the Archipelago and 
Siam, by the Chinese who know the tastes of their countrymen, and 
make shipments in small quantities. They are boiled with eggs, 
shrimps, &/C., to a stringy jelly, and eaten by invalids, chiefly as a 
restorative. x»_ jLt 

39. Skins and furs; sea otter, vfo oB kdi lunp ; fox. ^1]]^ ij^ 

ku li; tiger, leopard and marten, hi'i, pdu, tiau J^ Wi\ 33 ; land ot- 
ter, raccoon, shark, Jra ^ *k m^ ^ tdh, koh kiuen, ska yu; bea- 
ver, ^ §1 hdi lo ; hare, rabbit and ermine ^]if<^%% S.^^ 
ri^ tti, kwui sku, yin skit, kok tang pi. Hides, tanned and untan. 
ned, Qi Wh -H^ J^ sang skuk niu pi. Twenty years ago, the fur 
trade with China amounted to upwards of a million of dollars an- 
nually ; but during the last two or three years very few skins or furs 
have been brought to Canton ; the few which are still taken in 
the American forests command better prices in the European mar- 
kets. The amount carried into China over the northern frontier is 
however still considerable, though no account of the number can be 


Smalts. Soap. Stockfish. Seahorse Teeih. Seaweed^- 

obtained. Lamb-skins of various sorts are much used in the north- 
ern parts of the country. The importation of cow and ox-hides is 
from the Archipelago, but nothing definite is known as to its amount. 
The manufacture of leathern trunks, and camphor trunks covered 
with leather, shoes and boots for foreigners, and minor purposes in 
the arts, consumes most of the hides imported. The Chinese use 
only a thin piece of hide on the bottom of their shoes to protect the 

40. Sm\lt3, ff 'jfg yang tsing, /C )R ta tsing or 'i[il \% fvi 
hwa tdu tsing, is an oxide of cobalt melted with .silex and potash. 
The Chinese use it for painting on porcelain and glazed copper 
vessels, and in distemper ; also in coloring glass. The consump- 
tion has never been very great, but the demand is constant. There 
are mines of arsenical cobalt in the island of H;, and their 
produce is used in native glass manufactures after roasting and 
pulverizing. ^r ig . i 

41. Soap, or ^ @^ fan kien, is used sparingly by the Chinese,: 
nor is it satisfactorily ascertained that they know how to make it. 
That brought from India in cakes is a coarse, gritty substance,, 
more like barilla than soap ; it is largely used in this region, and 
the importation is slowly extending. The Chinese have many poor 
substitutes for soap. ^^ ^ _y. , J 

42. Stockfish, ckdi yu 7^ J^^ or kien yA S^c J^^' These ar6 
dried fish brought from Germany and England, cured without the 
use of salt. In appearance, when preserved, they resemble codfish. 
The quantity brought is small, compared to what it was ten or 
twenty years ago. The Chinese themselves cure immense quantities 
of fish in this way. '-fc EE jt* 

43. Seahorsb teeth, V^ ^ /f" kdi ma yd, are brought from 
California, Sitka, and other parts of Western America, and are 
used by the Chinese in the same manner as ivory ; they are the 
teeth and tushes of the walrus, sperm whale, and other cetaceous 

animals. -ir -w- ^ H^ >fe >* 

Seaweed, sAtA Az^a <sai .^ ^)^ y^ or luk kioh tsdi }l;l^ JFJi -i^si 
of various kinds is chiefly imported in junks, as well as collected on 
this coast; the most common brought from the Archipelago is that 
from which agar-agar is made but no particulars can be ascertained 
regarding the trade. Species of Laminariae and Floridese are collect- 
ed on the coasts of Shantung, and cleaned and boiled to a jelly for 
food ; large quantities are used in various medicinal, coloring, and 
culinary preparations. ' •►at /,«t 

44. Treasure, kin yin ydng tsien ^^^7^ ^^. The silver 
bullion imported into China now consists chiefly of Mexican and 
Peruvian dollars, the Spanish having altogether ceased, and the coins 
of England and India coming in very small amounts. In 1853 af- 
ter many previous ineffectual efforts, an arrangement was made 
among foreigners in Canton, and at the instance of the foreign con- 

COM. 01. 21 

162 ARTf*7Ll5S Ajf tRAnPI WITH CHINA. 

TVeaaurt in coin and buUion. H'ine or Beer. Woods. 

sals, was enforced upon the Chinese by their own authorities, by 
which all silver coins were to be received at their real intrinsic 
value in payment of duties at the custom-house. Of course all kinds 
of dollars soon became current at pir with Spanish dollars, but still 
by weight at the rate of 717 taels per $1000. The preference of 
the Chinese in the country for Carolus Spanish dollars caused them 
all to be collected at Canton, and sent wherever a premium could 
be obtained. Since 1853, the disturbed state of the country having 
rendered imports nearly unsaleable, there have been very large im- 
portations of silver specie and bullion (chiefly of Mexican dollars) 
to settle the balance of trade in favor of China ; in the twelve months 
from Sept. 1853, !B12,100,OOr) were brought to Hongkong; these im- 
portations were greatly diminished as soon as a material reaction in 
the general import trade occurred. Transactions at Canton are now 
generally conducted by means of Mexican dollars, but a considera- 
ble period must elapse before the old chopped Spanish dollars cease 
to be current in the tea districts. At Fuhchau, the only recognized 
specie is the unbroken, chopped Spanish dollars. At Shanghai the 
clean " old head " (or ^ JQ ^ ^2' kung yin) dollars (i. e. Spanish 
dollars, chiefly of the reign of Carolus IIII.) still maintain their 
superiority, and are valued nearly one third higher than other descrip- 
tions. In the trade with Formosa that has recently sprung up, clean 
Ferdinand dollars, or chopped dollars similar to those current at 
Fuhchau, are used.* Considerable amounts of gold are received 
from California and Australia, partly as return for exports fromChina 
and partly the savings of Chinese emigrants returning home; the 
annual importation of this kind has never much exceeded $1,000,000. 
Sovereigns, doubloons, Californian $50 ingots, and eagles, are 
in small brought amounts ; their market value is about 7 per cent, 
discount. Bar silver called platapina {i.e. cone silver from itsshripe) 
from South America is unsaleable at its real value, and very little 
is now seen here. ^^^ vj_j 

45 Wink, beer, &,c. IHF /@ ytfig tsiu. With the exception of 
a little cherry-brandy, and a few liquors now and then taken away 
by officials, all the wine, beer and spirits imported are consumed by 
foreigners ; all attempts to introduce their use amonig the Chinese 
having failed — a result not at all to be regretted. 

46. Woods. Besides the three sorts mentioned here, small amounts 
of several other kinds are imported for consumption among the 
Chinese, as rosewood, aigle wood, kayabuco wood, yellow wood, 
satin wood, redwood, &.c. Their own forests furnish them with a 
large variety of fine woods for cabinet-work, and a good deal is 
brought across the western frontier. Junks from Manila, Siam, and 
Singapore bring spars for yards and masts. 

* At Hongkong the currency is composed of an incongruous mixture of Eng- 
Ksh, Indian, Spanish and other coins, which require all to be reduced to their 
value in exchange with Mexican dollars— the practical standard. 


Woods: — Ebony, SandcU-wood, Sapan-vmod, SfC. Woolen Manufactures. 

Ebony i^ /t^ wu muh. This is the heart wood of the Dtos- 
pyrus ebenus, a tree growing in Mauritius, Ceylon, Lu^onia, and 
other islands of the Indian Ocean. The best wood is of a jet black, 
free from veins and bark, the texture compact, free from cracks and 
not worm-eaten. There are other kinds of wood resembling ebony 
)n external appearance, which are often substituted for it, and the 
Chinese successfully practice staining hard Wood black to resemble 
ebony. ,j. ^ j-. 

Sandal-wood J^ ^ /{^ tan hidng muh. This is the heart 
wood of the Santalum album, which grows in India, and many 
of the islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The tree resembles 
myrtle in size and appearance. The billets are, after felling, barked, 
and then buried until the outer wood is eaten off by the white ants, 
leaving only the heart. The color varies from a light red to a dark 
yellow ; the deepest color is the best. The best wood is near the 
roots. In choosing sandal-wood, the largest pieces, and those of firm 
texture, hard, free from knots or cracks, of a sweet smell, should be 
selected. The best sandal-wood comes fropi the Malabar coast, and 
sells from $10 to $18 a pecul; that brought from Timur is worth 
8^8 to $10; while that found in the South Sea Islands, being small 
and knotty, is valued from $3 to 86. The chips also form another 
sort. The (/hinese use sandal-wood in the form of a fine powder to 
make incense sticks to burn in their houses and temples. The best 
pieces are taken to make fancy articles, as fans, card-cases, balls, boxes, 
&c., which are beautifully carved in the same style as the ivory ware. 
An oil is extracted from the wood, which is valued for its aromatic 
properties. It has the consistence of castor oil, is yellow and highly 
fragrant: it sinks in water, j^ _, 

Sapan wood or su muh ^i /[^ This is the wood of the Cossal- 
pinia sapan, a tree which grows in India, Lu onia, and Siam. The 
wood has the same properties as the Brazil wood in an inferior degree, 
and on that account is not imported to Europe It is employed for its 
red dye, which is the best known to the Indian islanders The cloth 
is put into the decoction and the color set with alum, and afterwards 
made more lively by washing it in potash-water and spirit. Its value 
is about $2 per pecul in the Canton market ; large quantities are 
brought from Manila, 

47. Woolen Manufactures, viz., broadcloth -^ fllg ta nl; 
Spanish stripes and long-ells, jj® jjffi pih ki ; kerseymere, sidu ni 
f\\ 1^; blankets, W |^ |™ y>ng P^h chen ; English camlets 
yu shd ^ j^ ; Dutch camlets ^^ j^K yv twdn ; bombazet ^^ ja 
yii chau ; buntiqg ^^ ^ yu pu ; carpets ]^ ^ ti chen. The trade 
in woolens was formerly one of the important branches, and the 
annual consumption amounted to nearly a million sterling; the value 
in 1834 is stated at .£835,217, and at the beginning of this century 
the value of the export of tea and import of woolens to and froai 


Woolens not much used. fVoolen Yam. Alum. 

England was not very far apart. Now the Chinese officials, who 
used to buy them, have either become too poor to purchase fine 
broadcloths, or else the fashions have changed. German cloths are 
repacked in England, bo that all the importation comes in British 
ships. Longells are brought in bales of assorted colors, scarlet being 
the most sought after ; Spanish stripes, broadcloths and habit-cloths, 
are worn by the richer classes ; the demand for the last two years 
has taken off about 35,000 pieces of the former, and 18,000 pieces 
of the last three. English Camlets are taken to the extent of 8000 
pieces, and Dutch camlets about 2000 pes. Other inferior woolena, 
as flannel, imitation camlets, stuffs, blankets, bombazetts, bunting, 
kerseymere, dtc, are taken off in constantly decreasing amounts; 
22,065 pieces came in 1852 from England. Blankets and flannel 
are liked by the Cantonese, but their use does not extend. The 
total value of the woolen trade in 1844 was estimated at $1,375,000; 
in the season 1853 it was worth about 1740,000; and has since been 
further reduced. The consumption of Russian woolens is comparative- 
ly great in the northern provinces. . j, ,^ 

48. WooLE.v YABN or jung sien ^^ j|;ji is difficult of sale, and 
has almost ceased to be brought; 241 peculs were imported in 
1836-37, at 8100 per pecul. The Chinese have learned to knit to a 
very little extent, but they have not learned to weave woolen cloth. 

ibectfoK 4. 

1. Alum, 13 ^/Je^/^fl or white vitriol ; the crystals are ^ f^ 
tsingfnn; it is exported to India and the Archipelago, where it is 
regarded as superior to the native product. About 75,000 peculs 
have been annually exported. It is found in the argillaceous schist 
known as alum shale. The provinces of Ng'inhwui, H^n'in, and 
Chehki'ing, produce it in considerable quantities, much of which ija 
exported from Ningpo and Sh'mgh^i. One mineral spring is men- 
tioned which contains alum in solution. The supply is abundant, 
but it is often impure from intentional adulteration, or from the 

* In addition to other sources of information used in preparing this section, 
the report of the commercial delegates attached to the French embassy of .M. 
de Lagrenpin 1S44, called Etude Pratique da Commerce -d' Exportation de la 
Chine, published by Natalis Rondot in 1849, has furnished a great number of 
useful data, which have been incorporated into the various paragraphs in such 
a manner, with what was contained in former editions of this work, that no 
other than this general acknowledgement of the assistance derived from it can 
• be given. ' 


^momum. Anisftd Stars. Oil of Aniseed. Arsenic. 

rudeness of the manipulations; the taste is not so sharp is that of 
European alum, and the pieces are usually crystalized and transpar- 
ent. It is employed by the Chinese in purifying the water which 
they use for culinary purposes ; in sizing and whitening paper, and 
to a large extent in dyeing silks, cotton, and grasscloth, or in bleach- 
ing them. . _^ _^_^ 

Amomum ipn cJ^ _B. SI ska tau. The seeds of the Amomum verum 
have a strong, penetrating smell, and an aromatic, warm taste; they 
are not to be confounded with cardamoms. The tree grows in 
Sz'chuen, Arabia, and the East Indies. The fruit is shaped like a 
grape, and contains three cells, each of which has a number of blackish 
seeds prized for their stimulating properties. The pods are of little 
value, as also are the seeds when wrinkled and small. When good, 
the pods are heavy, of a light gray color, and filled with odoriferous 
grains. Their uses are similar to those of aniseed stars. The 
packages should be carefully sealed after the selected seeds have 
been thoroughly dried, or they lose their virtue. The trade is in 
the hands of natives, though a few cases have been sent to Europe 
on trial ; the seeds cost from 18 to 25 taels per pecul, according to 

2. Aniseed stars, id hwui j^ ^§ and pdk kioh /v ^ i.e. eight 
horns, are the fruit of a small evergreen tree (Illicium unisatum), 
which grows in Fuhkien, and to a less degree in Kiangsf and Kvvdng- 
tung; in Japan, and in the Philippines. They are prized for their 
aromatic taste, and for the volatile oil obtained from them. The 
name of star is applied to them on account of the manner in which 
they grow, the pods being in small clusters joined together at one 
end, and diverging in 6 or 7 rays. The husks have a more aromatic 
flavor than the seeds, but they are not as sweet; those which are 
bruised or moldy should be rejected. The Chinese use them to 
season sweet dishes, to chew, and to make a fragrant tea. They are 
chiefly exported direct to England and the Continent of Europe, at the 
average value of 5^15 per pecul. - ^^ », 

Oil of .■vniseed, pdk kiohyu /\y^ ^ is made by distilling the 
pods and seeds, a pecul of the raw material producing about 7 catties 
of oil. It is put up in tin cases, inclosed in wood, and goes chiefly 
to Europe and the United States, at an average annual export of 250 
peculs, at $150 per pecul. It is used in perfumery, medicine and 
confectionary. ._^ .^ ^ ^^ . _^ 

3. Arsenic, ^g 43 sin shih, 1^ V^ pi sidng, and also J\ p 
jin yen, or " man's words," by an anagram of the first character. It 

occurs in Kwangsin fu in Kiangsf, where it is obtained by sublima- 
tion from the crude oar, the hartall or sulphuret, and is then again 
refined. The Chinese employ it in their rice cultivation to destroy 
insects. The exportation to India is about 50 peculs annually, at 
S12 for the refined ; it formerly amounted to 250 or 300 peculs 


Bangles and Jinklets. Bamboo-ware, screens, and chairs. 

4. Bangles, called shau uh ^ ^G or sMu liiiu uh ^fc ^ ®E 
by the Chinese, is an Indian name given to wrist and ankle rings. 
The Chinese make them of a clouded, opaline, or plain vitreous 
jBubstance to imitate jade stone or chalcedony. They are put up in 
pairs in boxes, each containing a thousand pairs, and estimated to 
weigh a pecul, and valued at about 850. Besides armlets and ank- 
lets, the manufacture of ear-rings, archer's thumb-rings, finger-rings, 
and hair-pins, mouth-pieces of pipes, snufF-bottles, buttons, &c., forms 
of an important branch of industry. Few of these things are exported, 
except for the consumption of Chinese in the Archipelago. The 
material resembles glass more than porcelain. 

5. Ba.mboo and bamboo-ware ; screens are cUuh lien yj ^ff, and 
the ware j^^ ^f, chuh ki. This beautiful plant grows over nearly the 
whole of China, and the industry and skill of thepeople have multiplied 
ai»d perpetuated a number of varieties, among which are the black 
skinned, the pipe, the pencil, the large yellow, the common green, 
&c. Its uses are so various, that it is not easy to enumerate them 
all. The shoots are boiled, pickled, and comfited ; the roots are carved 
into fantastic images, into divining-blocks to assist in learning the 
will of the gods, or cut into lantern handles and canes; the tapering 
culms are used for all purposes that poles can be applied to in carry- 
ing, supporting, propelling, and measuring ; for the props of houses, 
the frameworks of awnings, and the ribs of sails; the shafts of 
spears, the wattles of abattis, and the handles and ribs of umbrellas 
and fans; the leaves are sewed into rain-cloaks and thatches; plaited 
into immense umbrellas to screen the marketeer and his wares, or 
into coverings for theatres and sheds ; the epidermis, cut into splinths 
of various sizes, is woven into baskets of every form and fancy, 
plaited into awnings, and twisted into cables. It supplies the bed for 
sleeping, the chopsticks for eating, the pipe for smoking, and the 
broom for sweeping ; — the matress to lie upon, the chair to sit upon, 
'the table to eat on, the food to eat, and the fuel to cook it with, are 
also derived from it : — the ferule to govern with, and the book to 
study from; the tapering plectrum for the lyre, and the dreaded 
instrument of the judge; the skewer to pin the hair, and the hat to 
screen the head; the paper to write on, the pencil to write with, and 
the cup to put the pencil in ; the rule to measure lengths, the cup to 
gage quantities, and the bucket to draw , water; the bird-cage, the 
crab-net, the fishpole, and the sumpitan, &-c., dtc, are one and all 
furnished by this plant, whose beauty when growing is commensurate 
to its usefulness when cut down. The poles are floated to Canton 

"ion rafts, and sold as they lie in the water, for $8 to $16 per 100 
according to size. The finer sorts, employed in making pencils and 
pipes, do not go abroad. Bamboo-ware, as chairs, screens, couches, 
&c., is largely exported, but no account of the amount or direction 
has ever been kept. 



Brass Leef. Building Malerials. Bone ware. Borax. Braid. Camphor. 

6. Brass leaf, or tinsel, called tung pah 0i )^ , is manufactured 
by the Chinese to an enormous extent for making the kin hwd, or 
* golden flowers,' used in worship. It is exported to India; a box is 
estimated to hold 50 catties. ^ , j^ 

7. Building materials, ^x V^- yd chuen, ^ }-\ yd pien. This 
is much too vague a term, and ought never to have been suffered 
in the tariff". Bricks, tiles, stone, timber, &c., are included under 
this head ; and except fine glazed tiles for balustrades, almost none 

are exported. ^ra^ op >te ilff 

8. Bone and horn ware, called kuh ki ^ %j^ and kioh ki ^ ^' 
Small boxes, lanterns, paper knives, buttons, and many small carved 
articles of dress, are made from ' ^rn and bone. The ware has 
never paid duty, and the amount is trifling. Some of the work is 
neatly made, as the opium boxes and lanterns. The bones and horns 
of the buff'alo, the teeth of the sperm-whale and walrus, are mostly 
employed. -„ , • 

Borax or tincal, called TO "i"y pang sA«, has long been used as 
a flux and enamel by the Chinese. It occurs in Ng;inhwui and 
Kansuh, but the lakes in 'I'ibet furnish the largest quantities, both 
in solution in their waters, and in beds near their banks, whence it 
is dug for the Chinese and Indian markets. It is refined at Canton 
and in other large manufacturing cities, by the various workmen 
who use it; that in the shops is generally in impure, half crystal ized 
masses, in which state it is exported, chiefly to the Continent of 
Europe. The Chinese use it in glazing crockery and soldering metals, 
and as a flux in reducing the silex in glass, enamels, and other vitreous 

Bkak), made fr9m a bright light yellow-straw, like oat-straw, has 
recently been sent to the United States, where it is made up into 
summer hats. The hats are also made in Canton for shipment. 'J'he 
straw grows in Sh'mtung and Chihlf, where it is woven in strips 
iJOO to 350 feet long. .^^ ^^^ 

9. Camphor, chang nau f^^ Hi*} is exported to England, Europe, 
and America; it is obtained from the Laurus camphora, a large tree 
which grows in Eastern China, Japan, and Formosa. The tree, 
including the roots, is cut into small pieces and gently boiled in a 
little water; the sublimed gum is received into inverted straw cones. 
It is granular, and of a grayish color not unlike coarse sugar, and is 
brought to market in small cakes; that from Japan is esteemed the 
best, though neither the Chinese nor Japanese have the art of refin- 
ing it pure. In packing it, particular cire should be taken that the 
boxes are sound, and the lead well soldered, otherwise its volatility 
will cause it to decrease materially; it is always wet a little before 
packing, to allow for loss by evaporation. It is carried on deck in 
tea ships, lest the odor injure the tea. Good camphor is stron^ and 
penetrating, of a bitterish aromatic taste, and when bitten imparts a 
cooling sensation to the mouth. The annual exportation to Europe 


Campffpr wood. Cants or Whanghus. tfipoor Cutchcry. Cassia. 

and America from China has been about 3000 peculs; in some years, 
over 4000. Its price varies from 819 to $25, while Baroos camphor 
is about $3000 per pecul. There is a kind of camphor much es- 
teemed by the Chinese, which they extract from the leaves of a sort 
of labiate plant; the crystals are limpid and brittle, and present a 
brilliant fracture. 

The wood of the camphor tree is solid and tough, and makes a 
good material for ship-building, trunks, boxes, &.c., as the odor 
preserves it for a long time from insects. The wood that has been 
boiled is worth lesG than that taken fresh from the tree, but it is 
one of the best kinds of timber in China. Most of that brought to 
Canton is from Tsiuenchau fit and other parts o£ Fuhkien and 
Formosa. . j. ^^ ]±. ^^ 

10. Canes or wkangkces TT ^ cAmA kan and ^ -^ pien km. 
These are sent to England for the umbrella manufacturers; they 
are usu:illy of bamboo. Walking-sticks are sold to a considerable 
extent in Canton, made from many kind? of wood, as tea, orange, 
camellia, rose-wood, the roots of bamboo, &.c. They are cut and 
carved with considerable taste ; and when sent off should be carefully 
examined as to worm holes and dry rot, and that they are not injured 
by fire or steam, At Ningpo, canes and pipes are to be had, beau- 
tifully inlaid with ivory or mother-o'-pearl, and ornamented with 
silver. _- ^.^ 

11. Capoor cutchery, sfin Idi ^i^ ; the Indian name means 

root of camphor. This is the root of a tuberous plant which grows 
in Fuhkien and Sr'chuen ; it is half an inch and more in diameter, 
and is cut into small pieces and dried for exportation ; the cleavage 
is covered with a fine reddish pellicle, but externally it is rough and 
of a reddish color. It is powdered and mixed with oil, and thus em- 
ployed in friction and plasters ; it has a pungent and bitterish taste, 
and a slight aromatic smell. It is exported in small amounts to 
Bombay, and from thence to Persia and Arabia, where it is used in 
perfumery and for medicinal purposes, and also to preserve clothes 
from insects. , • ^ 

12. Cassia, or kwei pi i^i uL is the decorticated bark of the 
Laurus cassia, a large and most useful tree, whose wood, bark, buds, 
seeds, pods, leaves, oil, are all in request for various purposes in 
carpentry, medicine, perfumery and cookery. It grows in all the 
southern provinces of China, especially Kw.mgsi and Yunnan, and 
also in Annam, Japan, and the northerly islands of the Archipelago. 
The bark is stripped off by running a knife longitudinally along the 
branch on both sides, and then gradually loosening it; after it is 
taken off, it is suffered to lie for twenty-four hours, during which 
time it undergoes a kind of fermentation, and the epidermis is easily 
scraped off. The bark soon dri^s into the quilled shape in which 
it comes to market. Thin pieces, having an agreeable spicy taste, 
a mucilaginous nature when chewed, a brownish red color, and a 


Cassia Buds, sorts of. Cassia OH and its uses. Cassia Fistula. Cinnabar. 

tolerably smooth surface, are the best kind ; the small and broken 
is inferior. It is easily distinguished from cinnamon, which it re- 
sembles, being smaller quilled, breaks shorter, and is less acrid and 
pungent. The cassia brought from Ceylon and Malabar is inferior 
to the Chinese, more liable to foul packing, thicker colored, and 
less aromatic. There is a kind offered for sale at Ningpo, which 
has no botanical affinity with the true cassia, but is obtained from a 
tree of the Magnolia family (Drymis Winteri), and its cheapness, 
$3 a pecul, recommends it for common use. The Chinese cassia is 
sewed up in mats, usually two or more rolls in each mat, and a 
pound in a roll ; it is shipped to Great Britain, Europe, and the 
United States, to the extent of 35,000 peculs annually, at the aver- 
age value of $15 per pecul. . ^ __♦ 

Cassia buds, or kwci tsz' f±. "j' are obtained from the same tree 
as the cassia lignea; they are the fleshy ovaries of the seeds, which 
are pressed on one end so that they bear some resemblance t-j cloves 
in shape. Those that are plump and fresh, possessing a fine cinna- 
mon flavor and free from stalks and dirt, are the best. An article of 
the same name is also obtained from the cinnamon tree ; and it is 
said on good authority that the true cinnamon tree grows in the 
south of Kwangsi. If the buds are packed in the same bundles with 
the bark, the flavor of both are improved. They are put up in boxes 
containing one pecul, for Great Britain and Europe, and some to 
India; upwards of 500 peculs at $s 16 each, are annually sent to those 

quarters, r^^^i rt* *4i • 

Cassia oiT^gE i>C "ifH ^'^^* P^ y". is obtained from the leaves and 
twigs of the cassia tree by distillation, and is used as a medicine^ 
under the name oi oleum malabathri. Jt is easily tested by putting 
it on the hand, where it will evaporate slowly, and any foreign sub- 
stance in it will thus be detected. The leaves used to be exported 
under the name of folia malabathri. The manufacture of the oil 
almost ceased during the years 1842 and 1843, as was reported, on 
account of the expenditure of \9^ood for fuel, but the demand for it 
erelong caused a resumption. There is not enough brought to market 
to supply the demand, even at the high price of $200 per pecul, it 
has ranged at during the last few years. It is used in perfumery and 
flavoring condiments. _^^ .. 

Cassia fistula, kwai hwd tsing "^^ -f^ pf^, is the name for the 
long cylindrical pods of the senna tree (Cathartocarpus ) , which 
are collected in Kwdngsf for their pulp and seeds, which are medi- 
cinal. The pulp is reddish and sweet, and not so drastic as the 
American sort, if gathered before the seeds are ripe, its taste is 
somewhat sharp. It is not exported, at least to any great extent, to 
the west of the Cape. ^ , 

CiNNADAR, or chu sk<'i , ^^ v^ is the sulphuret of mercury. The 
native is found in many localities in the central and w*^tern pro- 
vmces; and also manufactured from quicksilver, by the reaction of 

COM, «L'. '2'2 


China-root. Chinaware or Porcelain, common and fine, painted and blue. 

sulphur and saltpetre on that metal in small copper furnaces, where 
it is collected after sublimation in acicular crystals. Cinnabar is 
employed by lacquered-ware makers to color lacker red, in painting, 
and the preparation of vermilion ; considerable use is made of it in 
medicine. _L -Hr -t*- ^K ^c -^ 

13. China root, ZlL iK W '" /"* l"^ff> o'' ni WL ^M ^"^g 
fan tau, is the root of the Smilajc China, a climbing plant, found in 
Honan and Kwangtung. The roots are jointed, knobbed, thick, of 
a brown color, and break short; the taste is sharp and bitterish 
when cut, the surface is smooth, close grained and glossy, of a pale 
red color ; but if old and wormy, dust flies from it when broken, and 
it is then worthless. The price varies from $3 to §4 per pecul. 
It is used extensively as a medicine by .the Chinese, who also eat it 
for its nutritive properties ; it is exported to India and Europe for 
the former purposes. .^» „« 

14. Chinaware or porcelain, ^pA v^ fsz' ki. The largest part of 
this ware now exported is of the cheaper sorts. When the produc- 
tions of the East were first carried round the Cape of Good Hope, 
the fine porcelain of China bore a high price. Those finest specimens 
are no longer made, even in China, and the processes of manufac- 
turing the ware having been ascertained, Europeans began to make 
it, and soon rivnled the Chinese. All the very finest ware is still 
manufactured at Kingteh chin in the northeast of Kiangsi. Much of 
the common blue crockery is made at Pd-kicoh, a village near Shih- 
ma between Amoy and Chlingchau fi'i, for native consjUH^ion ; this 
kind is sent to all parts of the Archipelago, to India, Wmi, and even 
finds its way to Central Asia. The pieces brought to Canton, except 
this blue stone ware, are white, and painted according to demand. 
The workmen sketch the design in India ink, and paint it over in 
water colors, mixed with strong glue. They are left in a reverberating 
furnace about half an hour, when they are taken out and cooled, and 
passed through cold water. These furnaces are made of fire briclc 
of different sizes according to the pieces. That which is called 
Nanking porcelain, is ornamented with Chinese designs of heroes, 
and scenes in national war or plays, interspersed with quotations and 
flowers ; it is usually much finer than the highly painted ware. China- 
ware is sold in sets, more or. less extensive in the number of 
articles ; the painted ware is sold by the dozen pieces. A dinner 
set for 12 persons, consisting of 89 pieces, sells from $62 to $92; 
and a breakfast set of 70 pieces, sells from $20 to $35, according to 
the painting. A set for a large party, say 30 persons, of 276 pieces, 
is priced at $175 for the blue Fitzhugh ware, and $330 for the 
painted kind. A large complete tea set of 112 pieces, ranges from 
$43 for the blue, to $116 for the painted. At Ningpo, fine and 
ornamental ware can be procured rather cheaper than at Canton^ but 
all the pier*s suitable for a foreign table are not to be had. The 
•Xpert of fancy ware, such as vases, jars, statuettes of Kwanyin, 


Oil of Cloves. Clothes. Copper Cash. Copper and peivter-ware. fHiile Copper. 
_ -^_ - 

card-plates, fruit-baskets, &,c., is large, but no separate accoffcit is 
kept. .China still supplies other parts of Asia with table crockery; 
and about 6000 peculs also annually go west of the Cape. 

On. OF Cloves, \| ■^ yW ting hiang yu This is procured by 
distilling cloves, and is exported from the Archipelago to a small 
extent ; the Chinese prepare it for their own use, but the export is 
a mere trifle. If it is suspected to be adulterated, it can be proved 
by dropping into it spirits of wine, when the two will separate; or 
by setting it on fire, when the smell of any other oil will be detect- 
ed. The white or pure is of a pale reddish-brown color, which 
gradually becomes darker by age. It is heavier than water, of a 
fiery, acrid taste ; and generally well made. 

15. Clothes, ifuh ^X r^ or ching t JjX, ^^, are exported to 
the Archipelago and Siam to a great amount, for the use of Chinese 
emigrants. Ready-made garments of nankeen and grasscloth in 
European patterns, are occasionally sent to South America and 
India. ^ .,j. 

Copper cash, $JpJ ^^ tung tsien, such as the Chinese use for 
coin, has been largely exported to India during the last five year."^, 
where it is melted up by the coppersmiths to make inferior brazeh 
dishes and pans ; trial shipments have also been made to England, 
This coin should rightly consist of pure copper, and each one weigh 
a mace, but such has not been the case for many years ; sand, iron, 
tutenague, or tin, are thrown in to debase it, so that the coins of 
different provinces vary in their intrinsic worth. The annual export 
to Calcutta and Singapore has been about 32,000 peculs, at the' 
average of $10^ per pecul. Large, selected cash are also taken to Bali 
and l.ombock for purchasing rice, whose inhabitants use it as their 
principal coin. Aa=i m *0 39. 

16. Cci'PER-wARE, ^Pj ^fflp tung ki, and pewter-ware, ^^ ^! 
seh ki. Copper has been known from the earliest ages among the 
Chinese; Wuchang fu in Hupeh, Tungchau fu in Shens', Lin-ng.ln 
fu in Yunnan, and Kweichau province, furnish the most productive 
ores, principally that of a sulphuret. It is obtained by melting the 
ore in a furnace filled with charcoal, and drawing off the metal, 
which is again refined by those who use it. The copper of China 
is not as pure as that from Japan or Cochinchina, and copper utensils 
srre not used to much extent by the Chinese; the manufacture of^ 
debased cash, gongs, brass foil, locks, bells, hinges, boxes, censeraf, 
statuettes, hand-stoves, plates, ferules, &lc., consume most of the 
native copper. A few articles are exported to India, and some blue 
enameled washbowls, plates, ewers, Sic, prettily painted, are also 
sent beyond the Cape. ^^ ^^^ 

White Copper, or peh tung Q t^ is an alloy of copper from 
Yunnan, peculiar to China ; chemists disagree as to its constituents, 
zink, arsenic, iron, nickel, and silver, and even tin and lead, all having 


Corals. Crackers and Fireivorks. Cubebs. Curiosities peculiar to China. 

been found in it by them. The researches of M. Rondot have shown 
that the Chinese melt together 10 parts of an ore called pek tung, 2 
parts of another called hung tung or red copper, which appears to 
be an arseniate of nickel, and 2 of zink, and their product is white 
copper. It is evident, therefore, as the constituents themselves are 
so variable, that the quality of the white copper should vary. The 
dish-covers, censers, and lamps, when new shine like silver. There 
is a baser alloy, called kid pek tung jP^ w ^33, which is made into 
small articles to a much greater extent; it contains tin or nickel, 
and is of a dull bluish white. The exportation of all these articles is 
small, and generally to the Archipelago, Siam and India, for the use 
of Chinese and Malays. ^ , 

17. Corals, tu shan hu jl ^ p5^. To India entirely ; a box is 
here estimated to weigh a pecul. The export is the merest trifle for 
ornaments chiefly. ^^ ^g^ , 

18. Crackers and Fireworks, 'Q 'JJ pau chuh, ^ f^ hidng 
pdu. The first are made of gunpowder rolled up like cigarettes, the 
inner envelop being of coarse bamboo paper, the outer of red paper, 
that being the happy color among the Chinese. They are thought to 
drive off" noxious influences and evil spirits, by the people in the south- 
ern provinces, and their use is associated with idolatrous worship. 
They are made near Fuhshan; strings of 80 crackers are put up in 
square packets of 100 each, and packed in boxes of 40 packets. The 
larger sort of fireworks, as Roman candles, fuses, wheels, &c., of 
which the Chinese have a great variety, is seldom exported. The 
largest proportion of fire-crackers goes to the United States ; some are 
shipped to South America. CB '»* -H- 

19. Cubebs, ching kid {^ JfA or pih ching kid, ^' ](b: ■JOP* 
These are the the fruit of the Piper cubeba, a vine growing in China, 
Java, and Nipll, and resemble pepper-corns so closely, that externally 
they are only distinguished from them by a process on that side by 
which they were attached to the stalk. Cubebs have a grayish- 
brown color, with a wrinkled pericarp inclosing a single seed, and a 
warm, pungent, slightly bitter taste, with a pleasant, aromatic smell. 
The heavy, plump fruit is the best; and if not ripe when gathered, 
the seed is soft and much wrinkled. Cubebs are valued in this 
market from $18 to §20 per pecul; the best sort comes from Java, 
and those from China go wholly to India, packed in strong, tight 
boxes of a pecul each. _, ,^j^ 

Curiosities ; antiques are "jjf jg ku tung. Under this general 
term is included a variety of articles, valued for showing the peculiar 
workmanship of the Chinese, and regarded as rarities elsewhere. 
Hardly a ship leaves the country without some of them, but no list 
can be kept of their amount or sorts, nor is it necessary to do more 
than to enumerate some of the most common. Lanterns of horn, 
glass, silk, and paper, both painted, plain, carved and tasseled, some 
of them very beautiful and gaudy, are made in Canton ; the " 


Dyestuffs. Fans and Fire-screens of leaf , paper or feather. Fishlines. 

racing lanterns" are among the most ingenious. Works in jade 
and other kinds of gems and stones, as bowls, cups, rings, and pots, 
cut from a single piece ; frames with trees, inscriptions or figures of 
stones set in a paste or inlayed in a board, and seals of many kinds, 
exhibit the patient labor of the workmen. Specimens of antique or 
rare porcelain are much sought after by the Chinese, and they pay 
high prices for old pieces. Carved work in horn, stone, roots, metal, 
gem, and wood, are more prized by the foreigner; and the variety has 
much increased lately. All these are procurable at various shops in 
Canton, especially some in Physic St. (Tsong-mo kiii). At Amoy, the 
woven pictures, carved olive seeds, ornamental stone-vases and jars, 
statuettes and images in copper, earthen-ware and wood, bronzes 
and mirrors, are sold, as they are also at Fuhchau and Ningpo. 
The shops at the latter city also exhibit many fine carved frames, 
works in pearl, naker and ivory, and the curious composition stone 
vases. It is of course impossible to estimate these articles of vertu 
and art, but the annual exportation is probably over $120,000 to all 
parts. V j,j 

Dyestuffs, ^ lyj yen lidu, have been sent to England on trial, 
but the trade is still experimental. Blue dyestuffs and a sort of bark 
have been shipped from Shanghai ; blue is the favorite color for dress, 
and there are four or five plants cultivated in different provinces 
for this dye, viz., three species of Polygonum, an Indigofera, and an 
Isatis; besides the extensive manufacture of Prussian blue, The 
internal trade in this blue coloring stuff, turment, cochineal, sku lidng, 
hartall, and other dyestuffs, is very great. ___ 

20, 40. Fans, fire-screens ; feather fans, ^ feji mdu shen; paper 
fans ^h m chi shen or m -r shen tsz' ; silk screens, Jm ^ kiuen 
shen; palm-leaf fans, kwei shen ^^ ra. These are made of paper, 
silk, leaf, feathers, and lackered-ware, and carved ones of ivory, 
sandal-wood and bone. The embroidered screens of silk or grass- 
cloth are beautiful specimens of skill, having the same picture on 
both sides; painted ones of paper or sarsnet are made in imitation. 
The feathers of the heron, goose, argus and other pheasants, cock, 
and dove, are all used for fans, often prettily painted, gilded, or dyed, 
and made open or folded. Those with lacquered frames often have 
the figures on the silk painted, with faces of ivory. It is needless 
to describe the vast variety of fans used among the Chinese, for only 
a few of them are exported. Those sent abroad are chiefly plain 
palm-leaf, with bamboo handles, 500 in a box ; painted and plain silk 
fire screens are sent to America; paper and feather ones are not so 
often shipped. 

Fishlines, ^ ^^ yii st' are made of silk threads, neatly twisted, 
and put up in single lines, 80 to 120 feet long. Bamboo fish-poles 
cut into four different lengths, the smaller running into the larger, 
are also made in a workmanlike manner to re.semble a walking- 


Furniture. GalangtU. Gambogt. Glass and Glassware. Glass Jirads. 

21. FijRNiTL'RK, 5f^^^^ tsah muh ki. The fancy furniture made 
at Shanghai and Ningpo, witli inlaid figures and scenes in ivory, has 
latterly been shipped to a considerable amount ; and since the Chinese 
at Canton have been furnished with patterns, they have produced 
fine specimens of carved black-wood (swhn-chi muh ^^ xjj ~W^ ) 
furniture in foreign styles for exportation ; tete-i-t»ites, sofas, tables, 
^tagiores, and other pieces, are made to order. The cabinet work 
of the Chinese carpenters is chiefly made of rose-wood, camphor, 
knot-wood, iron-wood, pride of India or Chinese mahogany, and 
pine ; the workmanship is creditable, but their veneering is poor, 
partly owing to the inferior glue. _^ 

22. Galanoal, or Hang kidng j^ ^^ i. e. mild ginger. This 
root is obtained from the Maranta ( Alpinia) galanga, which grows 
in Shansi, Fuhkien, and Kauchau fii in Kwingtung. The greater 
or largest roots are often tough and woody with a thin bark, and full 
of knobby circles on the outside ; bitterish, less aromatic, and less 
valuable than the smaller, which is of a reddish brown outside, and 
pale red within. The roots are rarely over two inches in length, 
and hardly half an inch thick, extremely firm, though light. The 
best is full and plump, has a bright color, a hot, peppery taste, and an 
aromatic smell. It is used in cookery and medicine among the 
Asiatics for its stimulating properties. It is exported chiefly to 
India; and not a little to Europe. ^>^ _^^ 

23. Gamboge or tang hodng f^ §1^ *• ''• rattan yellow ; the 
name is derived from the country Camboja. The tree (Garcinia 
cambogia) is also found in China and Siam, and the gum is brought 
from Bangkok and Saigon in junks. The juice is obtained by tapr 
ping the tree and drying it in the sun ; the rolls have a brownish- 
yellow color and a smooth surface. If when rubbed upon the wet 
nail the color be a bright lemon, and no grittiness be felt, it is good : 
when burned the flame is white, and the residuum a grayish ash ; 
the fracture is vitreous; it has no taste and very little smell. The 
large, gritty, dark colored pieces are inferior. Gamboge is used as a 
pigment and as a powerful medicine ; and is exported from China 
and Singapore, west of the Cape, inclosed in stout boxes each con- 

24. Glass znd glassware, ^ J^ J7* po li pien, and j)x ^ J^ 
po li king, of Chinese manufacture is exported to a small amount. 
The chief articles are hand looking-glasses, sconces, a few chande- 
liers, glass lanterns, cheap table-ware and toys, which go to the 
Archipelago and Siam, and a few to India. The of the Chinese 
mirrors is thin, and the reflection so imperfect, that they are sent 
ehiefly to Malaysia and India, where the people cannot afford to buy 
the European article. ^ j, . ., 

25. Glass beads, ^» 1^ tsnu chu and j1 4^ tu rhu ; th*y are 
sent wholly to India or the Archipelago ; those sent to Bombay are 
(tartly reshipped to Africa in exchange for ivory. 


Glue from hide and fishes. Gold in bullion and leaf. Grasscloth. 

26. Glce or niti pi kidu ^ ^ f^ ; fish-glue ^^ \\^ yu kinu. 
The first is made from ox-hides by boiling them to a jelly, but it 
is not so tenacious as the Irish glue. Fish-glue is made from the 
sounds and the noses of some sorts of fish, among which two species 
of the Polyncmus, or binni carp, affords it. Cowhide glue comes to 
market in brown rectangular strips, a foot long ; the export is chiefly 
to India. Fish-glue is prepared in thin, diaphanous sheets for use in 
cookery, in the preparation of india ink, in cabinet work, and 
painting on porcelain, and the manufacture of water colors, and to a 
great extent in the silk trade, to give a lustrous surface to satin and 
silks j^ 

Gold ^t!" kin. This metal is brought from Borneo and California 
as dust, and in impure masses. The Chinese counterfeit their ingots 
either by coating them with a thick crust of gold, and making 
the inside of silver or of copper ; or by introducing lumps of lead 
or other metals into them. Its purity is ascertained by means of the 
touchstone, a kind of obsidian or black jasper, which gives a diffe- 
rent colored mark when the gold is of unequal purity. This is called 
a touch, and the color shows the proportion of -pare gold. Needles 
for comparison are also made of different proportions of alloy, by 
which the stone is rubbed at the same time with the gold. To 
express the fineness of gold, it is divided into 100 touches; if the 
gold is 96 touch, it has four parts of alloy. The Chinese are very 
expert in the use of the touchstone, the touches have each a separate 
name, and usually the shoes are shaped differently to distinguish 
them. The recent importations of gold into China have reduced the 
proportionate value of gold and silver to 1 to 14.^. The range of 
the touches is between 70 and 100. Gold leaf is made by the Chinese 
in great quantities, and is used for gilding the wood-work of houses, 
sedans, &c. It is not so thin, or as evenly made as at the west ; the 
lejives are about three inches square. Gold leaf is largely exported 

to India. "S" tjfc -^"t -&: 

27. Grasscloth, or hid pii ^ TfJ if. summer cloth; the ^i^ ^ 
wd pu includes hempen fabrics. The term grassclnth has been justly 
criticised as totally mapplicable to this beautiful fabric, and one of 
those terms, like rice-paper, joss-sticks, betel-nut, or terra japonica, 
which are heedlessly adopted into the English language, there to 
perpetuate errors respecting the things designated. The researches 
of the French Delegation have shown that at least four plants furnish 
the fibres for hid pii, the Urtica nivea, the Sida tilictfolia, a Canna- 
bis, and- the Dolichos bulbosus, all of which are cultivated. The first 
makes the finest sort, and is that which, bleached and unbleached, 
coarse and fine, clothe.s so many Chinese in the southern provinces. 
There are many varieties of wd ; the^o-/o wd is a substantial material, 
woven from the fibres of a Cor chorus or Sida; a piece of '.0 yds*, 
copts Sli to •S'U ; the prices of hid pit vary from 8 cents up to 
$1.20 per yard. The e.xportation of all these fabrics is small, as 


HartalL Ivorywart and Ivory Oonuntric Balls. India Ink. 

they are less durable than linen ; the principal portion goes to India 
and America in the form of handkerchiefs. Raw hemp has been 
sent to Europe in small lots. ^^ 

28. lixRTM.h or orpiment, skih kwdng ^ ys[. This is a native 
sulphuret of arsenic, and appears in different forms ; it is said to come 
from Mang-hw.'v fii in Yunnan, and is used as a coloring drug and in 
making depillatory soaps. Native orpiment sometimes occurs in 
compact amorphous pieces, at others composed of thin plates of a 
lively gold color, intermixed with pieces of vermilion red, of a shat- 
tery foliaceous texture, flexible, soft like talc, and sparkling when 
broken ; when burned, it exhales much sulphureous smoke. About 
300 piculs are sent to India, Mexico and Holland, at $10 to $12 each, 
in pecul boxes. ^^ 

29. IvoRYWARE, !^ ^ff ya ki. The unsurpassed carving of the 
Chinese in ivory, and the cheapness of their articles, causes a 
large sale to all parts of the world. Those specimens of patient 
toil, the carved balls, containing from 3 to 24 interior balls, are 
made out of the most perfect and solid pieces of ivory. The piece 
is turned to an exact sphere, and then fourteen conical holes are cut 
into its body, all converging and meeting in the centre, by means of 
drills working to a guage, so that each hole will be of the same depth. 
The centre being dug out, the mass of ivory is fixed by wedges, 
and a line is drawn inside of each hole, at the same distance from 
the surface ; and the workman cuts into this line with chissels work- 
ing on a pivot passing from one hole to the other until the incisions 
meet and the central sphere is loosened. Its faces are then turned 
over and smoothed or carved with proper tools; when another line 
is drawn nearer the surface, and a second sphere loosened and com- 
pleted as the first. In this way all are done, until the last globe is 
cut and carved ; the largest sized balls occupy about three months' 
labor, and sell at $13 or $25, according to the carving. Sometimes 
elaborate and beautiful objects are executed in ivory; as family boats 
with all their oars, kitchen, furniture, and gear complete, and pig- 
my boatmen at the oar; pagodas of nine stories, windows, bells and 
turrets all imitated; trees with monkeys, birds, and leaves in profu- 
sion upon their branches; landscapes, with dwarfed houses, boats, 
animals, and other things, all in an area of a square foot ; — these and 
other productions of Chinese skill, severally show also the peculiar 
style of their art. Fans, seals, combs, card-cases, fruit or fancy 
baskets, billiard balls, puzzles, memorandum tablets, sheets for 
painting miniatures, paper-knives, many styles of chessmen, &-c., &,c., 
are yearly exported to the United States, India, South America, and 
Europe. ^ 

India ink, gg meh, is composed of soot and glue, perfumed 
according to the quality of the ink. The soot is collected by burn- 
ing the twigs and leaves of pine under movable boards, properly 
arranged to catch the smoke at- it rises. The finest ink is manufactur- 


Jo$s-sticks. KiUysols or Paper Umbrellas. Lackered^ware. 

ed from the product of oil slowly burned inearthen jars, and collecting 
the soot on the sides of the upper one. It is brought to Canton 
from Kwangsf in hampers, and manufactured both into writing and 
printing ink. It is dissolved in boiling glue, and then stirred about 
in a jar until entirely mixed ; after it has cooled a little, it is press- 
ed into wooden molds, into which a stopper fits tightly ; the cakes 
are soon taken from the molds and dried, the impression of the 
carving on the wood coming out distinctly. The musk, or other 
substance used as a perfume, is mixed in the glue. The finest India 
ink comes from Hwuichau fii in Ng'mhwui ; the glue is made from 
ass-skin ; its fracture is shining, and no grittiness can be perceived 
when rubbed on the finger nail; inferior sorts are usually the most 
ornamented. Ink is made in oblong prisms, weighing from 5 to 80' 
per catty; the finest is priced as high as $5 a catty, common sorts 
range from 40 cents to $1.50. The boxes usually contain 100 cakes; 
the export is to Europe. Printing ink is not exported. T^e soot is 
mixed with strained congee, and when the paste is properly dried, it is 
kneaded on a slab, and cut into strips like wrought nails ; the printers 
dilute it in oil as they use it, laying it on the blocks with a brush 
of bark. _^. 

Joss-sticks, H^ ^ ^^ ski shin kidng, are sent abroad in small 
lots as a convenience for segar-smokers. They are made of the 
dust of cedar and fir, mixed with just enough clay to make it stick, 
and when lighted burn so slowly and regularly that the Chinese often 
use them to mark the divisions of time. They come in sticks a cubit 
long, and must be packed perfectly dry. 

30. KiTTYsoLs (from the Spanish quitasol) (^HJ j^ yu ch6, are 
umbrellas made of bamboo frames covered with black or brown oiled 
paper. The best are made in Hunan, and sell at $25 a 30 per 100, 
while the Canton kinds range from $7 a 12 per 100, according as they 
are painted and guarded by rattan. They are sent to the Archipelago 
and India in pecul boxes containing 100 umbrellas each. The silk 
umbrellas are of different degrees of excellence, costing from $1 a 
$3^ apiece; they go chiefly to South America. Considering the 
material they are made of, this^sort of parasol (for their use is for the 
most part as a protection against the sun) wear a long time, and the 
Malays, Siamese, and other people in SE. Asia depend chiefly upon 
China for their supply. , . ^^ 

31. Lackered-ware, ]^ :g5: <szA K The varnish used in making 
lackered ware is extracted from a species of sumac, (Vemix rerniciu 
Lour.) which grows best in Kiangsi, Chehkiang and Sz'chuen; it is 
drawn from the tree in summer nights, exuding slowly into shells, and 
is brought to market in a semi-fluid state, or dried into cakes of a 
whitish color, worth from §40 a $100 per pecul. VVh(*n prepared 
for use, 5 catties of lacker, 10 of spring-water, 5 taels of ground-nut 
oil, 2 pig's galls and 4 taels of vinegar, are mixed together uniii they 
form a pasty mass of a lustrous black. These ingredients are used 

COM. (it. 23 


Sorts of Lackered-ware exported. White Lead. Red Lead. 

other proportions for inferior sorts. The wood should be well sea- 
soned and planed, and the grooves covered with shd cht, a kind of 
tough paper, or the lint of hemp, rubbing it on with a size made of 
pig's gall, pure or mixed with fine red sand, as a priming, until the 
wood is uniformly coated. The article is then placed in a dark room, 
and a coating of the prepared lacker laid on with a brush, and put 
by to dry. These coatings are repeated from three to fifteen times, 
according to the fineness of the ware. When perfectly dry, the 
articles to be gilded are sent to the proper workmen, whose first 
operation is to draw an outline of the design in white chalk or lead, 
or by scratching the surface. It is then painted in lacker mixed with 
vermilion, repeating the layers where a raised surface is required. 
The gold in powder is put on with a cotton bat, the gold leaf with a 
brush, the most delicate strokes being made over it with charcoal 
smoke floating on oil, with fine hair pencils; sometimes camphor is 
used in the red priming to set the gilding. This ware was formerly 
exported in considerable quantities, but partly owing to the liability 
to injury on the homeward passage, and being superseded abroad by 
other things more substantial, the exportation is now under $25,000. 
The articles exported consist of fans, waiters,, work- 
tables, segar-boxes, tea-trays, teapoys, &,c. The patterns worked on 
them affect their sale, and the least scratch spoils the varnish. There 
is a kind of fancy lackered-ware made by mixing the varnish with 
cinnabar, and laying it on the wood a fourth of an inch thick or so, 
and then carving figures in relief in this metallic paste ; the pieces 
are small and costly, and admired chiefly as curiosities from their 
delicate carving. The manufactories at Si'ichau produce finer speci- 
mens than at Canton. The lackered-ware made by one or two estab- 
lishments at Fuhchau, should be noticed; the pieces resemble the 
Japanese in lustre, from whom the workmen are said to have had 
some instruction. ^^ j.- 

32. Lead, white, or ceruse, ^ ^^ yum /on, is made chiefly at 
Canton. Sheet lead is put into large jars with vinegar obtained 
from samshoo, and a cover luted on : a slow fire is kept up for a month, 
changing the vinegar if necessary, until the lead is entirely carboniz- 
ed. The powder is then levigated, dried, and pressed into cakes of 
a snowy whiteness; it is often adulterated with gypsum, lime, or 
flour. It is used in cosmetics, and when mixed with wood oil, as a 
common paint, which soon turns a dingy gray ; the exportation is 
triflingi^but considerable quantities are bought by captains of ships 
for their own use. . _ ^ jj, 

33. Lead, red, or minium, ^H /J hung tan, or J|j /J j/uen tan, 
is made by continued calcination of lead into massicot, and then into 
minium. It is very pure, and is used by glass-makers and painters; 
care must be taken in buying, that it is not mixed with oxide of 
copper. The exportation is insignificant, nor is the native consump- 
tion great. 




Marble Slabs and Tiles. Matting. Mats. MoOier-o' -pearl Ware. 

34. Marble slabs, ^ ■Tl yunsliihovA^ \\ f^ hwd shih pien. 
The slabs are about an inch thick, and from 12 to 30 inches square. 
The kind most commonly exported is a coarse-grained, blue clouded, 
primitive limestone, quarried in Sh^uking fi'i, northwest of Canton ; 
it is used for floors and pavements. A coarse whitish marble, veined 
and clouded with epidote or ore of manganese, is common ; it is used 
in tables and in the backs of chairs; if the veins resemble a tree, a 
hill, or animal, the value is greater. The demand for carved furniture 
has increased the supply of the red breccia marble for table tops, seats, 
&.C.; and shopmen easily furnish pieces six feet long. It is brought 
from Fuhkien, and is seldom sent abroad in slabs. Ten slabs of the 
blue kind are estimated to weigh a pecul. — Tiles of various sorts 
have in some seasons been largely exported. The large earthen tile 
is about 15 inches square, and is used for the same purposes as the 
marble slabs. _^. .^j. 

35. Matting, ^^ )j^ tsdu sih. A very tall grass { Arundo mitis ) 
much used in the manufacture of mats, is cultivated in the low- 
lands in all the south of Kwangtung, but the people weave them 
of other grasses throughout the land ; this department of labor em- 
ploys myriads of workmen. The culms of the Arundo are sometimes 
five feet high, but the rolls are seldom more than four feet wide. 
The loom is an upright framework, with a cylinder above and below, 
over which the warp runs; the woof is woven in without a shuttle. 
The red dye is made by sapan wood. The kinds commonly exported 
to the United States and South America are plain white or red check- 
ed; they are put up in rolls containing 40 yards, measuring 1 yd., l^ 
yd., and l^ yd. wide, and each one should be packed dry. The thin 
matting used for sails and for covering boxes is woven from the Coiz 
lachryma. ^, ^^ 

Mats, fj J^ chuh sih, made of bamboo splints, are woven in 
different ways and degrees of fineness, chiefly for home consump- 
tion. The sort which covers the tea-chests brought from the coun- 
try resembles coarse basket-work ; other varieties, as door-screens, 
window-blinds and curtains, are made of fine splints, connected by 
thread, and often exhibit prettily colored figures on a green ground. 
Table mats for exportation are woven of rattan. The most durable 
grass mats come from Lient^n near Ningpo, in pieces ,6 ft. long by 
4 ft. wide ; the whole exportation is very trifling. ^^ j._ „_ 

36. Mother-o'-pearl ware, yun mu koh ki ^^ ^^ %% .^ is 
exported in small quantities; seals, fish-counters, card-cases, fan 
and screen handles, rosettes, silk-winders, and other knicknacks, are 
among the articles. The fragments and inferior shells are consumed 
in making pearl buttons, of which most of the e.xport consists. No 
data as to the amount of the exportation are available, and the ware 
(except the buttons) is carried away in small parcels. The delicate 
carving on this intractable material, apd the skill exhibited in mak- 
ing the pieces, render this ware always in demand, and good shells 
st'll readllv, 


Mode of proving M\tsk. Musk Seed- JVankeens of turn sorts. 

37. MosK, ^- IgP shi^ hi&ng. Genuine musk is rare and 
costly, on which account it is often and much adulterated. It ia 
found on a bag near the navel of an antelope (Moschus moschifera) 
inhabiting Tibet, Yunnan, and Sz'chuen; but it is probable that 
musk is obtained from several kinds of deer in the central parts of 
Asia. Good musk is of a dark, purplish color, dry and light, and 
generally in smooth, unctuous grains ; when rubbed on paper, the 
trace is a lively yellow, and no grittiness is felt or residue left, its 
taste is bitter, and its smell strong and disagreeable to many persons. 
The true bags weigh about 25 grains, when well prepared and dried ; 
they are often counterfeited by those of skin, but these have a paler 
color than the true, and the hair is uneven. The degree of purity and 
strength of this drug can be ascertained by macerating it for a few 
days in spirits of wine, to which it imparts a strong scent. Musk is 
often adulterated with a kind of brown unctuous earth, heavier than 
the real secretion, or with clots of the animal's blood; and every bag 
should be opened. An inferior sort is sold at Sh;inghai, having gray, 
large grains, and the hair nearly all removed from the bags. The 
average exportation is about 1200 catties, at $60 a catty, but none 
passes the custom-house. It is used for perfumery and medicine. An 
inferior sort is found in the Indian markets, and a still baser kind is 
brought from Ru.ssia. 

Musk Seed. These are the fVuit of the Hibiscus abelmoschus, 
which grows in China and other countries. The Arabians use them 
to give flavor to their coffee ; the powder is used in perfumery. The 
seeds are flat, kidney-shaped, about the size of a large pinhead, and 
have a considerable odor of musk, with a slightly aromatic, bitterish 
taste. The black and musty seeds are not good; a grayish color is 
the natural one. They are now carried to Europe from Ceylon and- 
South America. .. ^^ _, jl^ #^ 

3S. Nankeens, ^ 4Jq ^ tsz' hwn pu or ^ TP chih pti. Thia 
cotton cloth is so named by foreigners from Nanking, where the 
manufacture is said to have began. It is woven from the reddish 
cotton grown in Ki 'mgnin ; the looms of Ki;iqgsu produce the best. 
There are many varieties and qualities, not easy to describe; those 
manufactured in Canton and Fuhkien are of an inferior quality; 
but the Chinese article still maintains its superiority in color and 
te.xture over the imitations of other countries. The Chinese fabric 
can be proven by plunging it in a boiling solution of campeachy 
wood, which does not change its hue, while the foreign turns violet. 
The price varies from $45 to §90 per hundred pieces ; they are 
about 7.4 yds. long by 15 inches wide, but are woven about 75 yds. 
on one loom. There are several varieties of the cloth. This cloth 
is much worn by the Chinese themselves, who usually dye it blue. 
The exportation is now less than it was fifty years ago, and almost 
wholly to the United States and England, although small quantities 
find their way elsewhere 



Mut-galls. Oils. Paints in boxes. Pictures on pith paper, ivory, and in oil. 

Nut-galls, ufH pei tsz\ 51 ^ 7* come chiefly from Siiichau 
in Kwangs', produced by insects upon a tree called the yen fu, 
probably an oak ; they are oblong, rough and tubercular, the shell 
hard, brittle and gummy, and the hollow centre has a cottony ball, 
the covering of the pupa or the perfect insect. They are used 
alone to a large extent to dye silks black, or mixed with cochineal 
and other colors to produce gray, brown and fawn. They are 
exported to Germany. 

Oil is exported by native vessels to the Archipelago. The oils 

mostly used by the Chinese are camellia-oil ^^ ^fg chd yi't, ground- 
nut oil ^^ ^ ^m hwa sang yu ; sesamum oil, ^ j|^ W^ chi- 
md yu ; and wood oil iEj ym lung yu. The three first are used for 
lamps and cooking, the last for smearing wood and in painting. 
Castor-oil, rape oil, and cocoa-nut oil, are also made, and a few animal 
oils. The exportation of the oils, or of the cakes left after pressing, 
is trifling. ^^ ^^ 

Paints, shih sidng '2, ^TO' ^'"^ P"* "P '" boxes in a very neat 
manner, and a few are sent abroad. They are of different sizes, the 
largest presenting a collection of sixteen colors, both in cakes and 
in powder, with a complete assortment of pencils, a bit of fine glue, 
India ink, a mortar and pestle, cups and saucers, all arranged com- 
pactly. Great care and experience are needed in selecting boxes of 
paints, as the colors are often mixed with gypsum, or otherwise' 

39. Pictures; oil paintings, -jr -m i^ ^ td yu tsih hwd; rice 
paper pictures, ^ ^jT ^ tung chi hwd. There are many shops in 
Canton, Whampoa, and Hongkong, where maps and charts are copied, 
and a few where portraits are well taken. Portraits, landscapes, 
and scenes in oil, are made in large quantities, priced from $3 to 
$100 apiece ; pictures and engravings are accurately copied, and 
some of the views and Chinese landscapes are well drawn. The 
paintings on pith paper (or rice paper, as it is erroneously called) 
are well known. The material is the pith of an araliaceous plant 
(yEsckynomene paludosa ? ) brought from Yunnan and Fuhkien, in 
leaves or in its original state. After soaking a while, it is cut round 
and round into sheets by sharp thin knives, and pressed smooth. The 
largest sheets are over a foot square, and all the best are used for. 
painting on, the refuse pieces being employed by the makers of ar- 
tificial flowers. The copying of miniatures or engravings on ivory 
also forms a branch of industry of some importance; and the finer 
specimens of work of these artists are very beautiful. Outline designs 
in India ink, of the crafts and professions among the Chinese, are 
sold in books at a cheap price, and some of them are admirably de- 
signed. Of all these the number annually carried away is very great, 
and their manufacture furnishes employment to hundreds of work- 


Haling Paper. Pearls, real and false. Preserves, Jellies, and dried Fruits. 

41. Paper )^ chi. There is no need of describing the preparation, 
and noting all the numerous sorts of paper made by the Chinese out 
of bamboo, mulberry, hibiscus, cotton, hen*p, refuse cotton, and rice 
straw, or detailing the uses to which they are applied. Such paper 
as this book is printed upon is made from the macerated pulp of the 
young shoots of bamboo, soaked, pounded, and digested to a solution 
of uniform consistency, and then taken up in large molds ; the sheets 
are sized by saturating them in a solution of alum mixed with a 
little glue, and dried by rubbing them on smooth boards or a warm 
plastered wall. The exportation to India and the Archipelago is 
principally of this kind. That sent to Europe for taking India proofs 
of engravings is the same sort, unsized. It is glazed for writing paper 
by waxing the sheet, and afterwards rubbing it with a smooth stone; 
two and three sheets are made into one thick sheet for ledgers or 
other account-books, by the same process, after wetting the inner 
surfaces with glue water, and drying the sheet in the sun. The 
thin paper, called Nanking paper, manufactured from cotton, is 
tougher and more flexible than the bamboo paper, but it is not sent 
abroad. The oiled paper in which silk and other goods are wrapped, 
is chiefly made of cotton in KiAngsu, and is superior to the bamboo 
oiled, paper of (/an ton. The consumption of Chinese writing paper is 
great in this part of the world, on account of its cheapness and from 
not being injured by the climate; foreign paper sized with glue being 

liable to spoil. /e lit "S" ifl: 

42. Pearls, kid chu j^ ^^ and -^ ijj^ tsau cha. These are arti- 
ficially produced, by a curious process of inserting a substance 
inside of the living shell, around which the fish deposits the nacre- 
ous pearl, to remove the irritation of a rough, foreign substance. 
Ningpo is the principal mart for their export. False pearls are also 
made artificially of glass and of fish glue to a large extent. The 
Chinese ladies use them in strings upon their heads, and also as a 
setting on headbands, necklaces, &.c. False pearls are packed in 
pecul boxes, each containing 100,000 pearls, and are exported al- 
together to India and the Straits, where they are used by the natives 
for ornaments. ife ^ Itfc -^A- 

43. Preserves, 7^ jp| tang kidng, and 7^ -^ tang kwo. The 
Chinese candy many things which are not considered fit for such 
purposes elsewhere, as millet seeds, bamboo shoots, slices of the lily 
root, &,c. The most common sweetmeat exported is made of the 
tender roots of the ginger plant; when good it has a bright appear-; 
ance, a dark red color, and small pieces are somewhat translucent; 
if the roots are old, the preserve will be stringy, tough and tasteless. 
The jars called chowchow sweetmeats, contain a variety of roots and 
fruits boiled soft. Other kinds of conserves and jellies, as whampee, 
guava, and pear, citron, custard-apple, kumquat, oranges, &-c.,&c., 
are also sent abroad. The jellies are mostly made of pears, whampee 
and mangoes, put up in gallipots, 24 in a case. The .syrups are 





Qiticksilver. Rattan-ware. Split Rattans. Rhubarb^ cut and uncut 

in bottles, 12 in a case. The dried fruit usually called dates, ^^ ts&u, 
forms a large article of inland commerce among the Chinese. They 
are the jujube plum ( Zizyphis), and are prepared by slitting the skin 
and drying them in honey; they are put up in tubs. Dried laiches 
are prepared by exposing the ripe fruit to the sun or artificial heat ; 
those which are good look withered, while the poor and wormy ones 
are generally plump. Neither of these are exported in foreign vessels^ 
but persimmons dried and prepared like biffins, are sent abroad in 
junks to Siam and the Straits in great quantities, under the name of 
dried figs. 

Quicksilver sometimes forms an article of export ; when the 
price of the foreign exceeds f 100 per pecul, the native can be 
brought to market. Mines of cinnabar are opened in the western 
and central provinces, and pure quicksilver is collected in Kweichau 
and Honan. It is very pure, and comes to market in stone jars, or 
inclosed in the internodes of bamboo. In 1844, '45 and '46, the 
total export of this nietal was nearly 1000 peculs, at an average of 
$121 per pecul. Fifty years ago it was sold in Canton at 35 to 40 

taels per pecul. <»: ^ ffA; ^ <5^ /(*:• 

44. Rattan ware, /^ ^ ^^ ff^ jj^ ^ tang lien, tang sih, 
tang ho. Table-mats are made in sets of six each of different sizes, 
or in full sets of 30 for a dozen plates. Other sorts of rattan ware con- 
sists of chairs, baskets of many shapes, open and covered, and with 
compartments, and other small articles; chairs and chair-seats, and 
strips for cording, consume more than all the fancy ware exported ; 
next are ropes and the large mats in which the people wrap their 

bedding. -ftT/i^ , 

Split Rattans ^i^v^ tang tidu, are made by hand, cutting the 
whole rattan into threads of different sizes, first by running a knife 
through it slowly, and afterwards reducing the strips to threads by 
pulling them through holes in an iron plate. The labor of making 
them of a uniform size is considerable, and is done mostly by women 
and those who weave table mats. The export to United States is 
steadily increasing. . jl|, 

45. Rhubarb /C 1^ to. hwdng. This drug is the dried roots of 
several species of Rheum, especially the palmfitum , which furnishes 
the best, the rhaponticum and the rhabarharicum, all of which grow 
in Siberia, Tartary and China; from Central Asia, it is carried 
to St. Petersburg and Smyrna. The rhubarb from Kiakhta is col- 
lected in Western Kansuh, Koko-nor, and along the slopes of the 
Kwanlun Mts., while that sold in Canton is gathered in Sz'chuen, 
Shens', and Eastern Kinsuh ; the varieties known in commerce 
depend on the age of the root, the soil, and care used in curing it. 
The Chinese dig the roots early in the spring, before the leaves ap- 
pear, cut them into long flat pieces ; dry them for two or three days 
in the shade ; and then string them on cords to dry thoroughly in 
cool places. Rhubarb is often spoiled by moisture in drying, when 


Sea-ahrJls, dried Inseda, and AHneraU. Raw Silk^ Nankiytg and Canton. 

it becomes light and spongy; it is liable also to be eaten by worms. 
Good rhubarb is yellowish, of a firm texture, when cut has a lively, 
reddish, white mottled appearance, and is perfectly dry. The taste 
is bitter and unpleasant, and the smell somewhat aromatic. If when 
chewed, it becomes mucilaginous, it is not good ; it also imparls to 
the spittle a deep saffron tinge. If black or green when broken, it 
ought to be rejected, as the good is slightly wrinkled, feels solid, 
and the fracture is clean and veined, and crisp to the teeth. The 
price of rhubarb varies from $38 to §40 per pecul for those roots 
cured without splitting ; and $oO to $65 a pecul for the cut. Up- 
wards of 1500 peculs are exported to England, Europe and the 
United States. ^^ ^^ 

Sea shells, »^ ^ lo kok; insects ^ ^^ chunglui. The shores 
of the islands of the Indian ocean afford many beautiful and rare 
shells, which are brought hither in junks, and from the islands along 
the coast. The assortment of shells for sale in Canton is not so 
great as might be inferred from the quantities exposed, but by a 
little search and careful selection, one can easily collect a few score 
of species, mostly salt water sorts, as well as some dried fish, like 
the diodon, hippocampus, or pegasus. Few fresh water or land shells 
are collected, and all of them are injured by scraping and varnishing. 
Beside shells, as objects of natural history, insects are also procura- 
ble at Canton, but badly preserved, the antennae, palpi, and feet are 
often broken, and the specimens too crowded in the boxes; they 
are mostly beetles and other coleopterous insects ; butterflies and 
other sorts are also gathered, especially those species which are gay. 
Precious stones are seen in small quantities, but rather inferior ; 
chrysoprase, malachite, cornelians, emeralds, and jade, are the most 
common. Other minerals, especially limestone and quartz, are cut 
into fantastic shapes; but these specimens being usually lackered, 
are spoiled for natural objects. Lizards, newts, crabs and other 
Crustacea, plated fishes like the diodon or star-fish, are not unfre- 
quently contained in the boxes. Notwithstanding these deficien- 
cies, owing to the pretty and variegated appearance of the crowded 
boxes, both shells and insects, their exportation amounts to many 
hundreds annually. 

46. Silk. Nanking raw silk ]j5§ 4^» A" s^;' ,- Canton raw silk j^ 
X*> <u St' ; refuse silk ^ ^ ^ tien tsan sz' ; organzine, hu sz' 

satin, sz' twan ^ ^,- crape, tsau shd ^ jM?; gauze JM^ shd ; 
lustring, ^a kiuen ; pongee, ^ chau ; velvet, tsien jung |m 
j^; crape shawls, tsau-shd tah pok kin ^ ^ ^ Jf^ l\j 1'he 
mulberry is cultivated in all the provinces of China, except the most 
northerly, and silk is raised wherever the tree grows. The Nanking 
raw silk is, M. Hedde says, not so called from the city of Nanking, 
but is an elision of Nantsin-king, /. e. the organzine from Nantsjn, 


Varieties of each. J^alive consumption. Foreign exportation. 

the part of the city of Hiichau in theNW. of Chehkiang, where the 
silkmen live; there are three common sorts, tsatlee -f^ J^, taysaam 
"hi ^^^ "great worm," and yuenkwa ^ •f^, "garden flower." That 
from Shauhing J^ jft, a city between Ningpo and Ilingchau, call- 
ed Shewhing, is divided into three sorts, viz., tsiuen-mien -^ ^^, 
jung-chwang ^l R^, and tung chodng ^JS j^, which, like the 
others, are descriptive terms used by the trade. 

The three grades of Canton raw silk are mostly named from the 
town or district in which they are collected. Of the No. 1 sort, there 
are five varieties, Lungkong ng VX- Lungshan oj^ ijj, Komchuk 
-y^fV, Wongleen ^ ^, and Laklau ^ f(%. Of No. 2 sort, the 
best varieties are Kaukong J^ /I* Hangtin, ZK ;^, Sh^tau \^ 
5p[ and Kot-ngon ^T rs,- Of No. 3 and the poorest sort, there are 
Siu-lam /\\ ^^ and Kwaichau ;|^ j^j|i|.j ; most of these are names of 
towns lying west and south of Canton city. For notices of many othef 
sorts, and a detailed description of the growth and manufacture ot 
silk in China, the reader is referred to Isidore Hedde's "Exposition 
des Produits de I'lndustrie Serig^ne en Chine. " 

In 1854-55, the price of the best sorts of raw silk was frooi 
6280 a 360; for the greater part of that period. No. 1 quality was at 
$330. The exportation to England was 51,500 bales, or about 
41,000 peculs. The quantity jiroduced to supply the native con- 
sumption is so enormous, that notwithstanding the vast increase of 
the export during the past ten years, the average of prices is lower 
than when the export was but one fourth of its present amount. Th6 
silk-grower looks to the home market for fixing the value of his 
produce, and prices range according as that demand is active or 
dull ; little or no effect being produced by the foreign exportation, 
except among speculative holders at the ports. 

The export to England is almost exclusively in Nanking kinds, 
these being of a much finer thread, and possessing a purity of color, 
a softness, and a lustre not to be found in the silk of the southern 
provinces. The silk is generally shipped in the bale as originally 
packed in the country. To the United States the annual export 
now amounts to about 1800 peculs; this branch has only lately 
assumed any importance, and consists principally of Canton kinds, 
Komchuk and Kaukong. The silk is re-reeled and repacked in 
boxes for shipment. The _^6rc is much coarser than the Nanking, 
and a darker color, hut is even and strong. It is chiefly spun into 
sewing silk, fringes, &c. ; while that sent to England is manufactured 
into piece-goods. Its cost averages about $2.50 per lb. on board. 
The silk sent to India is mostly of very coarse descriptions, the 
lowest qualities of Canton kinds, (called in this market Punjam silk, 
from its resemblance to the Indian raw silk of that name,) and bears 

COM. GV. 24 


Manufactured ailks sent to the United States. Thtir comparative quality. 

more resemblance to tow than to the usual kinds of raw silk. Over 
2000 chests are yearly shipped to Bombay, and about 300 chests of 
No. 3 sort to Singapore, where it is woven into scarfs and entire 
pieces for garments. 

The Nanking silk exported to England is chiefly shipped from 
Shanghai. Of thrown filk hardly any is exported. The largest 
export of vianufactured silks is to the United States, with the 
exception of embroidered shawls to South America, and damasks to 
India; that to other countries is too small to require any notice. 
The annual value of the shipments to the United States may be 
estimated at about $1,800,000. The prices for goods of equal 
quality have hardly varied for ten years past, but goods of low cost 
have been largely shipped at the expense of quality. The principal 
fabrics are pongees, dress goods, and crape shawls. Of the former 
the increase in the demand has been steady but moderate, while in 
dress goods, including satins, checked lu.«trings and sarsnets, and 
lining silks, the consumption in America has been immense, and 
but for the impossibility of inducing the Chinese to use improved 
machinery, would probably before this have taken the place of French 
Bilks in that market. These goods, from lack of such machinery, 
want the evenness and finish of the French, and their cheapness of 
cost, and superiority of silk, cannot make up for the absence of these 
excellencies. The want of this perfect finish to the Chinese goods 
causes high cost fabrics to be avoided, and the export consists of 
dress silks, whose cheapness and durability compensate for the 
absence of a brilliant lustre and distinctness of pattern. 

A great part of the large shipments of crape shawls and scarfs to 
U. S. are reexported to Mexico and South America; no statistics 
can be obtained of the export direct to the latter places, but the 
value is considerable. These goods require little aid from machinery, 
depending for their value upon the skill of the embroiderer, and 
from the low price of labor and excellence of the workmanship, will 
always be beyond the competition of other nations. The demand 
for embroidered goods, which decreased from 1835 to 1847, has 
eince steadily increased. 

The wretchedness, that seems inseparable from the abodes of the 
manufacturers of these most costly and luxurious fabrics in other 
countries, attaches also to the Chinese silk weaver. Like thofe of 
Lyons or Spitalfields, the Chinese maker of satin or brocade lives 
and dies, surrounded by squalid poverty and filth ; and the beautiful 
and delicate creations of his loom are produced in a hovel where he 
digs a hole in the earth to procure sufficient space for his treddle to 
move. He is however more fortunate than the operative of Europe, 
inasmuch as in the vicinity of Canton he has little to fear from the 
winter's cold, and the pittance be receives supplies him with more 
food than the average pay of a silk weaver in Europe can procure 
in those dearer markets. 


Silk and Cotton mixtures. Shoes. Sandal-wood Ware. Soy. 

The weavers of piece goods generally confine themselves to the 
making of one or two kincfs, and are unable to undertake others. 
Pongees are made in most of the villages between Canton and Fuh- 
shan, 12 miles SW. of it, but not in the city itself. Dress goods and 
satins are mostly manufactured in Canton; and embroidered goods 
in the neighboring villages. 

Apart from these staple articles, there are others made of a more 
•fancy character, as damasks, camlets, levantines, sewing silks, serges, 
with brocades and gold thread silks (which chiefly go to India), &-c., 
but their value is too small, owing to the limited use, to call for 
particular notice. 

47. Silk and Cotton Mixtures, called mien chau jc^ ^^, 

and sz^ mien tsnh ho ^,^ 1m Sff w, are no longer exported, as the 
beautiful combinations now made in western countries, have wholly 
supplanted them. A common article, half cotton half silk, dyed an 
indigo blue, is used at Canton for wadded garments, and to some 
extent for binding books ; but it is not as elegant as silk or as du- 
rable as cotton. ^. 

48. Shoes, &/C., ^l ^^ hiueh hiai. Chinese shoes or boots are 
seldom exported, even in junks, except perhaps some 'embroidered 
pairs for the use of Chinese ladies and rich persons living in the 
Archipelago. The native artisans who make foreign shoes employ 
horse, cow, or buffalo hide, and they import pntent leather, calf-skin, 
and morocco to some extent. The Chinese tan hide with saltpetre 
and urine, and the leather is consequently porous and weak. Slippers 
are made of straw in a neat manner, s^led with a strip of hog skin. 
The price of shoes varies from fifty cents to $1^ per pair, and pro- 
portionably for boots. Considerable quantities of women's shoes are 
made for South America, but there are no particulars as to the 
sorts or amount ; latterly large exportations of Chinese shoes have 
been made to California and Australia. j^^ ^^ _, „„ 

49. S.\Nr)AL-wooo ware, tan hidng muh hi q^ -^P- yl^ ^^' 
The best pieces of sandal-wood are carved into fancy articles, as fans, 
racks, card-cases, concentric balls, glove-boxes, &c., but nothing 
definite can be ascertained as to the amount. The fragments are 
all consumed in distilling the oil, or in making incense sticks. Like 
all the articles which are included under the comprehensive term of 
curiosities, this ware seldom pays duty, or is reported in cargo 
manifests. ^, , , 

50. S<»Y, ^ jlH shi yn, is a condiment made from the DolichoS 
bean, which grows in China and Japan ; the name is derived from 
the Japanese siyau. To make it, the beans are slowly boiled soft, 
and then an equal quantity of wheat or barley flour is added ; after 
this has thoroughly fermented and become mouldy, the bea;j8 are 
washed, and put into jars with their weight in salt, adding some 
aromatics, and three times as much boiling water as the bean* 
were at first. The whole compound is now left fur a month, or even 
longer, exposed to the sun, aiid then J)ressed and strained. Good 


Silver-tcare and Gold-uxtrt. Sugar qftwo sorts. Sugar candy and Pingfa. 

soy has an agreeable taste, and if shaken in a tumbler, lines the 
vessel with a lively yellowish-brown froth; its color in the dish is 
nearly black. There are many qualities of it, and when well made all 
improve by age. Japan soy is considered superior to Chinese, but 
both are of different qualities, and are probably made of various 
miterials, some of which may be base enough. It is mostly sent to 
Eutjiand, India, and America. A. yprl pi? 

51. Silver-ware and gold-ware ^1 J^X >^ kin yin ki. Somfe 
of the specimens of workmanship in gold and silver found in the 
jeweler's shops in Canton are very elegant, especially the cake bas- 
kets, bracelets, trays, &-c., made in filagree, enameled, nacre, and 
chased open work. A considerable quantity of silver-ware for the 
table is manufactured at from 18 to 50 per cent, advance on the 
weight, according to the amount of ornament. Almost any article of 
gold or silver-ware can be made in Canton from patterns given to 
the workmen, and though the table ware is heavier than foreign, its 
cheapness recommends it. At the Exhibition in 1851, the specimens 
of Chinese jewelry attracted attention from their grotesque carving 
and fine filagree-work rather than for their good taste. No data are 
obtainible as to the annual exportation, but it is probably not under 
6100,000. ^ j^ ,^ 

52. Sugar, H /^g peh tang and fa ^ hodng tang. From the 
notices that can be obtained from ancient history, it is very probable 
that China was the first country in which the sugar cane (Saccharum 
officinarum) was cultivated. Among the Chinese, the cultivation of 
it is followed everywhere south of lat. 30°, and to an extent sufficient 
to supply their own wants, and to form an article of export. The 
varieties of cane are several, and five species of the plant are 
mentioned ; the clinh chay is the richest in juice. The process of 
manufacturing it is simple and laborious. The machinery is rude : 
two wheels to crush the cane turned by cattle, and some caldrons" 
and pots to boil and granulate the juice, whose fires are fed by the 
cane; these are all the implements carried to the field. The juice is 
settled with lime, and afterwards clarified with eggs. The provinces 
of Fuhkien and Kwangtung furnish most of the sugar used in China. 
The two principal varieties, white and brown, are each subdivided 
into three qualities ; besides which there is the kieh tang, a sort of 
impure molasses, which is consumed on the spot. The manufacture 
of fancy su^ar candy employs many workmen, and some of their 
landscapes alid wedding ornaments are exceedmgly pretty; for their 
eatincr, the Chinese prefer candies mixed with fruit and seeds, to 
those which are merely flavored. Large exportations of common 
sugars have recently been made to Shanghai, India and California ; 
and some to Europe. .• j_i- . , . » v • ^u^ 

53. ScoAR CANDY. tK W P^^^ ««"5^' >« "^^^f .^.^ cryst^l'^'"^ the 
raw suaar ; the best comes from Chinchew in Fuhkien. The syrup is 
evaporated till it becomes red and rather thick, when it is poured 
into shallow earthen pans, in a hot place; that which crystahzes 


Vegetable Tallow, Lard and S^let. . TVn foil. Tea. 

on the surface is called caked sugar, the underlying mass is like 
muscovado. It is then boiled again in pans holding a few quarts, 
adding eggs occasionally, and skimming the liquid, when it is poured 
into pans to cool and crystalize ; these pans have strings and slips of 
bamboo placed across them to collect the crystals. It is for the most 
part carried to India. Pingfa sugar 7k >y i. e. ' crystal flowers,' 
is the name given to the pounded and sifted sugar candy, little of 
which is exported. ,j.. .«r ,^, _,_ 

Tali.ow, shii luh loj ^|^ or shti h'lu plj *^ i. e. tree fat, expressed 
from the tallow tree (StiUingia sebifera), has been shipped to Eng- 
land in small quantities. The tallow envelopes the seed, and is 
obtained either by pressing the nuts, when it flows from them in an 
oily form ; or by gently boiling them in water, when it floats and 
hardens on the surface as a cake of oily tallow, which after another 
careful purification, becomes like lard, having no disagreeable odor, 
and burning with a clear flame. The tree grows throughout the cen- 
tral and eastern provinces, both wild and cultivated ; at Chusan and 
on the mainland, its preparation is a large branch of industry. The 
purified tallow is put up in cakes, weighing from 70 to 100 catties^ 
and sells from $7 to $12 a pecul. The wick is composed of a 
woolly fibrous substance, wound on a bamboo ; the candles are made 
by dipping, and are sold white, or colored yellow and red. This 
substance is used in China for many purposes, and its exportation 
may increase. Lard and suet are used instead of this in the south 
for making candies, and the demand for these products is greater 
than the supply, as candles are much used in religious worship by 
all classes. ^ ^^ 

54. Tin foil, J^ y^ seh poh, is made in the same way as sheet 
lead. The liquid metal is poured upon a smooth stone covered with 
oiled paper, and inclined a little, when the woTRman instantly drops 
a second stone upon it, and then steps on it to press it as thin as he 
can. An amalgam of tin and quicksilver in a foil is used to silver 
glass; the piece of glass, wiped clean, is laid on a sheet of silk paper 
laid over the foil, and the paper quickly drawn out, leaving the foil 
sticking on the back of the glass. Tin foil is estimated at half the 
value of brass leaf; it goes chiefly to India, where it is used by toy 
makers. t^ 1 ^ -ij- 

55. Tea, ^^ cha, or ^ ^^ cha yeh (i. e.. tea leaf) ; but the term 
cha is also applied to all the species of Camellia by the Chinese, as 
well as the tea. This is the most valuable and important of all the 
exports from China. Its infusion has been used as a common beve- 
rage by the Chinese for a thousand years, and the plant is now cul- 
tivated for the sake of its leaf in China, Corea, Japan and Assam, 
where it is indi^/'^nous ; and in Simla, Java, and Brazil, where its 
introduction has been attempted. It will be enough to refer in this 
place to the works of Ball and Fortune for the details respecting 
the collecting and curing the tea leaf for domestic use and for ex- 

tW KnrwLtm of trade with china. 

Localities of the Tea ttiruh. NhmtB of Teas. Conpou. 

portation, and the modes by which so rriany varieties are manufac- 
tured from the leaves of a single plant. They have shown, that 
though there are two, and perhaps more, species of Thea, black or 
green tea can be made from either ; and that the state of the leaf, 
the qualities of the soil, the degree of heat applied, and the foreign 
ingredients employed in the manipulation, account satisfactorily for 
all the differences perceived in the cured teas of commerce. The 
old notion that green tea, from its metallic taste and verdigris hue, 
was cured by drying it on copper plates, (not reflecting that heated 
copper could give off no rust to affect the tea,) is now rectified by 
fearning that this hue is an artificial coloring put on by the Chinese 
to imitate their own partially dried and delicate green teas designed 
for home consumption. 

'_ The shrub is cultivated in all the provinces south of the Yellow 
River, but the eastern ones furnish the best tea, and all which is ex- 
ported coastwise. 'I'hc range of hills in lat. 28" N., in the north- 
western part of Fuhkien called the Wu-' or Bohea hills, have long 
been celebrated for the fine teas they produce, mostly black. A 
low spur of the same great range, the Nan-ling, extending off be- 
tween the provinces of Chehkiang and Ngiinlnvai, in lat. 35" N. 
called the Sunglo hills, are equally famous for their green teas, also 
known in Canton as Fychow teas, from the local pronunciation of 
llwuichau fu in Nganhwui ; and in Sh'mgh'ii, as Taiping and Ping- 
shwui, from two districts in the same region. The two great pro- 
vinces of Hi'inan and H'lpeh (Oonam and Oopak) also furnish a 
peculiar class of teas ; and the districts of Ng^nki and Ningyang 
(vVnkoi and Ningyong) in the western parts of Fuhkien, have given 
n:imes to two sorts brought from those regions. The appellations 
given to teas frequently change, and are mostly taken from localitie.i 
where peculiar or fia^ sorts are cultivated or collected. The terms 
u.sed among the Chinese arc usually descriptive, as pekoe, ». e. " white 
bair," ht-chun (hyson) i, r " bright spring," Si^c. ; while foreign names 
qre oftener known only in the trade, and are taken from places, as 
Hohow, Singchunekye, Kaisow, &,c. The following description of 
the principal sorts of black and green teas now known in the trade 
has been furnished for this work by an experienced tea-inspector, 
and can be relied on as accurate. :— 

The most important de.scription of tea is called Conootj by foreign- 
ers, a corruption of konjy-hii, through the Amoy dialect, of the words 
kungfu JJ2 ^^ *• ^- laborer's [tea], or tea on which labor has been 
bestowed. Since the dissolution of the E. I. Company, the quality 
ef this tea has on the whole improved, though it is much better in 
some seasons than others; since the political disturbances in the tea- 
growing regions the last three years, it has depreciated. There are 
eight varieties of Congou manufactured to supply the foreign de- 
mand, each presenting an almost endless diversity of quality. The 
finest kinds are produced in the provinceof Hupeh (or Oopak), a|i(| 


Hunan Congou. Moning and Hohau sorts. Kaisliow teat, 

-are divided into three distinct classes; the best is cnlled Ynng-liti 
<«"v? \§j f^'P lllpl '• f- WiUow Valley ; the middling is ^ ^P ^ 
Yang-litt sz' i. e. Willow township ; and the inferior is Hieh-kia shi 
S- ^^ I^T i. e. Hieh family market. The congou from Hnpeh is 
easily distinguished by the appearance of the leaf, which in the finer 
kinds is large, bold, and black, with sometimes a purple hue ; the 
infusion is a rich deep red, and the flavor mellovv and soft. Frooli 
its delicate nature and refusal to stand much firing without lo.sing 
its fragrance, it is more liable to turn musty than any other kind o( 
Congou. The best chops are usually brought to Canton. 

The congou from Hunan (or Oonam) province exhibits many 
differences from the Oopak. The leaf has a grayish black appearr 
ance, and sometimes a reddish tint ; it is not a strong tea, and its 
flavor occasionally resembles tar, of the origin of which there i$ 
much diversity of opinion, the Chinese ascribing it to the nature of 
the wood burned when firing it. There are three classes of Hunan, 
the best of which is called Chcing-shau kiiii M- ^^ gr t. c. Lon- 
gevity street ; the second is Ping-kiang yb ^'IJ from the village of 
Ping; and the inferior or refuse is called Sidng-tdn ^ J^, a dep6t 
on the River Siang. Large quantities of, all, these kinds, are annually 
sent to England. ^ ' ,V.x'm\, -j , ■ . =. ,i 'p 

The class of congous called Moning is so niameil ifrom the district of 

Wuning ^h ^^ in the northeast of the province of Kimgsi, and iis 
also called Ningchau im ^jjl by the teamen in Fuhchau and Shang- 
hai. This kind resembles both the foregoing sorts in appearance ; it 
frequently has an earthy .smell and taste, arising from the nature of 
the soil in which the shrub grows. The best quality is distinguished 
by the term Sung-hiang l^ ^ i. e. fir fragrance ; the leaf is usualljr 

small, even, and black, and the infusion strong and of an agreeable 

Another important description of congou, which forms a large part 
of the export, is called Ho*hau ^ P , from a mart of that nam^ 
at the embouchure of the Kiu-kiuh, a stream flowing from Singtsun 
into the Poyang lake, whence the tea can go either to Shanghai dowA 
the Yang-tsz' kiung, or to Canton by Nanch;ing fu in Ki'ingsi ; it ib 
the same sort which, with a slight variation in its preparation, was 
called Bohea in the trade of the East India Compnnv. The leaf is 
a dark red color, very open and coarse, and the infu.sion a pale red', 
which increases in darkness as the quality lowers. This sort of tek 
is also called Siiig-tsun-kidi J^ /jCd* ^j^ or Star-viUage Street, from 
the 6ntrep6t of black teas on the northern declivity of the Bohea hills, 
from whence they are carried to Ho-hau. _^^ 

The best of black teas is called Kidi-shau ^fi "^ , and the chop's 
are mostly brought to Canton ; its quality and mode of curing are 


Souchong. Four sorts of Pekoe. Caper Congou. Ankoi Souchong. 

Buch that it will keep for years in a dry climate withoul deteriorat- 
ing. '' It comes in limited quantities from Shii-fnngki^i ^ JHj jSx^ 
and is distinguished from other sorts by its small red curly leaf with 
Pekoe tips; tlie infusion is brisk, strong, and richly aromatic. 

A variety called Hid-mei ~T\ *& i. e. inferior Hungmuey, is now 
rarely to be procured of genuine leaf Most of it is sent to Sing-tsun 
kiai, where the teamen buy it up and mix it with other teas for the 
foreign market. Its flavor is light and pleasant, and the leaf is 
black and curled. _.., ijl, .t 

Another sort, called Tsau-tun kidi ^ ^X i^T- 's also grown on 
the Bohea hills; it has the flavor peculiar to the Ankoi teas; the leaf 
is mixed, and has a greenish hue after infusion. 

Of late years there have been some attempts made in Kwangtung 
province to produce an imitation of the genuine congou, which is 
called Tuishan -^ QJ or Taysaan congou. It has a very strong, 
highly fired, malty taste, and often looks better than the best 
" Nanking" teas. It is at present of some importance in the Canton 
market. . ^^ 

Sot'CHONu is a corruption of'sidU'chung /J"^ ^^ i. e. " small sort," 
and has nearly as many varieties as Congou. The leaves usually 
exhibit a reddish tint, and the infusion is of the same color and pale. 
The best comes from Shu-fmg ki'ii, where the Kiai-shau congous 
are grown; inferior sorts are brought from the same districts as the 
Hin-mei and Ho-hau congous. ^^ .^ 

Pekor is a corruption of peh-hau ^^ i. e. " white hair;" and 
consists of the earliest leaf buds, collected as they are just bursting 
in spring, while the down is not yet changed ; the best has a soft 
downy appearance. It is the most delicate of all black teas, as the 
process of firing destroys the flavor ; in selecting it, that is to be 
preferred which has the most downy leaves, or flowers as they are 
called, the liquor being of secondary importance. There are four 
varieties of Pekoe exported; the best or true Wli-i -tA; ^r from 
the original Bohea hills; the ki-ling fm. ^S> which has open black 
leaves mixed with the blossoms; the sidu-rhi A-\ y[k i. e. "small 
pool" pekoe, from Ts^u-tun kia, which has green leaves mixed with 
it, and is destitute of flavor; and lastly, black leaf Pekoe, which is 
now rarely sent abroad. There is a variety called Hyson Pekoe, 
composed of the most tender buds, and used by the Chinese for 
presents; the least dampness turns it musty, and it has rarely been 
seen out of China. 

Caper, or Caper congov, or chu-ldn ^t ^3 , is black tea from the 
district of Nganki ^r- ^ in the western part of Fuhkien, rolled 
into small round pellets, the leaves being made to adhere by weak 
rice water. It presents a reddish brown, curly leaf, sometimes 
mixed with a large quantity of dust; the infusion is pale red and 
weak ; and the tea the coarsest of all black teas. 


Ankoi. Orange Pekoe. Oolung. Hungmuey. Green Teas- 

Ankoi Souchong, so called from the same district of Ng^n-ki, 
Onkye or Ankoi, is another coarse kind of tea, having large, open 
mixed leaTes, of a dark brown color; the infusion is thin and weak, 
with a burnt flavor. Spurious leaves are frequently mixed with it. 
When put up in papers containing about half a pound each, it is 
called Ankoi Powchong. Imitations of both these sorts are manu- 
faclared in Canton. , -- 

Plain Orange Pekoe, called shdng hidng Jc ^j t. e. superior 
fragrance, is produced in the same district, and possesses the same 
characteristics as the last two. The leaf is small, close, curled, 
and of a yellowish hue, with whitish tips like Pekoe; it contains 
much dust, and the lower grades have brown and dark leaves mixed 
with them. The export is principally to the United States, verjr 
little going to England. 

The black teas known as the Oolung Ja oB i. e. Black Dragon, 
are grown in the Ningydng ^ff 4^ and other adjacent districts 
lying a little west of north from Amoy on the confines of Kidngsi ; 
the Kokeuf Oolung ^ fj^ ^ Sfl i. e. High Bridge Oolung, comes 
from a region northward and nearer the Bohea Hills. They both 
resemble Ankoi Souchong in appearance, are very fragrant, and the 
infusion is pale and delicate. There is a finer sort grown in 
Sha-hien v|? ^^, a district in the prefecture of Yenping in Fuhkien, 
of which only a littloiB brought to market; it has a very long black 
curled leaf, with a purple tinge; the infusion is a pale yellow, highly 
aromatic, and agreeable. As high as $1.50 per pound is sometimes 
paid for this tea. j^ 

Hungmuey or hung-mei fl[[, >|^ i. e. red plum blossom, is now in 
disrepute, and made only in small quantities, the samples shown 
latterly being deficient in strength. There are four kinds of Hung- 
muey, viz. sidu-M /]> yjffl i. e. little lake, which has some of the 
green leaves of Oolung mixed with it; the Tsau-tun-ki4i kind, 
which partakes of the flavor of Ankoi; the Sing-tsun-ki^i kind, 
which is the best of this sort of tea; and lastly, the Hang-tsz' ^^ ^ 

which is brought from the Bohea hills, and is used for mixing with 
common pekoe for sending to Russia, little or none coming to 
Canton. Hungmuey is known by its large, open, straggling, dark 
brown leaf, and the weak unpleasant liquor. The best sorts resemble 
Souchong, and the leaves show downy tips. 

Green Teas are collectively called Luh-chd »|^ /jC, and also Sung- 

lo ch& J^ ]^ ^^ from the range of hills between Chehkiang and 
Nganhwui, where they are mostly produced. There are three classes, 
called Wuyuen m^ j^, Hiu-ning ^ ^ and Tai-ping j^ ^ from 
the names of three districts situated in the southeast of Nganhwui 
province, each of which is divided into Hyson, Young Hyson, 

COM. GU. 25 


YouTig Hyson. Hyson. Hyson Skin. Tumnkay. Imperial. 

Hyson Skin, Twankay, Imperial and Gunpowder. The commonest 
description of the Wuyuen or Moyune teas is called Chang-hing 
kung-sz' ching cha J^ -^ /^ HJ J£ ^ t. e. Common E. I. Com- 
pany's Hyson; the middling is chung yen sang chd j^ Q^ Q^ /^ 
i. e. common fine-eyed tea ; and the finest sort is ching yen sang hi- 
chun chd ~J^ Q^ ^ J!^ ^ ^ ». e. best fine-eyed Hyson tea. 
Hiuning, or Yewning, teas are divided into Pingshui ^P- 7k and 
Hwuichau (or Fychow) ^v MJ, the names of two regions of country. 
The three varieties of 'I'aiping teas are named chdng hing chd -& 
^rt "a^ or common ; skung chdng hing chd |" Mi >fT^ ^S or superior 

common ; and the best kind is called yen sang cha Hft /^ 3Si 
i. e. eyed fresh tea. 

Young Hyson, also called uchain, was formerly the finest kind of 
green tea, and very little of it was procurable ; its name is derived 
from yH-tsien ^ "^ i. e. before the rains, because it was picked 
when the leaves first unfolded; though deteriorated, it still is the 
most important of green teas, and is extensively imitated in Kwang- 
tung province, and not unfrequently adulterated with spurious leaves. 
Fine Moyune tea is generally of a bright greenish, grayish color, 
yielding a pale delicate yellow liquor, with a burnt flavor peculiar 
to each variety of this class. Yewning tea is darker, and the leaves 
are speckled with white. Taeping is the most common of green 
teas; the leaves are also speckled white, and have a disagreeable 
tarry smell. 

Hyson is derived from M-chun EE ^^ i. e. vigorous spring, and 
is also called ching chd Tp ^K. or true tea. It has a well matured 
leaf, curled and twisted, of a bright green color, sometimes glazed ; 
the natural color is a pale yellow inclining to green, and the infusion 
of the best is of a pale straw color, becoming darker as the quality 
deteriorates. . .^^ 

Hyson skin, or pi chd J^ ^ i. e. skin tea, is the refuse of green 
teas; the best samples are free from dust, with a large, uneven, 
twisted, knobby leaf, and the liquor like that of other green teas of 
same quality. It used to be sent to America, but now goes chiefly to 
Australia. _^ 

Twankay 1^ /^ is so designated from the river Twan in the 
district of Taiping in Nganhwui, has latterly gone out of favor, and 
not much is manufactured. The leaf is curled, open, and bright, 
and resembles Hyson in make; some chops of this tea are in reality 
good Hyson. 

Imperial and Gunpowder are foreign designations; the first is 
named yuen chu "tt* ^ i. e. best pearl ; the latter chi chu ^^ rf^ 
i. e. sesamum pearl, from the round leaves. They are sold together, 
the formfer being merely the largest leaves picked out of the whole 


Canton Teas. Scented Orange Pekoe. Other names of Tea. Brick Tea. 

lot ; both present a pale infusion, and the leaves should be rolled 
round and bright. 

Canton Teas is a general name given to imitations of the preced- 
ing sorts, both black and green, all the principal varieties being 
made in large quantities, and some of them extensively adulterated. 
The best Canton green teas are produced in Hwang-ho ;j^ ^ and 
San-to-chuh ^^ ^^ ^_ ; and diminishing in value as they come 
from the district of Hwa ^ ||^, from Taishan ^ |J_|, Kaulien 
^ ^, Kih-shwui ^y(fCf and Shin-ki ills' ^, all of which are 
places lying north of Canton city. They are usually dyed or glazed 
green by rolling them in heated pans, after sprinkling them with a 
mixture of prussian blue and powdered gypsum. The blossoms used 
to scent tea are the kwei hwa J^ yj^ or Olea fragrans, orange, 
jessamine, Gardenia and Chloranthus. 

Scented Orange Pekoe, called kwd hiang, 7g ^i flower aroma, 
and Scented Caper, called 3f^ ^i 3^ |^ hwa hidng chu-ldn, are 

both made from tea cultivated in Kwangtung. They all go to 
England, where their consumption is steadily increasing. The 
former has a twisted black leaf, with a highly burnt flavor ; the latter 
is the Imperial of black teas, and is often adulterated with other 
leaves, and disguised with deleterious ingredients. 

Besides the names here enumerated, there are a few others which 
occur in books of old date, but have now become quite obsolete in 
the trade. Cantpoi or kien pei J^ j^ i. e. " selected for firing," 
is a delicate species of congou. Padre Souchong was a name given 
to some fine samples of Souchong, which were cultivated and cured 
by priests in the Bohea hills for presents ; other names, as lien-tsz'-sin 

^^ -^ i^ or lotus seed kernels ; tsioh sheh ^^ ^^ or " sparrow's 
tongues ;" lung twan ^g gj " dragon's pellet ;" and lung sii ^hB ^ 
or "dragon's whiskers," are varieties of souchong and pekoe. Sonchi, 
a corruption o( Sung-chi '^^ ^U or Sunglo manufacture, is now called 
caper souchong ; ^* ^ kiun-mi, or " prince's eyebrows," and tsz' 
hau ^ ^ "carnation hair," are called ^oj^^ery pekoe in commerce. 
These are all black teas. The list given above contains nearly all the 
names commonly given to green tea, which the Chinese do not drink 
as it is prepared for exportation. The tea sent to Russia is grown 
chiefly in Sz'chuen and Honin provinces, from whence it is collected 
by native brokers and carried to Kwei-hwa in the north of Shansi, 
previous to its transportation to Kiakhta. The brick tea IfM. ^v 
chuen cha, used in northern Burmah and throughout Tibet, Mongo- 
lia, and westward even to Khiva , is also prepared in Sz'chuen, and 
sold at Sitting in Kunsuh, Till in Yun-nan, Tatsienlu in Sz'chuen, 
and other frontier marts. The maritime Chinese never use it. 


Mode of scenting Tea. A chop of Tea. Export of Tea. 

The mode of scenting green and black teas varies a little, and 
the object in view in the operation is to impart the delicate flavor 
of fine tea to the common sorts. The heated leaves of the cured 
green tea are poured into a basket two inches deep, and then cover- 
ed with a layer of fresh flowers; another layer of leaves and more 
flowers are then placed above them, until the basket is full, when a 
tatch is covered over the whole, and remains a day. The next day, 
the whole mass is fired in a lined sieve for one or hours, and the 
flowers sifted out just before packing the tea in leaden chests ; fre- 
quently the highly scented tea is mixed with plain, one catty to 
eighteen or twenty, to impart a delicate scent. Black teas are 
sometimes sprinkled with chulan ( Chloranthus ) flowers dried by 
themselves, or even powdered, just before the last firing has been 
given to the tea, and the whole packed up together for exportation. 
But the larger blossoms of the jasmine and kwei hwa are not mixed 
thus with the tea, though many may be often seen in lots which 
have been imperfectly sifted. The cultivation of these flowers for 
scenting is a branch of agriculture of considerable importance about 
Canton. ^^^ 

The word chop, (hau ^^ or tsz' hau -^ ^^ a term of com- 
mon use in the tea trade,) means merely a brand or mark, and is 
given by the brokers who make up the lots of tea in the country. 
It is frequently the name of a firm, or merely a fancy appellation 
applied to each distinct lot of the same quality and origin, to dis- 
tinguish it from other lots, even of the same sort of tea. A chop 
can therefore be as few as 2 or 3 chests, or e\ en 1200 ; a chop of 
congou is usually 600 chests, but other kinds of tea not being so 
uniform are reckoned by packages, and not by chops. 'I'he " chop 
name" consists of two characters, as yuh-ldn (Magnolia), king 
lung (Rising Affluence), fmg chi (Fragrant Sesamum), &c., and 
has slight reference to the origin or quality of the tea. 

The exportation of tea is annually increasing, but the quality of 
the mass of the leaf has deteriorated during the last four or five years, 
owing to the disturbances in the tea districts, and impediments met 
in bringing it to port. The total export coastwise for the year end- 
ing June 1855 was 123 millions of pounds, and about 110 millions 
the previous year. In 1845 it was under eighty millions, showing 
a gradual annual increase to all the consuming countries. It is 
noticeable that the use of black teas in various places has succeeded 
that of green, the former being preferred in newly settled countries, 
as Australia and United States. The descriptions of tea are inter- 
mixed in every variety of combination by the tea-brokers, but are 
not mixed to much extent among the Chinese. Considering the 
great amount of this leaf sent out of China, and the facilities for 
mixing those of other plants before sending it abroad, it must be 
acknowledged that there is a large degree of mercantile honesty 
among the manufacturers, who have doubtless found that it is their 
best policy. 



Tobacco. Turmeric, a spice and dye. Tortoise-shell Ware. 

56. Tobacco, yen f^ or yen yeh jl^^, is grown in all parts of 
China ; there are two species cultivated, the Nicotiana Chinensis 
andfruticosa; Chehkiing and Hupeh, with Sinhwui and Nanhiung in 
Kwangtung, furnish the most esteemed qualities. The leaf is usually 
brought to Canton uncut, simply dried in the open air, and tied in 
bales after assorting it, without any envelop. Its color varies from a 
pale yellow, to a brown and reddish chocolate ; and the odor and 
taste from an acrid sharp flavor to an agreeably fragrant mild taste, 
all owing to difference of soil and climate. Chinese tobacco is on 
the whole weaker than the Manila or American ; the uncut leaf and 
the prepared are both occasionally soaked in a solution of opium to 
increase their narcotic properties ; it ia also colored with other pre- 
parations. The most common sorts are the sang, shuh, and shtoui 
yen, or raw, cured, and water tobacco; all of which are exported to 
the Archipelago, principally in native vessels, and also to Europe 
and South America. The leaf is cut with large planes for smoking; 
and sigarettes are made by rolling it in bamboo paper. None is 
chewed, and comparatively very little is taken as snuff, and much of 
that is imported. j^ ^^ 

57. Turmeric, "^ ^ hw&ng hiang. This is the dried root 
of the Curcuma longa, a herbaceous plant cultivated in all the Indian 
islands, and on the continent for its coloring and aromatic qualities. 
The roots are uneven and knotty, difficult to break or cut, and 
have a light yellow color externally. The color under the bark is 
a bright yellow, then reddish near the core, and finally becomes much 
like that of saffron. It is easily powdered for use, but the dye is 
very transitory, and no means have yet been found for setting it. It 
has an aromatic smell resembling ginger, and a warm, disagreeable, 
bitterish taste. The Hindoos use it less as a dye than a spice in 
making curries. In packing it, care should be taken that the boxes 
be secure, as the least damp injures it. Turmeric is a good test for 
the presence of free alkalies, and the quantity u.sed for this purpose 
is considerable. It is the only dyestuff used in China which is 

exported. Itf ipl SS. 

58. Tortoise-shell ware, j^ Xp ^^ tai met ki. Th\^ is the 
carapace of the Testudo imbricata, a native of the shores of most 
of the Indian islands ; the best comes from Borneo, the Spice Is. and 
New Guinea, but it is collected all over the Archipelago and West 
Pacific. The common name is hawk's bill tortoise. The shell is 
thicker, clearer, and more variegated than that of any other species, 
and constitutes the sole value of the animal. It is heart-form, and 
consists of thirteen inner, and twenty-five marginal divisions. The 
entire covering of a tortoise is usually tied in a single package, and 
afterwards assorted by the purchaser. The middle side-pieces are 
the thickest, largest and most valuable to the Chinese, and are less 
esteemed in Europe; the large best plates are free from cracks or 
carbuncles, and almost transparent. The small, broken and crook- 


Trunks niade of camphor and Imlker. Treasure exported as sycee, 

ed pieces are worthless. The carving bestowed upon the shell by 
the Chinese is its chief recommendation, aside fro;n its cheapness, 
for their ware is inferior in polish and finish to the European. 
The greatest portion of the export is in combs of various fashions; 
card-cases, snuff boxes, trays, paper-knives, baskets, and buttons, are 
also made of the same style as the ivory-ware. The total exportation 
is probably not less than ^6000, but no particulars of its amount or 
direction are at hand. More or leas finds its way to all parts of the 
world. . ^^^ . rjc. 

59. Trunks, ^^ i^ pi sidng, or f^ 'f^ pi lung, sent abroad are 
almost entirely made of camphor wood ; five form a nest, and are 
estimated to weigh a pecul. The largest measure about 40 ins. by 
20 wide, and 18 ins. deep ; they are bound with brass nails, and often 
prettily painted. The exportation is chiefly to India, South America, 
and Sydney. Those trunks which are covered with leather, are 
often an inferior article made of pine, Chinese mahogany, or boiled 
camphor ; if they are left open in the air for a while, the odor of the 
camphor will soon evaporate in those merely rubbed with the oil. 
The best are well planed, and then simply varnished. Good leather 
trunks for the overland passage are now made in Canton; and a very 
neat shallow leather trunk which supply the place of valises. The 
Chinese export trunks covered with coir mats for the use of their 
countrymen in the Archipelago. At Amoy and elsewhere at the 
north, a light wooden trunk is in common use covered with white 
hog's skin, and lined with silk and paper, but the sun or rain easily 

60. Treasure, kin yin tsien, kin yin lui, ■^ f^ fli^ i^ ^ ^| 
is exported from China almost entirely in the form of sycee, a name 
given to pure silver by the Chinese because it is like si sz^ -^S^ ^^ 
or pure silk ; it is also called min yin ^^ ^R or pure silver. The 

ingots are shaped like a Chinese shoe, and vary in size from 50 taels' 
weight down to three mace, and are always stamped with the seals 
of the assayer and banker in evidence of their purity. The foreign 
coins which are brought to China gradually becoming reduced to 
small bits by stamping and clipping, are at last assayed and melted 
up into sycee, which in that state finds its way to other countries, 
undistinguished from the native production ; the export of sycee 
silver is almost wholly to India in exchange for opium, where it is 
recoined into rupees. The Chinese authorities doubtless intended 
that foreign coins only should be exported under this designation, as 
they have always shown great opposition to the "oozing out of the 
pure silver." There has been no opposition of late years, however, 
to the export of either gold or silver, but the amount carried away 
has diminished, and it is now divided among many ports, so that 
the total appears less to the authorities. Gold bullion occurs in 
ingots of small bars and in the leaf, but this metal does not pass 
current in payment for duties and taxes to this government. 


Tutenague or Gong Metal. VerviUion. Insect Wax. 

TuTENAGUE Of China spelter, PJ ^BJ sknn tnng. The word 
tutenaga is the Portuguese for zink, and has been misapplied to this 
and other cupreous alloys by foreigners; it is properly the gong 
metal of the Chinese, an alloy of copper and tin. It is harder than 
zink, though less so than iron, sonorous, compact, and has some 
malleability. The fresh fracture is brilliant, but soon tarnishes. It 
is made by melting 100 catties of the mineral called hung-tung or 
red copper, with 25 catties of tin, and running it into a thin plate, 
when intended for gongs. The sonorous quality of these instru- 
ments is owing chiefly to long continued and expert hammering, 
and their price depends in a great measure upon the sound. Other 
instruments are also made of this alloy, as well as wash-basins, dishes, 
and small bells. Till superseded by spelter from Silesia, tutenague 
was clandestinely exported in large quantities (more than 50,000 cwt. 
annually) to India, but is now seldom or never shipped ; true spelter 
being on the contrary imported to compete with it in China. There 
is still some difficulty in getting the metal in quantities for shipment. 
Its export price used to be about $14 a pecul, but it rises as high as 
$40; large gongs are sold from 40 a 50 cts. a catty, smaller ones at 
half that price. ^_ ^ 

61. Vermilion, ^^^yincAu. This is made ofthe finest cinnabar, 
of a bright violet red sublimed in acicular crystals and highly friable, 
by powdering it between two stones turned by hand, mixing a very 
little water at the time. The sticky mass is then put into pure 
water, and frequently levigated, decanted, and finally dried on heated 
tiles or in the sun, when it is sifted for packing. The quality is 
generally of the best, and depends much upon the purity of the 
water, which is mostly brought from Shek-moon west of Canton. 
It is used for making Chinese red ink, for painting on porcelain 
and wood, and coloring candles and paper. Its consumption is 
enormous, for everything lucky and pleasant among the Chinese, as 
visiting-cards, things connected with marriages or worship, presents, 
&c., should be colored red. Vermilion is very neatly put in black 
papers, containing 8 mace, 8 cand. weight in each paper, and enve- 
loped with white; 90 of these papers are contained in a box of 50 
catties. The price, for sometime past about $65 a box, is entirely 
regulated by that of quicksilver, being generally about 25 per cent, in 

Wax, tpf j^ sM lah, " tree wax," or ^ peh Idh, is collect- 
ed from various trees, where it is secreted by an insect (Cicada 
limbataf) as a nidus to protect its eggs. It is collected after 
frost, and cleaned from bark and other impurities by melting it on 
a cloth over boiling water, or in a silk bag immersed in the water. 
It is employed in plasters, but chiefly in making candles. It melts 
at 81" Fah., and its hardness recommends it to mix with beeswax, 
sperm, or lard in the manufacture of candles; the exportation, how- 
ever, is still limited to a few peculs to England. 


Unenumerated articles of Import and Export. Total valtie of the trade. 

In addition to the articles mentioned in the foregoing lists of Ex- 
ports and Imports, there are several still unenumerated, which are 
occasionally shipped on trial to Europe and India, or form items in 
the cargoes sent in foreign bottoms on Chinese account. Many of 
these latter are articles of medicine or food, brought from Siam, 
Annam, and the Indian Archipelago, but none of them to much extent. 
Mushrooms, bulbs and dried flowers, gums, bark, and other vegeta- 
ble productions known in the Chinese pharmacopeia, constantly form 
parts of import cargoes from those countries. Guano from Peru had 
begun to find favor in the vicinity of Araoy and Canton, when the 
better prices obtained on both sides the Atlantic nearly stopped its 
importation. Birds' feathers, plumes, and dried birds are brought 
from Burmah and the Malayan peninsula to use in making feather 
work, and the long tail feathers of the argus and tartar pheasant to 
grace the headdresses of actors. 

Those exports which have been omitted in this descriptive list 
are probably of less value collectively than the imports, but none of 
them require particular description. Among them may be men- 
tioned spangles, flower-seeds, living plants, fruits, books, drawings 
and maps, pencils and other Chinese writing implements, realgar, 
coal, and lastly what might almost be deemed out of place in such an 
enumeration, notwithstanding the importance of the trade, the export 
of Chinese emigrants and laborers across the Pacific and to Australia. 

An estimate of the total value and quantity of all the exports and 
imports in the trade between China and other countries by sea was 
attempted, but the uncertainty attending the calculation of nearly 
every article was such that it was seen that the value of the table 
would not be equal to the trouble connected with it. There are 
some branches of the trade which are not amenable to any consulate, 
and the returns from the Five Ports, even if they could be all obtain- 
ed accurately, would be far from giving the general total, in con- 
sequence of the unknown values carried in and out at Hongkong, 
Macao, Cumsing-moon, and points of illegal traffic, which would 
vitiate the whole. In 1836, when the entire trade was centred at 
Canton, the total value of the import trade, goods, opium and treasure, 
was reckoned at $38,579,358 ; and the export in the three articles 
tea, silks and treasure, at $35,257,148, leaving less than four millions 
for sundries. In 1844, the total was underestimated by Mr. Robert 
Thom at fifty millions, by at least ten millions of dollars. A rough 
estimate at the present time, say the close of season 1854-55, gives 
the entire total of the China trade at about 125 millions of dollars. 



S c c t f n I . 


OF Canton, Amoy, Fuhchau, Ningpo and Shanghai. 

J/ote, — These Regulations were agreed upon between Sir Henry Pottinger 
and Kiying, and went into effect July 27tl), 1843; their stipulations have in a 
few particulars been modified by some of the provisions of the American nnd 
French treaties ; and the obligation mentioned in Art. XV. has been rescind- 
ed by the British government, in consequence of ill conduct on the part of the 

I. Pilots. 
Whenever a British merchantman shall arrive off any of the five 
ports, opened to trade, viz., Canton, Fuhchau, Amoy, Ningpo, or 
Shanghai, pilots shall be allowed to take her immediately into-port; 
and in like manner, when such British ship shall have settled all 
legal duties and charges, and is about to return home, pilots shall 
be immediately granted to take her out to sea, without any stoppage 
or delay. Regarding the remuneration to be given these pilots, that 
will be equitably settled by the British consul appointed to each par- 
ticular port, who will determine it with due reference to the distance 
gone over, the risk run, dtc. 

II. Custom-house guards. 
The Chinese superintendent of customs at each port will adopt the 
means that he may judge most proper to prevent the revenue sutHir- 
ing by fraud or smuggling. Whenever the pilot sliall have brought 
any British merchantman into port, the superintendent of customs 
will depute one or two trusty custom-house oflicers whose duty it 
will be to watch against frauds on the revenue. These will either 
live in a boat of their own, or stay on board the English ship, as 
may best suit their convenience. Their food and expenses will be 
supplied them from day to day from the custom-house, and they may 
not exact any fees whatever from either the commander or consignee. 
Should they violate this regulation, they shall be punished propor- 
tionately to the amount so exacted. 

COM. GL. "^ti 


i<hipa to be reported. Debts. Tonnage Dues. Duties on Goods. 

III. Masters of ships RF.F(mTiNG themselves on arrival. 

Whenever a British vessel shall have cast anchor at any one of 
the abovementioned ports, the captain will, within four-and-twenty 
hours after arrival, proceed to the British Consulate, and deposit his 
ship's papers, bills of lading, manifest, dtc, in the hands of the con- 
sul ; failing to do which he will subject himself to a penalty of two 
hundred dollars. For presenting a manifest, the penalty will 
be five hundred dollars. For breaking bulk and e*ntimencing to 
discharge before due permission shall be obtained, the penalty will 
be five hundred dollars, and confiscation of the goods so discharged. 
The consul having taken possession of the ship's papers, will im- 
mediately send a written communication to the superintendent of 
customs, specifying the register-tonnage of the ship, and the particu- 
lars of the cargo she has on board ; all of which being done in due 
form, permission will then be given to discharge, and the duties 
levied as provided for in the tariff. 

IV. Commercial dealings between English and Chinese merchants. 

It having been stipulated that English merchants may trade with 
whatever native merchants they please, should any Chinese mer- 
chant fraudulently abscond, or incur debts which he is unable to 
discharge, the Chinese authorities, upon complaint being made 
thereof, will of course do their utmost to bring the offender to jus- 
tice ; it must, however, be distinctly understood, that, if the default- 
er really can not be found, or be dead, or bankrupt, and there be not 
wherewithal to pay, the English merchants may not appeal to the 
former custoin of the hong-merchants paying for one another, and 
can no longer expect to have their losses made good to them. 

V. Tonnage Dues. 

Every English merchantman, on entering any one of the above- 
mentioned five ports, shall pay tonnage dues at the rate of five mace 
per register-ton, in full of all charges. The fees formerly levied on 
entry and departure, of every description, are henceforth abolished. 

VI. Import and export dijties. 

Goon.'!, whether imported into, or exported from, any one of the 
abovementioned five ports, are henceforward to be taxed according 
to the tariff as now fixed and agreed upon, and no further sums are 
to be levied beyond those which are specified in the tariff. All 
duties incurred by an English merchant vessel, whether on goods 
imported or exported, in the shape of tonnage dues, must first be 
paid up in full, which done the superintendent of customs will grant 
a port-clearance, and this being shown to the British consul, he will 
thereupon return the ship's papers, and permit the vessel to depart. 


Examination of Goods. Tare.^ M valorem Duties. Modeof paying Duties. 

VII. Examination or goods at the custom-house. 
Every English merchant, having cargo to load or discharge, 
must give due intimation thereof, and hand particulars of the same 
to the consul, who will immediately dispatch a recognized linguist 
of his own establishment to communicate the particulars to the super- 
intendent of customs, that the goods may be duly exaniHned and 
neither party subjected to loss. The English merchant must also 
have a properly qualified person on the spot to attend to his interests, 
when his goods are being examined for duty ; otherwise, should 
there be complaints, these cannot be attended to. Regarding such 
goods as are !«ubject by the tariff to an ad valorem duty, if the English 
merchant r.annot agree with the Chinese officer in fixing a value, 
then each pdrty shall call two or three merchants to look at the goods, 
and the highest price at which any of these merchants would be 
willing to purchase, shall be assumed as the value of the goods. To 
fix the tare on any article, such as tea : — if the English merchant 
cannot agree with the custom-house officer, then each party shall 
choose so many chests out of every hundred, which being first weigh- 
ed in gross, shall afterwards be tared, and the average tare upon 
these chests shall be assumed as the tare upon the whole, and upon 
this principle shall the tare be fixed upon all other goods in pack- 
ages. If there should still be any disputed points which cannot be 
settled, the English merchant may appeal to the consul, who will 
communicate the particulars to the superintendent of customs, that 
it may be equitably arranged. But the appeal must be made on the 
same day, or it will not be regarded. While such points are still 
open, the superintendent of customs will delay to insert the same in 
his books, thus affording an opportunity that the merits of the case 
may be duly tried and sifted. 

It is hereinbefore provided that every English vessel that enters 
any of the five ports, shall pay all duties and tonnage dues before she 
be permitted to depart. The superintendent of customs will select 
certain shroffs, or banking establishments, of known stability, to 
whom he will give licences, authorizing them to receive dutios from 
the merchants on behalf of government, and the receipt of 
these shroffs for any money paid them .shall be considered as a govern- 
ment voucher. In the paying of these duties different kinds of fo- 
reign money may be made use of, but as foreign money is not of equal 
purity -vith sycee silver, the English consuls appointed to the different 
ports will, according to time, place, and circumstances, arrange with 
the superintendent of customs at each, what coins may be taken in 
payment, and what percentage may be necessary to make them 
equal to standard or pure silver. 


Weights ti Measures. Lighters. Transhipment. Subordinate consular officers. 

IX. Weights and measures. 
Sets of balance yards for the wei^fhing of goods, of money weights, 
and of measures, prepared in exact conformity to those hifherto 
in use at the custom-house of Canton, and duly stamped and sealed 
in proof thereof, will be kept in possession of the superintendent of 
customs, and also at the British Consulate, at each of the five ports ; 
and these shall be the standards by which all duties shall be charg- 
ed, and all sums paid to government. In case of any disupte arising 
between British merchants and Chinese officers of customs regarding 
the weights or measures of goods, reference shall be made to the 
standards, and disputes decided accordingly. 

X. Lighters or cargo-boats. 
Whenever any English mercliant shall have to load or discharge 
cargo, he may hire whatever kind of lighter or cargo-boat he pleases, 
and the sum to be paid for such boat can be settled between the 
parties themselves without interference of government. The num- 
ber of these boats shall not be limited, nor shall a monopoly of them 
be granted to any parties. If any smuggling take place in them, the 
offenders will of course be punished according to law. Should any 
of the boat-people, while engaged in conveying goods for English 
merchants, fraudulently abscond with the property, the Chinese au- 
thorities will do their best to apprehend them; but at the same time, 
the English merchants must take every due precaution for the safety 
of their goods. 

XL Transhipment of goods. 
No English merchant ships may tranship goods without special 
permission; should any urgent case happen where transhipment is 
necessary, the circumstances must first be submitted to the consul, 
who will give certificate to that effect, and the superintendent of 
customs will then send a special officer to be present at the tranship- 
ment. If any one presumes to tranship without such permission 
being asked for and obtained, the whole of the goods so illicitly 
transhipped will be confiscated. 

XII. Subordinate consular officers. 
At any place selected for the anchorage of the English merchant 
ships, there may be appointed a subordinate consular officer of 
approved good conduct, to e-xercise due control over the seamen and 
others. He must exert himself to prevent quarrels with the English 
seamen and natives, this being of the utmost importance. Should 
anything of the kind unfortunately take place, he will in like manner 
do his best to arrange it amicably. When sailors go on shore to 
walk, officers shall be required to accompany them, and should dis- 
turbances take place, such officer will be held responsible. The Chi- 
nese officers may not impede natives from coming alongside the 
ships, to sell clothes or other necessaries to the sailors living on 


SeUUmtnt of disputes. Brilisk cruizers in the ports. Security for ships. 

XIII. Disputes between British subjects and Chinese. 
Whenever a British subject has reason to complain of a Chinese, 
he must proceed to the Consulate, and state his grievance. The 
consul will thereupon inquire into the merits of the case, and do his 
utmost to arrange it amicably. In like manner, if a Chinese have 
reason to complain of a British subject, he shall no less listen to his 
complaint and endeavor to settle it in a friendly mariner. If an 
English merchant have occasion to address the Chinese authorities, 
he shall send such address through the consul, who will see that 
the language is becoming ; and if otherwise, will dirext it to be 
changed, or will refuse to convey the address. If unfortunately any 
disputes take place of such a nature that the consul cannot arrange 
them amicably, then he shall request the assistance of a Chinese 
officer that they may together examine into the merits of the case, and 
decide it equitably. Regarding the punishment of English criminals, 
the English government will enact the laws necessary to attain that 
end, and the consul will be empowered to put them in force; and 
regarding the punishment of Chinese criminals, these will be tried 
and punished by their own laws, in the way provided for by the cor- 
respondence which took place at Nanking after the concluding of 
the peace. 

XrV. British government cruizers anchoring within the ports. 
An English government cruizer will anchor within each of the five 
ports, that the consul may have the means of better restraining sail- 
ors and others, and preventing disturbances. But these government 
cruizers are not to be put on the same footing as merchant vessels, 
for as they bring no merchandize and do not come to trade, they will 
of course pay neither dues nor -charges. The resident consul will 
keep the superintendent of custon.' duly informed of the arrival and 
departure of such government cruizers, that he may take his measures 

XV. On the security to be given for British merchant vessels. 

It has hitherto been the custom, when an English vessel entered 
the port of Canton, that a Chinese hong-merchant stood security for 
her, and all duties and charges were paid through such security-mer- 
chant. But these security merchants being now done away with, it 
is understood that the British consul will henceforth be security for 
all British merchant ships entering any of the aforesaid five ports. 


Preamble. Duties by the Tariff". Trade at Five Ports. Consuls. 

Sectfon 2. 


J\/ote. — The stipulations of the American Treaty, signed July 3d, 1844, 
are those which regulate the foreign commerce with China in its leading 
particulars; its articles cover all the general rules of trade established in the 
foregoing Regulations. 

There shall be a perfect, permanent and universal peace, and a sincere 
and cordial amity between the United States of America on the one part, and 
the Ta Tsing Empire, on the other part, and between their people respec- 
tively, without exception of persons or places. 

Citizens of the United States resorting to China, for tlie purposes of com- 
merce will pay tlie duties of import and export prescribed in the Tariff, which 
is fixed by and made a part of this Treaty. Tiiey shall in no case be subject 
to otlier or higher duties than are or shall be required of the people of any 
other nation whatever. Fees and charges of every sort are wholly abolished, 
and officers of the revenue who may be guilty of exaction shall be punished 
according to the laws of China. If the Chinese government desire to modify 
in any respect the said Tariff, such modifications shall be made only in 
consultation with consuls, or other functionaries thereto duly authorized in 
behalf of the United States, and with consent thereof. And if additional 
advantages or privileges of whatever description be conceded hereafter by 
China to any other nution, the United States and the citizens thereof shall be 
entitled thereupon to a complete, equal and impartial participation in the same. 

The citizens of the United Suites are permitted to frequent the five ports 
of Kwangchau, Amoy, Fuhchau, Ningpo and Shanghai, and to reside with 
tlieir families, and trade there, and to proceed at pleasure, with their vessels 
and merchandise to or from any foreign port, and from either of the said five 
ports to any other of them. But said vessels shall not unlawfully enter the 
other ports of China, nor carry on a clandestine and fraudulent trade along 
the coasts thereof. And any vessel, belonging to a citizen of the United 
States, which violates this provision, shall with her cargo be subject to con- 
fiscatio n to the Chinese government. 

For the superintendence and regulation of the concerns of citizens of the 
United States doing business at the said five ports, the government of the 
United States may appoint consuls, or other officers at the same, who shall 
be duly recognized as such by the officers of the Chinese government, and 
shall hold official intercourse and correspondence with the latter, either person- 
al or in writing, as occasion m;iy require on terms of equality and reciprocal 
respect If disrespectfully treated or aggrieved in any way by the locil 
authorities, the said officers on the one hand shall have the right to make 
reoresentation of the same to the superior officers of the Chinese government 


Imports and Exports. Tonnage Duty. Passage Boats free. Hiring Persons. 

who will see that full inquiry and strict justice be had in the premises ; and 
on the other hand, the said consuls will carefully avoid all acts of unnecessary 
offense to, or collision with the officers and people of China. 


At each of the said five ports, citizens of the United States, lawfully en- 
gag^ed in commerce, shall be permitted to import from their own or any other 
ports into China, and sell there, and purchase therein and export to their own 
or any other ports, all manner of merchandise, of which the importation or 
exportation is not prohibited by this Treaty, payings the duties thereon, which 
are prescribed by the Tariff hereinbefore established, and no other charges 

Whe.never any merchant vessel belonging to the United States shall 

enter either of the said five ports for trade, her papers shall be lodged with 
the consul, or person charged with affairs, who will report the same to the 
commissioner of customs, and tonnage duty shall be paid on said vessel at 
the rate of five mace per ton, if she be over one hundred and fifty tons burden, 
and one mace per ton, if she be of the burden of one hundred and fifty tons 
or under, according to the amount of her tonnage as specified in the register ; 
said payment to be in full of the former charges of measurement and other 
fees, which are wholly abolished. And if any vessel, which having anchored 
at one of the said ports, and there paid tonnage duty, shall have occasion to 
go to any other of the said ports to complete the disposal of her cargo, the 
consul or person charged with affairs, will report the same to the commissioner 
of customs, who, on the departure of the said vessel, shall note in the port- 
clearance that the tonnage duties have been paid, and report the same to the 
other custom-houses: in which case, on entering another port, the said vessel 
shall only pay duty there on her cargo, but shall njt be subject to the pay- 
ment of toiniage duty a second time. 


No tonnage duty shall be required on boats belonging to citizens of the 
United States, employed in the conveyance of passengers, baggage, letters, 
and articles of provi-sion, or others not subject to duty, to or from any of the 
five ports. All cargo boats, however, conveying merchandise subject to duty, 
shall pay the regular tonnage duty of one mace per ton, provided they belong 
to citizens of the United States, but not if hired by them from subjects of 

Citizens of the United States, for their vessels bound in, shall be allowed 
to engage pilots who will report said vessels at the pas-^es, and take them 
into port ; and when the lawful duties have all been paid, they may engage 
pilots to leave port. It shall be lawful for them to hire at pleasure servants, 
compradores, lingui.sts and writers, and passage or cargo-boats, and to em- 
ploy laborers, seamen, and persons for whatever necessary service, for a rea- 
sonable compensation to be agreed on by the parties, or settled by application 
to the consular officer of their own government without interference on the 
part of the local officers of the Chinese government 

WHK.NETr.R merchant vessels belonging to the United States shall iiavc 
entered port, the superintendent of cuatonw will, if he ace lit, appoint custom- 


Guard-boats. Discharging cargo. Examining Goods/or duly. Weights, Sfc. 

house officers to guard said vessels, who may live on board the ship or their 
own boats at their convenience ; but provisions for the subsistence of said 
officers shall be made by the superintendent of customs, and they shall not 
be entitled to any allowance from the vessel or owner thereof, and they sliall 
be subject to suitable punishment for any exaction practised by them in vio- 
lation of this regulation. 

WnKNEVRR a merchant vessel belonging to the United States shall cast 
anchor in either of the said ports, tlie supercargo, master, or consignee will, 
within forty-eight hours, deposit the ship's papers in the hands of the consul, 
or person charged with affairs of the United States, who will cause to be 
communicated to the superintendent of customs a true report of the name and 
tonnage of such vessel, the names of her men, and of the cargo on board, 
which being done, the superintendent will give a permit for the discharge 
of her cargo. And the master, supercargo, or consignee, if he proceed to 
discharge the cargo without such permit, shall incur a fine of five hundred 
dollars, and the goods so discharged without permit shall be subject to for- 
feiture to the Chinese government But if the master of any vessel in port 
desire to discharge a part only of the cargo, it shall be lawful for him to do so, 
paying duty on such part only, and to proceed with the remainder to any 
other ports. Or if the master so desire, he may within forty-eight hours after 
the arrival of the vessel, but not later, decide to depart without breaking 
bulk; in which case he will not be subject to pay tonnage or other duties or 
charges, until, on his arrival at another port, he shall proceed to dischartre 
cargo, when he will pay the duties on vessel and cargo according to law. 
And the tonnage duties shall be held due after the expiration of said forty-eight 

The superintendent of customs, in order to the collection of the proper duties, 
will, on application made to him through the consul appoint suitable officers, 
who shall proceed, in the presence of the captain, supercargo or consignee, 
to make a just and fair examination of all goods in the act of being discharged 
for importation, or laden for exportation, on board any merchant vessel of the 
United States. And if disputes occur in regard to the value of goods subject 
to ad valorem duty, or in regard to the amount of tare, and the same cannot 
be satisfactorily arranged by the parties, the question may within twenty-four 
hours, and not afterwards, be referred to the said consul to adjust with the 
superintendent of customs. 

Sets of standard balances and also weights and measures duly prepared, 
stamped and sealed according to the standard of the custom-house of Canton 
shall be delivered by the superintendent of customs to the consuls of each of 
the five ports, to secure uniformity and prevent confusion in the measure and 
weight of merchandise, 

The tonnage duty on vessels belonging to citizens of the United States 
shall be paid on their being admitted to entry. Duties of import shall be 
paid on the discharge of tiie goods, and duties of export on the lading of the 
same. When all such duties shall have been paid, and not be'^ire, the su- 
perintendenLof customs shall give a port-clearance, and the consul shall return 
the ship's papurs, so that she may depart on her voyage. The duties shall 

TRfeAT^ tWtH the UNITKD STATES. 209 

Transhipmtnls. Trade free. Debts. Renting, building and traveling. 

be paid to the shroffs authorized by the Chinese government to receive thfe 
same in its behalf. Duties payable by merchants of the United States shall 
be received either in sycee silver or in foreign money, at the rate of exchange 
as ascertained by the regulationa now in force. And imported goods, on 
their resale or transit in any part of the empire, shall be subject to the iinpo- 
eition of no higher duty than they are accustomed to pay at the date of tliis 

No goods on board any merchant vessel of the United States in port, 
are to be transhipped to another vessel, unless there be particular occasion 
therefor, in which case the occasion shall be certified by the consul to th6 
'superintendent of customs, wiio may appoint oflicerB to examine into facts, 
and permit the transhipment. And if any goods be transhipped without such 
application, inquiry, and permit, they shall be subject to be forfeited to the 
Chinese government. 

The former limitation of the trade of foreign nations to certain persons 
appointed at Canton by the government, and commonly called hong-mer- 
chants, having been abolished, citizens of the United States, engaged in th6 
purchase or sale of goods of import or export, are permitted to trade with anV 
and all subjects of China without distinction, they shall not be subject to any 
new limitations, nor impeded in their business by monopolies or other injurious 

The Chinese government will not hold itself responsible for any debts 
which may happen to be due from subjects of China to citizens of the United 
States, or for frauds committed by them ; but citizens of the United States 
may seek redress in law ; and on suitable representation being made to the 
Chine£5e local authorities through the consul, they will cause due examination 
in the premises, and take all proper steps to compel satisfaction. But in 
case the debtor be dead or without property, or have absconded, the creditor 
cannot be indemnified according to the old system of the cohong so called. 
And if citizens of the United States be indebted to subjects of China, the 
latter may seek redress in the same way through the consul, but without any 
responsibility for the debt on the part of the United States. 

CiTrzF.r»s of the United States, residing or sojourning at any of the ports 
open to foreign commerce, shall enjoy all proper accommodation in obtaining 
houses and places of busines.s, or in hiringeites from tije inhabitants on which 
to construct houses and places of business, and also hospitals, churches and 
ccineteiies. The local authorities of the two goverhments shall select in 
concert the sites for the foregoing objects, having due "regard to tlie feelings 
of the people in the location thereof; and parties interested will fix the rent 
by mutual agreement, the proprietors on the one hand not demanding any 
exorbitant price, nor the merchants on the other unreasonably insisting on 
particular spots, but each conducting with justice and moderation. And any 
desecration of said cemeteries by subjects of China shall be severely punish- 
ed according to law. At the places of anchorage of the United States, tli6 
citizens of the United States, merchants, seamen or others sojourning there, 
may pass and repass in the immediate neighborhood, but they shall not at 
their pleasure make excursions into the country among Uic villages at large, 

COM. uu. 27 


Study of Chinese. Protection. JVo second dxUy. Jlmericans fret of Chinese law. 

nor shall they repair to public marts for the pnrpose of disposing of goods 
unlawfully, and in fraud of the revenue. And in order to the preservation of 
the public peace, tlie local officers of government, at each of the five ports 
shall in concert with the consuls, define the limits beyond which it shall not 
be lawful for citizens of the United States to go. 

It shall be lawful for the officers or citizens of the United States to employ 
scholars and people of any part of China, without distinction of persons, to 
teach any of the languages of the empire, and to assist in literary labors ; and 
the persons so employed shall not for that cause be subject to any injury on 
the part cither of the government or of individuals ; and it shall in like manner 
be lawful for citizens of the United States to purchase all manner of books in 

AtL citizens of the United States in China peaceably attending to their 
affairs, being placed on a common footing of amity and goodwill with subjects 
of China, shall receive and enjoy for themselves, and everything appertaining 
to them, the special protection of the local authorities of government, who 
shall defend them from all insult or injury of any sort on the part of the Chi- 
nese. If their dwellings or property be threatt^ned or attacked by mobs, in- 
cendiaries, or other violent and lawless persons, the local officers, on requisition 
of the consul, will immediately dispatch a military force to disperse the rioters, 
and will apprehend the guilty individuals and punish them to the utmost rigor 
of the law. 

Citizens of the United States who may have imported merchandise into 

any of the free ports of China, and paid the duly thereon, if they desire to re- 
export the same in part or in whole to any other of the said ports, shall be 
entitled to make application through their consul, to the siiperintendent of 
customs, who, in order to prevent fraud on the revenue, shall cause examin- 
ation to be made by suitable officers to see that the duties paid on such goods 
as are entered on Uie custom-house books, correspond with the representation 
made, and that the goods remain with their original marks unchanged ; and 
shall then make a memorandum in the port-clearance of the goods and the 
amount of duties paid on the sumc and deliver the same to the merchant, and 
shall also certify the facts to the officers of customs of the other ports ; all 
which being done, on the arrival in port of the vessel in which the goods are 
laden, and everything being found on examination there to correspond, she 
shall be permitted to break bulk and land the said goods, without being subject 
to the payment of any additional duty thereon. But if on such examination, 
tlie superintendent of customs shall detect any fraud on the revenue in the 
case, then the goods shall be subject to forfeiture and confiscation to the 
Chinese government 

Subjects of China, who may be guilty of any criminal act towards citizens 

of the United States shall be arrested and punished by the Cliinese authorities 
according to the laws of China. And citizens of the United States, who may 
commit any crime in China, shall be subject to be tried and punished only by 
the consul or other public functionary of the United States thereto authorized, 
according to the laws of the United States. And in order to the prevention 
of all controversy and disaffection, justice shall be equitably and impartially 
administered on both sides. 


Jsl'tulral flags. TVade Reports. Disputes. Consuls control skips. 

Relations of peace and amity between the United States and China being 
established by this treaty, and the vessels of the United States being admitted 
to trade freely to and from the five ports of China open to foreign commerce, 
it is further agreed, that in case at any time hereafter China should be at war 
with any foreign nation whatever, and should for that cause exclude such 
nation from entering her ports, still the vessels of the United States shall not 
the less continue to pursue their commerce in freedom and security, and to 
transport goods to and from the ports of the belligerent ports, full respect being 
paid to the neutrality of the flag of the United States : provided that the said 
flag shall not protect vessels engaged in the transportation of officers or sol- 
diers in the enemy's service, nor shall said flag be fraudulently used to enable 
the enemy's ships with their cargoes to enter the ports of China : but all such 
vessels so offlinding shall be subject to forfeiture and confiscation to the Chi- 
nese government. 

The consuls of the United States, at each of the five ports open to foreign 
trade, shall make annually to the respective governors-general thereof, a de- 
tailed report of the number of vessels belonging io the United States which 
have entered and left said ports during the year, and of the amount and value 
of goods imported or exported in said vessels, for transmission to and inspec- 
tion of the Board of Revenue. 

If citizens of the United States have special occasion to address any com- 
munication to the Chinese local officers of government, they shall submit the 
same to their consul or other officer to determine if the language be proper 
and respectful, and the matter just and right; in which event, he shall transmit 
the same to the appropriate authorities for their consideration and action in 
the premises. In like manner, if subjects of China have special occasion to 
address the consul of the United States, they shall submit the communication 
to local authorities of their own government, to determine if the language be 
respectful and proper, and the matter just and right: in which case the said 
authorities will transmit the sauje to the consul or other officer for his con- 
sideration and action in the premises. And if controversies arise between 
citizens of the United States and subjects of China, which cannot be amicably 
settled otherwise, the .same shall be examined and decided conformably to 
justice and equity by the public officera of the two nations acting in conjunc- 

All questions in regard to rights, whether of property or person, arisinjr 
between citizens of the United States in China, shall be subject to the juris- 
diction, and regulated by the authorities of their own government. And all 
controversies occurring in China between citizens of the United States and 
the subjects of any other government, shall be regulated by the treaties exis- 
ting between the United States and such governments respectively, without 
interference on the part of China. 


Merchant vessels pf the United States being in the wuters of the five ports 

of China open to foreign commerce, will be under the jurisdiction of the offi- 

cers of their own government, who with the masters and owners thereof will 

manage the same without control on the part of China. For injuriee don« to 



Piracies. Shipwrecked crews. Embargo. Rendition of criminals. 

the citizens or the commerce of the United States by any foreign power, the 
Chinese government will not hold itself bound to make reparation. But if the 
merchant vessels of the United Suites, while within the waters over which the 
Chinese government e-xercises jurisdiction, be plundered by robbers or pirates, 
then the Chinese local authorities civil and military, on receiving information 
thereof will arrest the said robbers or pirates, and punish them according to 
law, and will cause all the property which can be recovered, to be placed in 
the hands of the nearest consul, or other officer of the United States, to be by 
him restored to the true owner. But if by reason of the extent of territory and 
numerous population of China, it shall in any case happen that the robbers 
cannot be apprehended, and the property only in part recovered, then the law 
will take its course in regard to the local authorities, but the Chinese govern- 
ment will not make indemnity for the goods lost. 

If any vessel of the United States shall be wrecked or stranded on the coaet 
of China, and be subjected to plunder or other damage, the proper officers of 
government, on receiving information of the fact, will immediately adopt 
measures for their relief and security, and the persons on board shall receive 
friendly treatment, and be enabled to repair at once to the most convenient of 
the five ports, and enjoy all facilities for obtaining supplies of provisions and 
water. And if a vessel shall be forced in whatever way to take refuge in any 
port other than one of the five ports, then in like manner the persons on board 
shall receive friendly treatment, and the means of safety and security. 

■ Citizens of the United States, their vessels and property, shall not be 
subject to any embargo ; nor shall they be seized or forcibly detained for any 
pretence of the public service, but they shall be suffered to prosecute tlieir 
commerce in quiet, and without molestation or embarrassment 

The local authorities of the Chinese government will cause to be apprehend- 
ed all mutineers or deserters from on board the vessels of the United States 
in China, and will deliver them up to the consuls or other officers for punish- 
ment. And if criminals, subjects of China, take refuge in the houses or on 
board the vessels of citizens of the United States, they shall not be harbored 
or concealed, but shall be delivered up to justice, on due requisition by the 
Chinese local officers, addressed to those of the United States. The mer- 
chants, seamen, and other citizens of the United States shall be under the su- 
perintendence of the appropriate officers of their government If individuals 
of either nation commit acts of violence and disorder, use arms to the injury 
of others, or create disturbances, endangering life, the officers of the two 
governments will exert themselves to enforce order, and to maintain the 
public peace by doing impartial justice in the premises. 

The superior authorities of the United States and of China, in corresponding 
together shall do so on terms of equality, and in the form of mutual communi- 
cation (chau hijmi). The consuls and the local officers, civil and military, in 
corresponding together, shall likewise employ the style and form of mutual 
communication (chau httmi) ; when inferior officers of the one government 
address superior officers of the other, they shall do so in the style and form 
of memorial (shin chin), Private individuals, in addressing superior officers. 


Style of Address. Letters to court. Ships of war. Smuggling. Revision of Treaty* 

shall employ the style of petition (pin thing). In no case shall any terms or 
style be suffered which shall be offensive or disrespectful to either party. And 
it is agreed that no presents, under any pretext or form whatever, shall ever be 
demanded of the United States by China, or of China by the United States. 

Communications from the government of the United States to the court of 
China shall be transmitted through the medium of the imperial commissioner 
charged witli the superintendence of the concerns of foreign nations with' 
China, or through the governor-general of the Liang Kwang, that of Min and. 
Clieh, or that of the Liang Kiang. 

WniNEVERshipsof warof the United States, in cruising for the protection 
of the commerce of their country, shall arrive at any of the ports of China, 
the commanders of said ships, and the superior local authorities of government, 
shall hold intercourse together in terms of equality and courtesy in token of 
the friendly relations of their respective nations. And the said ships of war 
shall enjoy all suitable facilities on the part of the Chinese government in 
the purchase of provisions, procuring water, and making repairs if occasion 

Citizens of the United States who shall attempt to trade clandestinely 
■with such of the ports of China as are not open to foreign commerce, or who 
shall trade in opium or any other contraband article of merchandise, shall be 
subject to be dealt with by the Chinese government, without being entitled to: 
any countenance or protection from that of the United States ; and the United 
States will take measures to prevent their flag from being abused by the 
subjects of other nations as a cover for the violation of the laws of tiie empire. 

When the present convention shall have been definitively concluded, it shall, 
be obligatory on both powers, and its provisions shall not be altered without 
grave cause ; but, inasniuch as the circumstances of the several ports of China 
open to foreign commerce are different, experience may show that inconsid- 
erable modifications are requisite in those parts which relate to commerce and' 
navigation; in which case the two governments will, at the expiration of twelve- 
years from the date of the said convention, treat amicably concerning the 
same, by the means of suitable persons appointed to conduct such negotia-' 
tion. And when ratified, this treaty shall be faithfully observed in all its parts 
by the United States and China, and by every citizen and subject of each.. 
And no individual state of the United States can appoint or send a minister, 
to China to call in question the provisions of the same. 

In faith whereof, we, the respective plenipotentiaries of the United States, 
of America, and of the 'Tk Tsing Empire as aforesaid, have signed and sealed 
these presents. Done at Wanghia, this third day of July, in the year of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, one thousand eight hundred and forty-four, and of Tau- 
kwai^, the twenty-fourth year, fifth month, and eighteenth day. 


Coast off Canton. Pilot boats. Pncefor piloting to Hongkong. 

Scctfon 3. 

A ship, on making the islands off the mouth of the Canton river, 
will generally see in fine weather, a number of fishing-boats at some 
distance from the land. These are liable to be mistaken by stran- 
gers for pilot-boats, which in their competition for employment often 
come off five, ten or more miles. The fishing-boats may be distin- 
guished, however, by observing that they are always in pairs, of 
large dimensions with broad sterns, and high out of the water ; 
whereas the pilot's or comprador's boats are long and low, with 
short masts raking well aft, and will usually hoist a flag or a private 
signal to make themselves conspicuous to a foreign ship as soon as 
possible. On their approaching the ship in the SW. monsoon, sail 
should be reduced ; and if they happen to miss, it is advisable, even 
when going six or seven knots, to reduce sail in preference to round- 
ing the ship to, for the eddies and undertow (called chowchow water 
by the pilots) are often so very strong during the freshes, that when 
a ship heaves to, much time is lost in getting her head to the course 
again. On receiving one of these pilots on board, no an.xiety should 
be shown to secure him, for they are cunning enough to demand 
from strangers much more than is usually given. The price which 
may be fairly paid him must be left to the commander's judgment, 
and the exigencies of the case. In ordinary weather, ten or twelve 
dollars may be c(msidered a sufficient remuneration for his services 
for taking the ship into Macao Roads or to Hongkong, but at other, 
times, thirty dollars may not be exorbitant. As soon as a vessel 
enters the latter port, she will be boarded by the harbor-master's 
boat, and directed where to anchor ; but in going into Macao Roads 
there are no regulations of any kind. 

After a ship has anchored in Macao Roads or in Hongkong, the 
captain makes such arrangements for proceeding up the river with 
his vessel as circumstances require. It is not often that a ship now 
proceeds from the coast directly to Whampoa without stopping, and 
therefore nothing need be said to the outside pilot about carrying 
her into the river, with which indeed he has no concern. His boat 
is however usually connected with the establishment of pilots on 
shore, and he will perhaps inquire when a river pilot is probably 
wanted. Formerly, it was necessary to apply a day beforehand for 
a pilot, who had to inform the sub-prefect at Casa Branca, that a 
foreign ship was about to proceed up the river, give in the parti- 
culars of her nation, cargo, armament, &c., and obtain a permit. 
At present, he goes on toard when he is wanted. The rates of 
pilotage were formerly fixed at $60 for every vessel, whatever might 
be her size, to be paid when application was made. The establish- 


Pilot establishments. Rates of pilotage. Bogue Report. 

ment then consisted of 23 head pilots, each of whom paid upwards of 
$600 for the station, and was made answerable for the character of 
the ships he conducted up the river, that no men-of-war were smug- 
gled in, nor any obnoxious persons or women on board. There are 
now 20 head pilots, who are distributed at Canton, Macao, and 
Hongkong, at the pilot-offices in those places, and who have the 
whole business, equally dividing their receipts among the three offices. 

The authorities at Canton issued a public notice in Aug. 1843, 
allowing any fisherman to act as a pilot to a foreign ship, in the 
same manner as the old regularly licensed pilots, provided he was 
furnished with a pass. The British superintendent of trade at the 
same time also issued a Notification, requesting masters of vessels 
to furnish such pilots as tltey found to be capable with a certificate ; 
three of these certificates were to entitle the pilot to a license, which 
is now furnished by the harbor-masters at Hongkong and Macao. 

The rates of pilotage are fixed at 5 cents per register ton, and the 
pilot is paid after the ship is anchored at Whampoa. Before she 
proceeds up the river, it is necessary to obtain a Bogue Report, from 
the consul or consular agent, stating the name, nation, &c., which 
is handed in at the Bogue, and thence forwarded to the hoppo's 
office at Canton. The entrance of the Pearl river at the Bogue is 
considered to form the limit of the port of Canton ; it is about 45 
miles from the city. — The following is the form of the report in 
English and Chinese : — 

I (Richard Roe), master of the (British) ship (John Doe), hereby declare 
that I have arrived from Hongkong with a general cargo, and am now pro- 
ceeding with the same to Whampoa. 

Given in at the Custom-house station, island of North Wangtong, thia 
26th day of March, 1856, at 2 o'clock. 
















^P it!; 



^ )i& 









S r^ * 1 5t 

^ n ^ ^ m m 

N. B. The masler of every ship is requested to be particular in noting down the time 
correctly when this report is handed in ; he is also requested to procure a duplicate of 
the Chinese characters employed to write his own name, and the name of his ship, in 
order that he may present the same at the Consulate to prevent confusion in the 
characters used to represent the English names. 


Ship's Compradors. Chowchoio water. River Pilots. 

Comprador's boats often board ships outside as well as pilots, 
sometimes the two establishments unite in the same boat ; vessels 
manned by Europeans will find them useful. There is little or no 
difference in their charges, and it is as well to employ the first who 
reaches the ship, for it will offer a greater inducement for them to 
keep a sharp lookout, and come on board at a greater distance from 
land. The business of purveying for ships, is however not farmed 
out as it was before the war of 1840, and captains often defer ar- 
ranging with compradors until they arrive at Whampoa. When 
engaged, they accompany the ships up, bring fresh provisions, hire 
workmen, purchase whatever is wanted, and act as clerks during 
her stay in port. American ships have been, for several years past, 
supplied by a single native firm, of which there are now branch 
establishments at Hongkong and Macao. English ships have usu- 
ally been furnished by separate compradors, but there is little differ- 
ence in their charges. Similar persons are also easily obtained in 
Macao Roads. 

When the river pilot comes on board, the vessel proceeds up to 
the Bogue. In her progress through Kap-shui-moon and up Lintin 
Bay, and in fact in all the channels and passages among the islands, 
the ship is subject to chowchow water ; it happening, that while run- 
ning up with a fair wind, she will be whirled round and round, be- 
coming quite ungovernable, and oftener that she will fly off against 
the influence of the helm, and keep her head stationary to one point 
for a great length of time ; this may cause a stranger to suppose the 
ship ashore, and induce alarm, but it is only caused by the strong 
eddies. ' If she arrives near the Bogue at night, she must anchor off 
Chuenpe or wherever convenient; if in the daytime, with a moderate 
breeze, she may heave to, when a fisherman or another pilot will 
come alongside, who has been on the lookout, to assist the pilot, 
while he goes on shore to report the vessel at the Custom-house sta- 
tion on North Wangtong. These river pilots are connected with 
the establishment at Hongkong, and receive from them $5 for piloting 
a ship to Whampoa, and $6 for conducting her out, as in the latter 
case, they stay by the ship till she reaches Macao. The river pilot 
takes the conduct of the ship in the river, and knows the channel 
much better than the pilot obtained outside. It is as well to know, 
that these two pilots, to make one think them clever, or show their 
abilities, are continually roaring out port! starboard! till the steers- 
man gets the helm hard up or down, when they cry out steady ! 
and before the helm can be righted or the ship .Steadied, she is across 
the tide, which puts her much out of her course, and time is thus 
lost. It is better to make them keep quiet, and not pay much at- 
tention to them, letting them point out which way you are to go, but 
giving orders to the man at the wheel yourself; for the channel be- 
ing narrow, there is not much room to spare with a fresh breeze 
and head wind. There is good deal of difference however, among the 
pilots, and some of them are quite competent to carry a ship up the 


Bar Boats. Present to the Pilot. Consular Regulations for Ships. 

river ; others know much less of the management of a ship, while 
they are well acquainted with the channel ; at times, whether skillful 
or ignorant, they are unreasonably blamed by the officers of the 
ship, and not understanding a good deal of what is said to them, get 
sulky, and care little where or how she goes. 

As the ship approaches Second Bar, the pilot talks about Bar boats, 
which are fishing-boats hired for the occasion, and anchored on the 
knolls, to point out the proper channel, the ship passing between 
them. The price is a dollar for each boat, and six is a sufficient 
number for any ship, and six or eight dollars for both the Second 
and First Bars is a fair payment, although the pilot will perhaps 
object to it as not enough ; many commanders refuse to pay anything 
for them, and throw all the responsibility on the pilot of getting the 
ship through. The commander will always find it for his advantage 
to treat the pilot \yell, and since the prices of pilotage have been 
reduced, to allow him a generous sum for bar-boats and cumshaw ; for 
if the vessel is only 150 or 200 tons, the sum of $7^ or $10 does 
not remunerate him, and a ship of 300 tofls hardly pays the outlay 
of the establishment. On the arrival of the ship at VVhampoa or 
Blenheim Reach, the pilot has done his duty. It is then common to 
to make him a present of two or three dollars, but though not • ne- 
cessary, it is as well to do it, as they expect it, and their own regular 
pay at present is little enough. Native boats of all sorts, including 
even those officially placed by the ship, should be watched, and at 
night all kept clear of the ship, for many of the boat-people are ex- 
pert thieves. There is a class of covered row boats, peculiar to the 
anchorage, called Whampoa boats, whose people are hired to wait on 
the ship, go of errands, &/C. ; they are usually connected with the 
comprador, and are generally trustworthy. They have been furnished 
with tickets lately by the English Vice Consul, which imposes an 
obligation on them to be measurably honest, lest they lose it and 
their custom with it. 

The following Regulations were issued in 1854 by the British 
Vice Consul at Whampoa, for the observance of persons resorting to 
the anchorage ; many of them are based on the Consular Regulations 
issued by the British Superintendent of Trade. 

Jieaulatfons for 33rftf»t sbfps at EBJJ). tnpoa. 

I. The Vice-consular Office is open from 10 a. m. to 4 p. m. daily, with the 
exception of Sunday, and those holidays upun which public oiSces in England 
are closed. 

II. Masters are required, within forty-eight hour.i after arrival, to deposit 
with Her Majesty's Consul at Canton, their vessel's certificate of registry or 
sailing letter, Bocca Tigris pass, and manifest of cargo, after which due permis- 
sion will be obtained to break bulk. 

III. Masters are required, within forty-eight hours after arrival, to deposit, 
or cause to be deposited, with the Vice-Consul at this anchorage, the agree- 
ment with the crew, and the register tickets of all the crew who are subjects 
of Her Majesty: the whole to be kept by him during the ship's stay, and, 
excepting the register tickets of deserters, to be returned to the master a 
reasonable time before departure. 

COM. iiV. 28 

its rcttLtiati cbMMERCB with CIIINI. 

^luthon'ty ovrr Seamen. Brilish Residents. Sailors not to go to Cantdn. 

IV. The laws of England are in full force for offences committed against the 
subjects of China and all otlier persons, rogard being had to difference of local 
circumstances, and to tlie provisions of ordinances for Her Majesty's subjects 
within the dominions of the Emperor of China, or within any vessel at a 
distance of not more than one hundred miles from the coast of China. No sea- 
man can be shipped, discharged, or left behind, without the previous sanction 
in writinj; of the consular functionaries ; and they are instructed by the Lords 
Commissioners of Hie Admiralty not to grant such discharge except in cases of 
great urgency. In tliose cases where offenders may be given in charge legally 
without the previous issue of a warrant, application is required to be made to 
the constable at the office of the Vice-Consul, who will lend assistance in case 
of need. Desertions must be reported in writing within twenty-four hours, and 
the log-book recording the same produced at the Vice-Consulate. Masters are 
authorized to put intoxicated seamen under restraint on board, reporting tlie 
circumstances to the Vice-Consul within forty-eight hours. 

V. All masters or other persons in charge of vessels about to leave this 
anchorage sHall give notice thereof in writing to the Vice-Consul, and hoist a 
blue-peter at least twenty-four hours before the time of intended departure. 
But the Vice-Consul is authorized to dispense with this regulation on p.pplication 
to him. 

VI. Every British subject arriving at this port, not borne on the muster roll 
of any British ship, and intending to reside here, is required within seven days 
to enrol himself in a register kept at the Consular offices for the respective 
districts: And if any British subject conveyed to this port in a British vessel, 
shall, prior to the departure of such vessel from the dominions of the Emperor 
of China, be found requiring public relief, such vessel will be held responsible 
for the maintenance and removal of such distressed British subject. 

VII. Any individual appealing from the decision of the Vice-Consul, is 
required to forward his appeal unsealed and under cover to the Vice-Consul, for 
transmission to the Consul. 

VIII. All fines are payable in ready money. Dollars locally termed chopped 
are received by weight at the rate of 7.17 taels to 10 dollars, and the dollar is 
received at the exchange of 4a. 2d. 

IX. Births must be registered within forty-two days of their occurrence, and 
deaths previous to interment. 

X. Seamen and other persons dying on board, are prohibited from being 
thrown overboard. Stone and other ballast are not to be flung into the river. 

XI. Cleanliness in this climate being indispensable for the preservation of 
the health of crews, masters are held responsible for payment of their washing. 
The usual charge is, one dollar for each seaman for the first month or part 
of a month, and fifty cents each subsequent month or part of a month, of a 
ship's stay. 

XII. Seamen are strictly prohibited from going up to Canton, or from going 
on shore, or from leaving their ships unaccompanied by a responsible officer. 
Bum-boats are to be permitted to come alongside the ships in reasonable num- 
bers, at meal times, at the gan<rways only, to sell clothes and other necessaries. 
Dealers have been cautioned against giving credit, inasmuch as no debt exceed- 
ing in amount five shillings, incurred by any seaman, can be recovered until 
the period of his service shall have been concluded. 

The Vice-Consul takes this opportunity to make the following remarks : — 

1. On Sunday there is usually an opportunity of attending Divine Servicfe, 
at 11 o'clock A.M. 

2. To avoid exposing European seamen, it is advisable to engage a sampan, 
or Chinese boat, for pulling up to Canton and about the anchorage. A certain 
number of boats have been licensed by the Vice-Consul ; the number of their 
license may be ascertained for greater security. 

3. To prevent pilfering, a particular watch ought to be kept on Chinese in 
*nd about a ship when discharging and loading small loose packages. 


teamen not to land. Bum-boats. Claims on Seamen. Cases of Death. 

4. Bathing in the tnLddle of the stream, unless at slack water, is highly 

5. It is recommended that all masters of vessels exercise mutual vigilance in 
order to prevent the introduction of intoxicating liquors among their crews. 

6. All persons at this anchorage having business with the Vice-Consul are 
requested to transact it by personal application. 

7. Pilots may be obtained at First Bar. They hold licenses either from the 
Consular authorities, or the harbor-master at Hongkong. 

'i'he American authorities have likewise issued some regulations 
for the better government of the crews of ships frequenting the five 
open ports, though some of their provisions are applicable only to 
the anchorage at Whampoa. A mar.shal of the United States reside? 
there, who has authority under the con.sul at Canton. 

3&ules anH lUegulatfons for ^merfcan silpa 


1 . Whereas jurisdiction over citizens of the United States within the empire 
of China being by treaty reserved to the United States, by Act of Congress, 
approved llth August, 184B, the statute laws and common law of the United 
States have been extended over said citizens in China, so far as they shall be 
found applicable in all civil and criminal cases (See Sec. Il^th of Act) ; to avoid, 
as far as possible, the necessity of executing said laws in such cases, it is hereby 
specially enjoined upon masters and officers of vessels of the United States to 
use due vigilance to preserve the peace, and prevent difficulties between all 
seamen and subjects of China, while anchored at either of the five free ports. 

2. Seamen are not allowed to land in the vicinity of the anchorage of the 
vessel to which they belong, or to visit the neighboring city, without permission 
of Uie captain or commanding officer, and then under charge of an officer of 
the vessel, and in no instance to be absent from the vessel over night : Provided^ 
hcw-'ver, that the master may make exception in favor of those seamen in whose 
good character he can confide, and for whose correct conduct he is reponsible. 
The master, or officer in command, will judiciously decide the number of sailors 
to be absent from the vessel at any one time. 

3. Seamen absent from the ship, whether in the vicinity of the anchorage, 
or at the neighboring city, shall be on board within the time specified by the 
master or commanding officer ; — should any fail of so doing, or be guilty of 
misconduct, while thus absent, they shall be liable to punishment by fine or 
otherwise, at the discretion of the Consul, or Consular Agent. 

4. Chinese boatmen having vcduntarily consented to be registered at the 
Co^isul's, or Consular Agent's office, it is recommended to masters of vessels, 
in employing Chinese boats while in port, to give employment to such only as 
submit to such registration. 

5. Chinese boats with fruit and small articles of trade, spirituous liquors 
excepted, are permitted to approach ships, but only at such times during the day, 
as the master or commanding officer may deem proper. 

6. Masters of vessels are required, on the one hand, to see that all just 
claims of subjects of China against seamen belonging to their ships are ffuly 
liquidated ; and on the other to prevent, as far as possible, the Chinese from 
defrauding seamen. 

7. Serious collisions occurring between citizens of the United States (wheth ■ 
er seamen, or others belonging to an American vessel) and subjects- of Chins, 
in which robbery or violence is committed by either party, or in which the 
death of a Chinese or foreigner ensues, the master or commanding officer of 
the vessel to which the latter belongs, shall, without delay, report the aarae to 
the United States' Commissioner to China, or to the Consul or Consular Ageqt 
of the port in which the crime is committed, in order to immediate judicial in- 
vestigation and action. 


Bethels. Cemeteries. Spirits sold. Poisonous nntttre of Samskoo. 

There xre two floating Bethels for religious worship now at 
WhamfK)a, to which all seamen have access. Part of the Protestant 
Bethel is divided off for the admission of such sick seamen as cannot 
be well attended to on board their own ships, where they are lodged 
and fed at a reasonable rate. Shops for the sale of sundries have 
been opened by the Chinese on each side of the Reach, where sailors 
can be furnished with goods, so that there is no need of their resort- 
ing to Canton, as in former years. The conveniences of docks for 
repairing ships are now very large, and the amount of trade carried 
on at Whampoa is annually increasing. The treatment of foreign 
visitors in the neighboring villages is also civil. Sailors who may 
die are buried on Dane's I. at a charge of ^10 for each body, the 
charge for interment on French I. is about $60 for each grave. 

The distance from Whampoa to Canton is about twelve miles, and 
all masters employ their own row-boats to go to and from the city, 
to keep their men out of harm ; besides which there is a penalty of 
fifty dollars for permitting sailors from British ships to go up on li- 
berty. No goods of any description should be put into these boats ; 
nor is it legal to attempt to bring up goods in a ship's boat to Canton ; 
for if detected and reported, the ship is liable to be immediately 
ordered out of the river. 

Sailors coming to Whampoa are very much exposed to the entice- 
ments of low Chinese, who hold out to them every temptation to 
drunkenness in Bamboo-town and Newtown, and bum-boats bring 
liquor alongside. It is difficult to say which party is the most blame- 
able, those who sell or those who buy, but the evils of the sale and 
use have come upon both, even at times to the loss of life in the dis- 
putes which have ensued. The sale of ardent spirits to foreign sea- 
men is strictly prohibited by the Chinese government, to their praise 
be it said ; but as is the case with most other interdicts which in- 
terfere with the interests of the natives, no obedience is paid to the 
prohibition by either party, the police being bribed to overlook all 
delinquencies. 'J'he shopmen who vend the sarashoo (as the liquor 
is here called, and which means ' thrice fired,' or distilled), try to 
screen their malpractices from the passing observer, and at the same 
time present additional temptation to the sailor, by the show of 
coarse chinaware, pictures, shoes, and other articles which the 
latter is in the habit of buying. No sooner does a party of sailors 
land, than their emissaries hasten to draw them, by deceitful promises 
and the show of goods, into their shops, where they ply them with the 
intoxicating draught, rendered more deleterious than the natives 
ever drink it, by the infusion of poisonous narcotics. If the deluded 
sailor takes the cup, they then cheat him of his money, or plunder 
him of his apparel, and afterwards drive him into the street ; and 
hence in days past, have often arisen outrages leading to interruption 
of the ship's trade, to heavy miricts, and sometimes to wounds and 
homicide. One of the Regulations of British trade is intended to 
guard against this mil, by requiring that an officer accompany every 


Catise of mv^h disease. Business at Canton. The Hoppo. 

ship's boat to look after the men ; but there are hundreds of men in 
the ports of China over whom this restriction does not extend, and 
it is well for the sailor to be told that this liquor is sometimes made 
very sweet to disguise an infusion of oil of tobacco, sulphuric acid, 
cocculus indicus, or various essential oils, put in it; and that to drink 
it frequently induces sickness, delirium, fever, and even death in 
the hot season. Much of the mortality among seamen in the autumn 
and winter, while lying at VVhampoa, is to be ascribed to their ex- 
posure and to drinking this villainous mixture ; and it is probable, 
even with all their fondness for strong drinks, that if they knew what 
a deleterious compound it was, regard for their own health and lives 
would induce them to let it alone. 

Too much care cannot be taken by masters to keep it away from 
the sailor, nor information too often given him of its properties, to 
deter him from touching it. And when too, the Chinese see sailors 
lying in the gutter drunk, or hear them filling the streets with up- 
roarious and profane cries, to the great disgrace of the names of fo- 
reigner and Christian, it becomes every one calling himself by these 
names to interfere with authority if he can, or with persuasion, to 
cause the reproach to cease. There are sailors' boarding-houses at 
Whampoa, where food and shelter can be had, and during the last 
few years some have been conducted by foreigners. 

Aectron 3. 

Before proceeding to describe the course of foreign trade at 
Canton, it will be proper briefly to speak of the principal parties 
connected with it on the part of the Chinese. "The Hoppu, or 
Superintendent of Customs, is the highest officer connected with 
trade. He is always a Manchu, generally a member of the imperial 
household, and holds a special appointment from the emperor to 
superintend the maritime commerce of Canton, and collect the duties 
arising therefrom. In consequence of this special appointment, he 
ranks as the fourth dignitary in the province, but can assume no 
superiority over any but those of ordinary rank. His salary is 25,000 
taels a year; but his chief emoluments are derived from fees, exac- 
tions, and percentage on the imperial duties. This latter source 
was formerly the most considerable of all, but since the present 
mode of paying duties without the intervention of the hong-mer- 
chants was established, it has been reduced to almost or quite 
nothing. The term hoppo is confined to Canton, and is a corrup- 
tion of the title hoi-po-sho, the name of the officer who has control 
over the boats on the river, strangely applied to the collector of 
customs by foreigners. His oflScial designation is tuh-li yueh hdi- 

kwan pu td-jin, '^ ^ ^ '/^ ^ ^ ^ ^, His Excellency the 
manager of the maritime passes at Canton. 


Machis to the Hoppd's qffixe, 7'/ie Govtmor-gtneraL Ilong-mtrchanls. 

The lioppo has a head clerk called kingching jj^ ^^ and several 
writers for transacting tlie affairs of the general custom-honse. He 
is also followed from the capital by a number of his Manchu country- 
men, who are called kiajin ^^ h. or domestics, and are deputed 

to take an account of and examine goods as they are landed or 
shipped ; and to reside at the subordinate stations, as Kiangmun, 
the Bogue, Whampoa, &c. All these receive merely nominal sa- 
laries, and have in fact to purchase their situations from the boppo. 
Tbey live therefore on the perquisites arising from the foreign trade ; 
the number attached to the office in former days was sometimes 
upwards of two hundred, but the re-arrangement of the trade has 
thrown many of thena out of employ, or greatly reduced their emolu- 
ments. The details of the establishment at present are conducted 
by clejks called shu-pdn ^S. T^, eighty or a hundred in number. 
No fees are taken at the office upon foreign trade, except the de- 
mands regularly agreed upon, which has probably compelled the 
faoppo either to dismiss many of his hangers-on, or filch Irom the 
regular duties to pay them. 

Connected with the hoppo in the general direction of trade and 
iatercourse with foreigners, are the tsungiuh, or governor-general of 
the two provinces of Kwangtung and Kwangsi, and in his absence, 
thefuyuen, or governor of the former. By the treaty he is appointed 
a sort of commissioner of foreign affairs, and all matters connected 
with them are referred to him. All petitions from foreigners, such 
as those relating to grievances of a general iiature, or remonstrances 
concerning unjust regulations, &c., were in former times sent to 
him through the hong-merchants, through whom also an answer was 
returned, which they communicated either verbally (as it was illegal 
to know anything of the Chinese language), or by sending in a copy 
of his excellency's edict to the foreign merchants; petitions relating 
to trade were sent to the hoppo through the same medium. The 
TOode of communicating with Chinese officers by British consuls, 
was fully arranged between the plenipotentiaries of the two nations 
in 1843. All foreign officials now communicate directly with any 
of the provincial authorities in the manner mentioned in Art. XXX. 
of the American treaty. Communications relatjng to unimportant 
matters are conveyed by the confidential clerks of the parties. 

The monopoly of the hong-merchants having been abolished by 
the treaty between England and China, there is no need of here 
detailing the numerous annoyances and restrictions which grew 
therefrom, or of explaining the benefits which resulted to the fo- 
reigner from the monopoly, and its feature of responsibility in paying 
the debts of the wasteful or unfortunate. The new system has been 
found to work as well as those best acquainted with the character 
of the Chinese expected. Since it began in 1843, all the old hong- 
merchants, and «early all their partners, have failed or retired from 
the business. 


Lir^iisla or Custom-hause Clerks. Their Duties and Joannes. Chop-boats. 

The custom-house clefks, called in Chinese tung sz' 3®, -^ ?'• e, 
forwarding business men, are usually styled Linguists, although 
none of them have ever been able to read or write a line of idio- 
matic English, or any other foreign language, nor even able to speak 
anything better than the Canton-English. They are employed in 
all intercourse between the custom-hotise officers and foreign mer- 
chants, and also formerly wrote addresses and petitions to, or an- 
nounced edicts from, government on behalf of foreigners. The 
linguists, like the hong-merchants, were formerly obliged to pay 
largely for their licences, and liable to heavy exactions, chiefly by 
the hoppo's domestics and other underlings of office ; the annual 
expenses of one of their establishments was reckoned at 10,000 
taels. The number of head linguists has been between four and 
six, that is those recognized by government, but each establishment 
contains a full complement of clerks, so that it could at the same 
time transact all the custom-house business of a large number of 
ships. They procure permits for landing or shipping of cargo, keep 
an account of the duties on this cargo, and transact all the petty 
business which falls into their hands as the mediums of communica- 
tion between the hoppo's office and the merchant. They are most 
useful as custom-house clerks, and receive their remuneration for 
acting in this capacity from the foreign merchant. 

The hiring of chop-boats was formerly done by the linguist, for 
which he used to receive a fee of $23 for every load of imports ; if 
however permits for two or more boats were taken out at once, the 
fee for each was about $15^. It is now fixed at $15, and the hire 
of the boat itself is $12. On exports, the linguist gets no fee what- 
ever from the foreign merchants, but he receives a bonus from 
the sellers of the goods, varying a little according to the sort ; and 
frequently furnishing the chop-boats, also gets a percentage on light- 
erage. On imports he has nearly the same duty to attend to as on 
exports, and if a ship comes into port in ballast, the merchant expects 
him to superintend her loading free of all charge whatever, and also 
pay the coolie hire and other minor expenses which may be incurred 
out of his own pocket. 

The list of the linguists' establishments as they are at present, in- 
cluding the hong names and official names of the partners, is as 
follows ; 

Individual Namf.s. Hong Nambs. Official Namm. 

Atom, 5S fe Fanwo % ^P Tsdi Mau H ^|J 

Young Tom, fk ^ iB Shangwo &.^ Wu Churn ^ ^ 
Alantsai, 5£ II ff Chingwo IE fP Wti Tsidng ^ 
Young Aheen^" 5 S Shunwo )|lPl "T'P Tsai Siun ^ ^ 
ACHAN, S W ^^"S"^0 H ;ftl Tsau Yungtat ^^'^ ^ 



''ees of Linguists. Tlieir incapacity as translators. Compradors. 

At the cessation of the hong monopoly in July, 1843, they were 
left out of the routine of trade as recognized agents, either on the 
part of the native or foreigner, and made a representation in con- 
sequence to the foreign merchants, by whom they were employed as 
custom-house clerks. Their claims of compensation were at first 
considered exorbitant, but after consultation with the British Cham- 
ber of Commerce, the following rates of commission were agreed 
upon Sept. 16th, 1847, and are now paid. 





of $6 on 

each Chop of 


Fee oJ 

^6 on each 

Chop of 

Raw Cotton, Bombay, Ben- ) 
gal, or Madras. J 

100 balei) 
5 80 bales of 
} 400 lbs. 
4000 pes. 40 

1400 pieces." 

840 pieces 


300 peculs 
600 peculs 

300 chests 
100 peculs 
20,000 pes. 

300 peculi 

Fee of 


Raw Silk and Silk Piece- , 

goods ' 

Nankeens, brown &, blue • 
Alum, Cassia lignea, Buds, 
and Oil, China and Ga- 
langal Root, Bamboo &. 
Rattanware, Camphor, 
Chinaware,Copper ware, 
Fireworks, Hartall, Lac- ' 
queredware. Pap«r, Rhu- 
barb, Star Aniseed and 
Aniseed Oil, Tobacco, 

Shirtings and other Cotton ) 
goods S 

Bombazetta, Camlets, Las- ) 
tings, Long Ells. ) 

Spanish Stripes and other ) 
broadcloths. i 

Iron, Lead, Spelter, Steel, 
Copper, Tin Plates, and 
all other metals. 

Agar-agar, Biche-de-mer, " 
Betel-nut, Cochineal, Kb- 
ony. Cloves, Flints, Fish- 
maws, Gambier, Gums, 
hides, Pepper, Putchuck, 
Rattans. Saltpetre, San- 
dalwood, Sapan &. Red 
wood, Smalts, Window 
and Broken Glass. 

Other articles in proportion 


On each ship reporting in- 
wards, exceeding 150 tons 

Other articles in proportion 

It is mentioned above that one of the duties of the linguists, and 
the origin of their appellation, was that of translating and interpreting 
between the Chinese government and foreigners. In the common 
routine of trade, where the matter was a simple detail of business, 
or in cases where their own interest was not likely to be involved in 
any way, there was no objection to trusting to their integrity ; but 
owing to their own ignorance, and the poverty of ihe wretched jar- 
gon used in communication, even with good intentions, they were 
liable to misunderstand and misrepresent the subject they were to 
write upon. ^^ ... 

Compradors, called ma ?-p»w^ ^T are the stewards of the house- 
hold of the foreigner at Canton, or of his ships at Whampoa, and in 
both places their duties are similar. Like the linguists, they have 
exactions to pay the custom-house arid other officials, in consider- 
ation of which they formerly received a fee of 50 dollars for every 
ship, but this charge is now abolished. House compradors are 
employed in Canton as the head-servant and cash-keeper of the 



Sltroffs. House. Servants. Tlidr capabilities. Business conducted orally. 

establishment, and like their fellows at Whampoa, used to receive 
their licenses from Casa Branca, for which they paid a certain sum. 
There is now no other security for them than their honesty and 
good character, and the profits of their position. The principal du- 
ties of a house comprador are to receive and pay out money, and 
keep an account of the daily expenses of the household, furnish 
provisions &.c. ; he also hires all the servants, and is consequently 
the security for their general good behavior. 

He has in his employ a shroff, who examines all the specie received 
and paid out, and who, like the teller in a bank, is made responsible 
for the bad money he receives. In order to recognize coin once 
paid out, every comprador has a steel stamp, with which he strikes 
his name upon the face of the piece, and he will not receive a dollar 
back again upon which he cannot find his own stamp, or chop as it ' 
is called. The natives of Canton and Macao, and their immediate 
vicinity, are usually employed as house-servants, and for the most 
part perform their duties \Vell, considering the imperfect jargon in, 
which intercourse is carried on, and the consequent liability there 
is that they may misunderstand their masters. Before they consider 
themselves qualified to act as servants, they receive what in their 
opinion is a tolerable English education, which consists in commit- 
ting to memory a number of words and phrases from Chinese and' 
English vocabularies written in the Chinese character, and with the 
English phrase constructed according to the Chinese idiom. There, 
are always a few men to be found in Canton who get their living 
by thus teaching English to the lads about the Factories and shops. 
This business, whatever be its amount or nature, is usually oral, no 
bargain being committed to writing in any way that binds the parties 
to fulfill their contracts, because the parties cannot understand each 
other's language; important contracts, leases, &-c., are generally put 
in writing. The jargon which is spoken at Canton sounds strangely 
to the newly arrived foreigner, but its inverted construction is soon 
acquired ; and it serves the purpose of carrying on the common 
detail of business and household affiiirs. The only remedy for those 
who dislike it is undoubtedly that of learning to speak Chinese better 
than the native speaks English. 

Foreign trade is conducted at Canton, with gre:it ease and regu- 
larity. The Chinese system of inland trade, through a long scries 
of years, has acquired a high degree of uniformity in its details, and 
the same system is applied to their foreign trade; so that there are 
few ports in the world where a large trade is carried on with less 
trouble to the foreigner than in this. Much of this facility is owing 
to the exclusion of the latter from the office of the collector of 
customs, where the linguists perform the necessary duties; and also 
that all the detail in landing and loading cargo, such as hiring chop- 
boats, calling coolies, packing and unpacking goods in the bulk, &c., 
&.C., is managed by natives on the orders being given to the propeV 
persons. This restricts the actual labor to be done by the foreigher 
COM. GU. 29 


British Consular Regitlatiom. Rules for Ships. SaUors. Deaths. 

ta examining or exhibiting samples of goods, and seeing that they 
are properly p?icked, beyond which there is almost nothing to be 
done out of the counting-room. 

The General Regulations for British Trade and the various articles 
of the American Treaty (pages 201-213), contain the principal direc- 
tions for carrying on trade at the five open ports. The following 
General Regulations, chiefly for shipping, and a Table of Consular 
Fees, have also been issued for observance at the British Consulates 
and by British subjects. 

eicneral Consular aEleguIatfonff 


I. — All Rules and Regulations, heretofore in force to secure the observance 
of treaties, havinjj reference to any of the five porta open for trade in China, 
are repealed from and after the date of the publication of the present Regula- 

II. — The Consukte Offices shall be open for public business from 10 
o'clock A. M. to 4 o'clock p. m. daily, excepting on Sundays, and those holidays 
Upon which public offices in England are closed. 

III. — Every master of a vessel shall deposit his ship's papers, together 
with a summary of the manife-jt of her cargo, at the Consulate Offic3 within 
forty-eight hours after her arrival in tlie port or anchonge, unless a Sunday 
or holiday should intervene. Masters not conforming to this regulation will 
render themselves liable to a penalty of two hundred dollars. 

IV. — Every British vessel must show her colors on entering the port or 
anchorage, and keep them hoisted, until she shall have been reported at the 
Consulate, and her papers de|K>sited there. Masters not conforming to this 
Regulation will render themselves liable to a penalty not exceeding one 
hundred dollars ibr each offense. 

V. — Should any vessel, the property of a British subject, but not provided 
with a British sailing-letter or certificate of registry, hoist the British ensign 
within any port or anchorage, or should she exhibit witiiin such limits any 
flag so imsilar to the British ensign as not to be distinguishable from it, the 
master of such ves-^l will be liable for every such offense to a penalty not 
exceeding one hundred dollars. 

VI. — In accordance with the provisions of the XII Article of the General 
Regulations of Trade, masters of vessels in any port or anchorage will be 
held accountable for the conduct of their crews on shore. Slioiild any sea- 
man absent himself without permission, the master shall forthwith report the 
same at the Consulate Office, and take efficient measures for the recovery of 
the absentee. 

VII. — The discharge of guns or other fire-arms from vessels in harbor is 
strictly prohibited under a penalty not exceeding fifty dollars. 

VIII. — Masters of vessels, when reporting their arrival at a port or an- 
chorage, shall notify in writing the names of all passengers and persons not 
forming part of the registered crew on bo.ird ; and due notice must likewise 
be given of the number and names of persons not forming part of the regis- 
tered crew, intending to leave the port on board of any vessel. 

IX. — All cases of death occurring on board of vessels in hirbor, or in the 
residences of British subjects on shore, must be immediately reported at the 
Consulate Office; and in the event of sudden or accidental death the best in- 
formation obtainable will likewise be required. It is strictly prohibited to 
throw overboard the bodies of aeanien or other persons dying on board of a 
vesBcI in harbor. 


Thtfls. Discharging Seamen. Leaving Port. Eating-houaet. Enroling 

X.— Stone or ballast aliall not be thrown overboard in harbor. 

XL — All cases of loss of property by theft or fraud on board of ship, as 
well as of assault or felony, requiringr redress, or involving the public peace, 
must be immediately reported at the Consulate Office. Any Chinese subject 
guilty of a misdemeanor on shore or afloat may be detained on detection ; 
but information must in such case be forthwith lodg(3d at the Consulate Office, 
and in no instance shall British subjects be permitted to use violence towards 
Chinese offenders, or take the law into their own hands. 

XII. — Any vessel laden with gunpowder or any other combustible, is 
prohibited from entering an anchorage, or remaining within a distance from 
it of one mile. 

XIII. — No seaman or other person belonging to a British ship may be 
discharged or left behind at any port or anchorage without the express sanc- 
tion of the Consul, nor until sufficient security shall have been given for his 
maintenance and good behavior while rem lining on shore. If uny British 
subject left at a port or anchorage by a British vessel, be fotmd requiring 
public relief prior to departure of such vessel from the dominions of the 
Emperor of China, tho vesiel will be held responsible for the maintenance 
and removal of such British subject. 

XIV. — When a vessel is ready to leave a port or anchorage, the master 
or consignees shall apply at the Chinese custom-house for a Chinese port- 
clearance (grand-chop), and on his predentin;;- this document, together with 
a copy of the manifest of his export cargo, at the Consulate Office, his ship's 
papers will be restored, and he will be furnished with a Consular port-clear- 
ance, on receiving which the vessel will be at liberty to leave the port 
Should any vessel take in or dischirge cargo subsequent to the issue of the 

frand chop, the master w.ll be siibj.^ct to a penilty not excse ling five hun- 
red dollars, and the goods so taken in or discharged will be liablo to confis- 
cation under the terms ofthi Gen Jral Regulations of Trade witii reference to 
breaking bulk without due permission. 

XV. — When a vessel is ready to leave a port or anchorage, the master 
nhall give notice thereof to the Consul, and shall hoist a blue peter at least 
24 hours before the time appointed for her departure. The Consul may dis- 
pense with the observance of this Regulation on security being given that 
claims presented within 24 hours will be paid. 

XVI. — No British subject may establish either a boarding or eating 
house at a port or anchorage without the sinction of the Consul, or without 
giving proper security that he will not harbor any seaman who is a runaway, 
or who cannot produce his discharge accompanied by a written sanction 
from the Consul to reside on shore. Every licenced boarding or eating 
housekeeper will be held accountable for the good conduct of all inmates and 
frequenters of his house. 

XVII. — Every British subject residing within the dominions of the Emper- 
or of China, who shall not have been already enrolled in th«» Consular 
Register, shall apply to the Consul to be enrolled within ten days of the 
promulgation of these Regulations at the port in which hi; resides. And 
every British subject who may arrive in the siid doninions, save and except 
any British subject who may be borne on the mustor-roll of a British vessel 
shall apply within ten days of his arrival to the ('onsul of tl»e district to be 
enrolled in tlie Consular Register. No British subject will be entitled to 
claim the protection of the authorities who shall not so hive enrolled himself 
or who cannot allege valid reasons for his not having done so. 

XVIII. — Tlie term "Consul " in the preceding end followmg Regulations 
shall be construed to include all and every officer in Her Majesty's "(Consular 
service^ whether Consul-Genera 1, Consul, Vice-Consul, or Consular Agent, 


Fines. British Consttlar Fees. Those ivhich are for Legal Services. 

or other person duly authorized to act in any of the aforesaid capacities 
within the dominions of the Emperor of China. 

XIX. — All fines and penalties imposed under the above or following 
Resfulations shall bo leviel and enforced in the m.inner specified in Article 
XXXVI of the Order of Her Majesty in Council, dated the I3th day of June 
18.53 ; and nil fees, penalties, and forfeitures shall be appropriated and applied 
as provided for in Article XXXVIII of the same Order. 

ffable of JSrrtfsi) ©onanlar jfetB, Issued JWaj 1, 1855. 

Part I. — Fees to be taken in respect of matters in which the Consul's 
interposition is required by Law. 

£ s. d. 

For every declaration made before the Consul, in forms B, C, F, G, 
H, and L, in the schedule to the Merchant Shipping Act, 1854, with a 
view to the registry, transfers, and transmission of ships, interests in 
ships, or mortgages on ships - - - - - - . -050 

• For indorsing a memorandum of change of Master upon the certifi- 
cate of registry - - - - - - - - - . -020 

For granting a provisional certificate of registry (this fee to be exclu- 
sive of fees on declarations) - - - - - - - -0 10 

For recording a mortgage of a ship, or shares in a ship, made under 
a certificate of mortgage - - - - - - - . -0100 

For recording the transfer of a mortgage of a ship, or shares in a 
ship, made under a certificate of mortgage - - - • -070 

For recording the discharge of a mortgage of a ship, or shares in a 
ship, made under a certificate of mortgage - - • - -076 

For every sale of a ship, or shares in a ship, made before the Consul 
under a certificate of sale - - - - • - - . -0100 

For inspection of the register book of transactions in ship - -010 

For every seaman engaged before the Conr il - - - - -020 

For every alteration in agreements with seamen made before the 
Consul 2 

For every seaman discharged or left behind with the Consul's sanc- 
tion - - - 2 

For every desertion certified by the Consul 02 

For attesting a seaman's will 020 

For examination of provisions or water, to be paid by the party who 
proves to be in default • - - -0 10 

For every salvage bond made in pursuance of 17 and 18 Victoria, 
Chapter 1 04, section 488, to be paid by the master or owner of the pro- 
perty salved 200 

On disbursements in respect of distressed seamen, a commission of 2^ ^ cent. 

Part II. — Fees to he taken in respect of matters in which the Consul's 
interposition is to be given only when reijuired by theparties interested. 
For noting a protest, with certified copy if required - - -050 

For order of survey, with certified copy if required - - - 5 

For extending a protest or survey, with certified copy if required - 1 
And, if it eroeeds 200 words, for every additional 1 00 words - - 2 6 
For preparing and attesting bottomry or arbitration bond - - I 

For attesting bottomry or arbitration bond not prepared by Coasul - 5 
For attendance, out of Consular oifice, at a shipwreck, or for the 

purpose of assisting a ship in distress, or of saving wrecked goods or 

property, over and above traveling expenses, per diem - - - 1 I 

For attending valuation of goods, if under jC"200 in value - - 10 6 

For attending valuation of goods, if JG"<;0U and upwards hx value, for 

every day's attendance during which the valuation continues - - I 1 


Those which are for Services requested. American Consular Fees. 

For attending sale of goods if the purchase money is under £>'iOH - 1 10 
For attending sale of goods if the purchase money is X2i)U or up- 
wards, for every day during which the sale continues - - - 2 2 

Certificate of due landing of goods exported from the United King- 
dom - 9 

Bill of Health 10 

Vise of passport 02 

Opening tlie will of a British subject, not being a seaman - - 1 1 
Management of property of a British subject, not being a seaman, ) 2i i^ 
dying intestate, a commission of - - - - - - -J cent. 

Registration of documents, or other matters - - - - - 2 6 

And, if exceeding 100 words, for every additional 100 words - - 6 
For every certified copy of a document not before mentioned - - 2 6 
And, if it exceeds 100 words, for every additional 100 words - - 6 
For administering an oath or declaration, including attestation of 

signature if required --. -020 

For attesting a signature - - - - - - - -020 

For annexing the seal of office and signature to any document not 
mentioned in, or otherwise provided for by this table - - - 5 

iVo/e 1. — No ft'p is to be taken for the custody of, or indorspmcnt on, ship's articles and papers 
deposited with the Consul in pursuance of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1854, section 279. 

Note 2. — Where any fee is fixed by the foregoing tables for any particular act or transaction,- 
no additional fee is to be demanded for signature, attestation, or annexing .seal of oftice- 

Note 3.— The above fees, if not paid in English money, are to be calculated at the current rate 
Of exchange. 

Cable of Sfntcrfcan ©onsulac Sfets, fssueli 3June 22, 1855. 

Part I. — Fees charged for duties which the lata requires. 
For receiving and delivering ship's papers, each ton measurement $0.O0J| 
For discharging or shipping seamen at the Consulate . . . | .()y 
For every certificate, except passports, and for placing seals on the '. -. 

property of deceased Americans ---.... g.OO 

For settling and paying over the proceeds of intestate or other estates, ) 5 per 

a commission of ---.-.....t cent. 

For delivering over property not in money from such estates before } 2^ per 

final settlement, commission of i cent. 

For administering an oath or affirmation • - - . - 0.25 
For noting a protest - -, 1 .oo 

F r t dnir a nrotest S ""^^"^ ^*^^ words 2.00 

^ P ' ( for every additional 100 words - - l.dO 

r> J- J „ * ( under 1(10 words - - - - 50 

For recording a document, J ^ ,,.. , ,,,« . " 

o '( for every additional ! 00 words - - 0.10 

For issuing an order for a survey .-1 .00 

For issuing an order for the arrest or release of a seaman - - 1 .00 

Part II. — Fees charged when the Consul is requested to act. 

For making copies of documents, per hundred words ... Q.IO 

For drawing a power of attorney --.-... 5 oy 

For preparing a bottomry or arbitration bond 5.00 

For attendance at a shipwreck, or for a-ssisting a ship in distress, or 

of saving property, (over and above traveling expenses) per day - 5.00 

For attending an appraisement, where the goods are under $1 000 value 3.(»0 

For attending valtfation of goods, where they are over $ 1 000, per day 5.00 

For attending sale of goods, \ ""''^ «^""*» ^'"''^''^f?^^ . ' ^"^ 

'' ^ i purchase money over $1000, per day 5.00- 

For preparing a bill of health - 2 OO 

For inakin/r a will 5 "^^"^^ ^"^^ property is under .$1000 in value - 5.00 
i-or making a wui, ^ ^^^^^ ^j^^. ^^,^p^^^^, j^ ^^^^ ^^^JQQ -^ ^.^^^^ ^^ ^^ 


Reporting a Sfup's Cargo. Form of the Report to the Hoppo. 

As soon as the ship's papers are handed in at the Consulate, a 
report is sent to the hoppo. When the present system of trade first 
came into operation, it was required at the British Consulate that a 
summary of the cargo of a ship should also be furnished in order to 
assist in levying the duties, exhibiting the total number of packages 
in the vessel which paid different duties, i. e. the total weight of those 
articles which paid duty by weight, as cotton or iron ; the measure 
of those which paid duty by their length, as woolens; or the number 
of those which paid duty by the piece, as longcloths. Since the re- 
fusal of the British government to have any further responsibility 
respecting the duties, this is not required, and the whole matter is 
settled between the consignee and the linguists. 

Form for entering a ship at the Custom-house. 

Canton, 185 

To the Superintendent of Customs, 

The Merchants have duly reported to me that the British ship, 

No. Master, anchored at Whampoa on the ; she is Tons per 

Register, is navigated by a Crew of men, and her Ship's Papers having 

been put into my possession in conformity with the Regulations, I hereby 
request that the necessary facilities may be given for her discharging. 
I have, &c., 

H. B. M. Consul. 

4< «( :^ <t in «! « {E » ^ ffl g^ Sg ^ ^ iHHSffl 
":.'iW*P OJ i^ iiS ?S ]^ S «• « 1^1 ^ ^ 

M ^$4 g; # i^- E ^ ^« is- :3J^:fH g| 
45- Si 

UNLOADING A Slllp's CAR80. 43! 

Permits granted. Lighters sent down. Duties paid when the ship goe9^ 

The day after this report Ib made, the custom-house officers will 
give the linguist engaged for the ship the necessary facilities for 
commencing the discharge of the cargo. The linguist is selected by 
the consignees of the ship ; it is his business to keep the accounts of 
duties with the custom-house, both on the inward and outward car- 
go, hire chop-boats, and attend to the landing and shipping of goods. 
As soon as a ship is ready to discharge, he obtains an order from 
the consignee of the goods upon the commanding officer of the ship, 
directing him to deliver to a specified chop-boat the within named 
articles. The consignee of the ship countersigns all orders for goods 
to be discharged from his ship, and these orders furnish the material 
to make out the list of packages to be landed in one chop-boat. 

When the linguist has received the orders upon the ship, and the 
fist of the goods to be landed, he applies at the custom-house for 
permits for as many chop-boats as are wanted, and the next day they 
go to Whampoa, carrying one or two of his clerks to take account 
of the cargo, and on the morrow after, receive the goods from the 
ship. As merchandise is not usually landed until it is sold, the pur- 
chaser also sends a clerk to take an account of it. These lighters 
called sai-ktoa-peen, are strongly built, roomy boats, with one or two 
partitions and a caboose astern for the accommodation of the crew, 
who live aboard. Goods are generally speaking carried safely rn 
them, as they can be entirely screened from the weather, and placed 
under lock and key. It is advisable, however, to see that the goods 
are well secured when they leave the ship, especially bales of raw 
cotton, bundles of rattan or scrap iron, and bags of pepper, from 
which it is very easy to pilfer. The long practice of the boat-people 
in landing cargo has made them also expert in levying a percentage 
on bulk, which needs to be looked after. 

The commanding officer sends a boat note to back the consignee 
of the ship, stating the marks, weight, description, &c., &,c., 
of all the goods in the boat, which the linguist takes to other parties 
who may also have goods in it, and they enter in their books the 
quantity received from it. The linguist informs the collector of 
customs of the arrival of the chop-boat, and gives a list of the cargo 
on board, so that he can send and have it examined for the purpose 
of levying the duty. This was formerly done through the consul, 
but is now left for the owners of the cargo to manage with the col- 
lector of customs. As soon as the latter receives the detail of the 
cargo, he sends out his waiters to examine the goods, and estimate 
the total amount of duty upon the boat-load. The duty is settled 
upon every chop-boat, and an account is kept by the linguist of the 
amount until the whole cargo is discharged, when the import duties 
are all paid at once. If the ship takes in an export cargo, the duties 
on both inward and outward cargo are usually not paid till she is 
ready to sail ; but it is entirely at the option of. the merchant to pay 
the duty on every boat-load as it comes up, or on the whole cargo 


Form of Blank for paying Import Duties. Tonnage Dues. 

-fit once. In paying duties, a form is furnished at the consulate, or 
more usually by the linguist, of which the following is a copy ; the 
various mercantile houses sometimes keep blanks for paying import 
and export duties and tonnage dues, with their own names filled in. 

Form of blank for Import Ddties. 

Canton, 185. 

To the Government shroff, 

We hereby pay into your hands the sum of for duties noted at foot, 

which we beg you will hand over to the Superintendent of Customs for 

Import Duties on Ship, No. the Master. 

T. M. c. 0. 

Viz., for Inward Cargo, by chops No. to No. 

Add U. S/n. per 100 taels for melting, .' 


Your obedient Servants, 

m< <r ^ ^ 

« s^ a « 
K ^^ iffi IS g ^ sK ^ 1 1: II ^ 





rrc m S- 

The blank for export duties is the same as this, with the excep- 
tion of changing the word import into export^ in both the English and 
Chinese. These documents, when filled up, are kept by the govern- 
ment shroff, or handed over to the hoppo, when he settles with him. 

The tonnage dues of the ship are either paid at the same time with 
the import duties, or a8 is most frequently the case, the import and 
export duties and tonnage dues are all paid at once, when the ship 
is ready to sail. The form of blank for the tonnage dues is here 
given, which a ship is not required to pay at Whampoa if she enters 
the port loaded entirely with rice, or in ballast; and only half the 
rates if she is an inward-bound rice ship, and only loads an outward 



Blank for Tonnage Duties. Former Port-chn/'ges. Duties are paid in Sycee^ 

Form of blawk for Tonnage Duties. 

Canton, 185 

To Government Shroff, 

We hereby pay into your hands the 

Sum of for Tonnage Dues noted at foot, which we beg you will hand 

over to the Superintendent of Customs for our account. w \i r r 

British ship, No. — the , Master, 

Measures per register, tons. - - - - 

Add It. 2m. per 100 taels for melting, - - - .... .. .. 


We remain, Your obedient Servants, 

^ ^ ^ 4$ S 4< < #1 ^ i^#£ IP * ^ 
fiiS H ^ ^ S li ^ ¥i$-Jfite^W 


^ i^ 1^ 5^ 


This blank needB to be altered slightly when only half the legal 
tonnage dues are paid. In the times of the hong merchants, the regular 
charges on every ship going to Whampoa amounted to $2573 (which 
included the pilotage), besides the measurement duty, which depend- 
ed on her size, and varied from $650 to $3000 ; if laden with rice 
only, she paid about $1000 altogether. 

Duties are paid in pure sycee, or its equivalent in dollars, to the 
government bankers, who give a receipt for the same. The for^s 
given above, it will be seen, are merely notes addressed to him by the 
merchant, stating such particulars as are necessary, and he keeps 
these papers as his vouchers. All duties are settled between the 
COM. QV. 30 



Auatf of Coins. Atsay at ShangltaL Costs on sycee. Kinds of Sycee. 

merchant and these bankers by the linguist and comprador. The 
rates at which foreign coins should be taktxn by the Chinese govern- 
ment was settled from actual assay in 1844; according to the follow- 
ing scale: — 

PROCESS or THE ASSAY. • ft~Vu'^ 

Anay ofj 

Vrw Peruri- 

an Dollan. 

AnaT of 5 
can Dollan. 

Ana; of S 
New Bolivi- 
an Dollan. 

Araar ofS 


Cm money. 

Weighed beft>ro melting. 
Weighed after melting, 
wmelting, and cast into 
a iho« of pure sycee, 

Loss of weight 

Value of 100 taels' weight 
of each coin, • • • 
Difference between 100 
taels' weight of coin and 
of pure sycee, - - - 
Amount of coin to be paid 
to equal 100 taels of pure 

6 2 3 

[ 5 6 5 

3 6 

3 2 3 

3 5 7 5 

3 19 5 

3 6 

3 2 10 

3 5 9 6 

3 19 5 

3 6 

3 180 

5 S 

0370 0380 

3 9 


4 2 

1 91 5 8 
i 8 9 15 

MOO 7 9 

PerurUo. , Mexican. 
89 7 2 2J 89 3 7 1 

10 2 7 7 10 6 2 9 

111 4 5 5 111 9 

89 1 6 7 

10 8 3 3 
112 1 5 

88 8 7 

11 1 3 
112 5 2 

Cm monaj. 
88 3 3 4 

11 6 66 
111 2 7 

The expenses of melting, remelting, &,c., &c., amounting to a 
charge of 1 tael 2 mace for every 100 taels, must be added to the 
last amount, and also a small percentage of 4 mace 5 cand. in every 
100 taels for the difference between the scales at the custom-house 
and those used by the shroff in the assay. Not quite so much how- 
ever as 4 tn. 5 c. is actually paid, but only 2 w. 3 c., making about 1 J 
per cent, more than the nominal duty as the real duty. It will be 
seen from this assay, that until sycee rises to 10 per cent, premium, 
it is a more advantageous medium for the foreign merchant to pay 
duties in than any kind of foreign coin. The usual premium for 
this kind of bullion at Canton has been from 6 to 8 per cent, during 
the last few years. 

The qualities of sycee silver chiefly current and most known in 
this market are four. 

1st. The ^p )^ ^^ Fdn-ku ting, or bars of silver from the Pu- 
ching sz' treasury. 

* An assay recently made at Shanghai "ives a result slightly different from this, as 
will be sccii by comparing the two. " Whereas, an assay of the touch of various new 
foreign coins was made at the custom-house by myself, the prefect, and district 
magistrate, in the presence of the Consuls of the Three I»Jations, it is my duty to make 
Dublic the result of that assay for general inforraation." 
*^ N. C. Herald, Nov. 8, 1865. 


■Wte=?ht before Melting, - 
Weight after Melting, • 

AUov in each Coin 











I 3 

I DoUart. 




T.M C.C. 




'I 23.0 I 2.20 I 2. 1.0 I 

Amount of Coin to be paid to ; '„., j j ^ I 1119.57 | 1112 5 5 I 110.7.2 I 113.1.50 Ill0.6.2.2 
equal 100 Tls of pure Sycee S I [ ! \ ! ! . 


Bankers. Storehouses. Rates of Storage. Construction' of Go-downs. 

2d. The TC ^^ ^£ Yuen-pnu ting, or large shoe-shaped ingots 
of sycee. (These two kinds are received as pure silver.) 

3d. The [iS ^Ipj |&p Kwdn-hidng ting, or hoppo's sycee, which 

is commonly at a small discount varying from 1 mace to 5 mace pet 
100 taels, or -^^ to h per cent, on pure silver. 

4th. The S§ Bm ^^ Yen-hidng ting, or salt commissioner's 

sycee, which is commonly at a small discount, varying from 5 mace 
to 1 tael per 100 taels, or ^ to I per cent, on pure silver. Other kinds 
and qualities are met with in small parcels, but the above four kinds 
are the principal. 

The names of the shops or firms, where the duties are taken on 

foreign imports and exports are Hangmow, »te H^ and Hopshing 
'o ^fe* '^^® ^^^'P Kwonghang j^ j^, by whose partners th6 
above assay was made, is within the city. 

When import cargo is to be landed, the seller agrees with the pur- 
chaser where it is to be stored, and an allowance for the storage is 
made in settling the transaction. Formerly, it was impossible to 
rent any of the spacious go-downs under the control of the hong- 
merchants, but several of them are now used by foreigners. The 
rates of storage in those which receive goods do not vary much from 
the following table ; some of the large foreign Houses have their own, 
and cargo of most kinds can be insured in them. 

Imports cents. 

Raw Cotton, 5 per bale per month. 

Tin, Copper, &c. 5 per pecul per month. 

Lead, Steel, Iron, - 3 per „ „ 

Ginseng, Gums, Cloves, «fec. - - . - 5 per „ „ 

Sandalwood and other woods, - - . .4 per „ „ -.s? 

Rattans, Betelnut, Rice, Pepper, &c. - • 3 per „ „ | 1 1 

Cotton Yarn, ----... 5 per 

Camlets, Long Ells, Lastings, Ac. - - - 15 per bale „ |||^ 

Spanish Stripes, &c. (6 pieces) ... 15 per „ „ l?-2 

Longcloths, Cambrics, Chintzes, «fec. - - i per piece „ J^'**" 

C 20 to 30 pieces. 10 per bale ,t 

Do. after 1st month ^ 40 to 60 „ 20 per „ „ 

(80 pes. and upwards, 30 per „ „ 

Raw Silk, ' 25 per per bale per month. 

Tea, chests, 3 j 

Half chests, 2 V each per month. 

Boxes, - - . - - . -Ij 

Laying down, weighing, and examining Tea, 5 candareens per pecul. 
Chop boats sent down to Whampoa for cargo with servants in charge. 

Goods are occasionally landed to be stored in the packhouses of 
the native merchants before they are bona fide sold ; but the actual 
purchaser .-settles all charges of storage with the owner of the ware- 
house. These buildings are of brick, situated on both sides of th^ 


Loading a Ship. Linguist's Duties. Risks in PackhouJtes. 

river, and resemble a succession of rooms without any partitions ; 
they are only one story, and the rooms where the goods are stored 
have no floors. The ground is chunamcd, or made with a hard fin- 
ish of sifted sand mixed with fresh lime and wood oil, beaten smooth. 
Goods of a delicate nature are liable to mold in them, but mer- 
chandize generally is kept securely. The old hongs were precisely 
the same sort of buildings, but since the war, the present tea traders 
have had them fitted up with sleeping-rooms and ofRce8,^here their 
clerks and coolies lodge, and business is transacted. Goods are stored, 
packed, and shipped off from the hongs to a large amount ; while the 
chan-fong, or packhouses, are also used for manufactories or work- 
shops, where workmen prepare the tea, silk, or other articles for mar- 
ket. Owing to the great risk there is in Canton from fire, and the 
high rates of insurance, and the difficulty of saving property in times 
of danger, foreigners have avoided having many of their own goods 
at Canton ; all the go-downs open on the river in order to facilitate 
the landing and shipping, which makes it easier to save property in 
case of fire. 

When a ship has discharged her cargo according to the manifest, 
she can leave the port as soon as all duties and fees are paid, without 
taking any export cargo. When loading a ship, the consignee tells 
the linguist where the goods are, their number, sort, &,c., and he 
takes an account of the same in order to draw up a report to present 
at the hoppo's office, and procure a permit for them to be shipped. 
The next day, the custom-house clerks come to inspect and weigh 
them, and settle the amount of duties to be paid upon the whole. 
The linguist makes his report to the hoppo's office, where all the 
accounts for duties, lighter-permits, and tonnage dues, are kept until 
the ship is loaded, and the duties are all paid up. They are the do- 
cuments by which the amount of import and export cargo is ascer- 
tained, and the duties levied thereon, and when the linguist applies 
for the port-clearance, he hands them all to the hoppo, who keeps 
them among the records of his office. In case of any dispute between 
the various parties engaged in the ship's business, they are referred 
to in settling the question. 

As soon as the goods are put on board the lighter, she leaves for 
Whampoa, and the second day after making application to ship off 
cargo, they are taken into the ship. The officer returns a receipt 
by the linguist's clerks, or by the coolies whom the seller of the cargo 
sends in the boat to prevent any fraudulent exchange of pa/kages. 
Both in exporting and importing cargo, there is usually a boat-load 
of sundries at the end, which is called the chowchoio chop ; this for 
convenience sake, is frequently examined at the factory of the con- 
signee, but differs in nothing from any other chop, except in being 
a little more miscellaneous. 

In loading teas, the captain of the ship should keep a good over- 
sight upon the Chinese stevedores, lest they place the dunnage care- 
lessly, deface or mar the chests, or get the ship ottt of trim. The 


Oversight of boatmen. Slowing Silks. Transhipping Cargo. 

ballast should be of small stones (always obtainable at Whampoa), 
and covered with boards so as not to touch the teas, while boards 
or split bamboos should be placed between the chests and the ship's 
side. If the boards on which the chests are slid into the hold are 
too greasy, or the coolies use the maul to drive them into their place 
without a board to save the stroke, or walk over them, the chests 
are liable to be marred and rendered less saleable. Sometimes the 
cargo canj^e taken in so as to put the heaviest teas, as Gunpowder, 
Imperial, or Hyson at the bottom, and Flowery Pekoe or Oolong at 
the top. It is well for the cargo to be ventilated all it can be while 
being taken in lest some of the chests sweat. The sample chests 
marked "muster" should be laid aside until the cargo is all in, and 
then stowed where they can be reached as soon as the ship arrives 
in her destined port. Silk goods in American ships generally pay 
a freight nearly double to that on teas, and are stowed in a sort of 
trunk formed by the coarser cargo in the hold near the main hatch- 
way, in order to protect them from leakage, and save them from injury 
as long as possible in case the ship is stranded or springs a leak. 
Raw silk is also stored more carefully than less valuable cargo. 
Anise or cassia oil and camphor are always carried on deck in tea 
ships, secured as safely as possible ; matting, rattan-ware and firo 
crackers are stowed upon teas ; cassia in mats is stowed in with 
the chests to fill up the corners. 

In taking in cargo, the receiving officer should not be interrupted, 
for he has need of all his carefulness to see that the coolies in the 
chopboat do not slily pass up a chest with two tallies stuck in it, or 
slip a package off sideways from the board after it has been reckoned. 
He should also see that the cases have not been broken open on the 
way down from Canton, and patched up again. 

Transhipping goods at Whampoa was formerly attended with 
great expense, for whatever merchandise was thus transferred, was 
charged with the same duties as if it had been brought to Canton, 
the Chinese government looking upon the transaction in the light 
of a sale by one ship to the other. This matter has been regulated 
by Art. XIV of the American Treaty ; small packages are tranship- 
ped without difficulty. If, through the miscalculation of the steve- 
dore in estimating the spare room, or the want of oversight in the 
captain, more goods are senrdown from Canton than can be received 
on board, they can be transferred to another vessel if a report is made 
through the consul to the Chinese officer ; but the formalities are 
tedious and troublesome, and care should be taken to avoid the ne- 
cessity. Commonly, transhipments of both imports and exports are 
made at Whampoa without reference to the Chinese authorities, but 
the amount is not very large in the course of a year. There are large 
hulks or chops anchored there for storing goods, and unsaleable 
cargo can readily be sent at convenience to any other port. Exports 
coming from any of the five ports are now usually transhipped at 


Manifest of Outward Cargo. Form of Blank for Clearance. 

When the cargo is all on board, the cdnsignee applies for the port- 
clearance through the consul, who requests of the hoppo to know 
the amount of duties, dtc, which are due. This list of cargo is 
furnished by the consignee, or captain to the consul, and a regular 
outward manifest is also made and signed by the master before the 
consul. The particulars of the cargo of each ship are entered upon 
the books of the Consulate, from which the periodical returns of 
trade are made up. 

Form of Application for thf. Grand Chop. 

Canton, 185 

To tht Superintendent of Customs, 


The Merchants have duly reported to me that the British ship, No. 

.^ Master, has completed the lading of her cargo outwards, and is now 

ready to proceed to sea, I have therefore to beg you will ascertain the 
amount of Import, Export, and Tonnage Duties for which she is liable, what 
amount is already paid, and what still remains unpaid, in order that her 
Grand Chop may be granted without delay, and the vessel proceed on her 
voyage accordingly. 

I have, &c., 

K B. M. Consxd. 

mVi\^ <r-nJSS^ySHMBJ<a 

«$I ^ ® :^ ^, <|n l^v im gj 4ni ;f(p 
Hk m; m 

By Art. XX of the American Treaty it is provided that goods 
imported into any one of the five ports, and having once paid duty, 
can be re-exported to either of the other ports and landed for sale 
without paying duty a second time. Goods are constantly sent from 
one port to another, by informing the collector of customs of the facts 
of the case according to the following formula. 



Form of blank Jor Reerporling Goods. 

Particulars to be staled. 

Form of Blank for Re-exporting Imports. 

Canton, — 


To the. Superintendent of Customs, 

The Merchants have represented to me that they desire to ship and 

send to for sale the undermentioned Goods, and have requested me to 

apply to Your Excellency for a Certificate of the Receipt of the Duties 
thereon, in order to prevent their beinor levied a second time. This applica- 
tion is accompanied by a statement of the quantity of the Goods, and of the 
particulars relative to their importation, which I now subjoin ; and I have the 
honor to request that you will, after verification of the same, issue the 
Certificate required, sending it to this Consulate for transmission to the said 


Name, Number, and National 

Flatj of Vessel in which the 

Goods were imported. 

The Vessel, the 
being No. of the year 185 

Denomination of Goods. | | 

Number and Description of 

Wei(;ht, Measure, or Custom's 
valuation of Goods. 

' Amount of Duty Paid. 

Taels, Mace. Cands. Cash. | 

Date of payment. | | 


■ ^ SI ^t 

tlmi] M 

I have &c., 

fc ,$«•? ^ 

•"'=• ^ hfe 

H. B. M. ConstU. 


1^ ^ 1; <|iii 15 ffl gf ¥ 







^ in; m 



Form of Cargo Report. 

Blanks used in American trade. 

It has been customary in the American trade to make out the 
export cargo of a ship from the report which the linguist gives in, 
taken from the account he has kept vv^hile she was loading. The 
details of a cargo are also often circulated in manuscript for general 
information, drawn up somewhat according to the following schedule, 
which are also preserved in books kept for the purpose. 

Ship, JVb. 

11 S P O XL T of the Export Cargo of the , Commander, 

bound for , to sail 185 



Half lOCatty 
ChttU. Boxf. 





Total Poundt 
in thit veitel. 

Total vounit titwt 

Young Hyson - - - 


Hyson Skin .... 


Gunpowder . . - - 


1 1 

Powchong .... 
Souchong and Congou 


Orange Pekoe - - - 


Ningyongs and Oolongs 


1 1 1 1 i 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 ! ■' 

SILKS, &c. 



tinee III 
July, 185 


in thit 

Total tir-ct Ut 
July, 185 

Pongees - - - Pieces 
Sarsnets - - - - „ 
Senshaws ... „ 
Camlets ----,» 
Lustrings - . - „ 

Satins „ 

Satin Damasks - ,, 
Satin Levantines - „ 
Crapes .... „ 
Gauze -----„ 
Serge .... „ 
Crape Shawls «& Scarfs 
Levantine Handkercliicfs 
Pongee Handkerchiefs 
Sewing Silk - . Peculs 
Raw Silk . . - „ 
Nankeen - - - Pieces 
Grass-cloth - - - „ 
Fans and Screens Boxes 

Matting - Rolls 
Rhubarb - Boxes 
Sweetmeats - „ 
Vermilion - „ 
Pearl Buttons „ 
Chinaware - „ 
Fire Crackers „ 
Star Aniseed - ,, 
Lacquered-ware „ 
Cassia Kuds - „ 
Oil Cassia - - „ 
Oil Anise - „ • 
Split Rattans Bdls. 
Camphor - Peculs 
Cassia - - • „ 
China-root - „ 
Gamboge - „ 
Tin - - - - „ 
Sugar ... „ 

When the duties are paid to the custom-house, the collector grants 
a port clearance, 'dkung-pdi^ red permit, or grand chop as it is called 
in Canton. This document is received in other countries as a valid 


Grand Chop. Laiv abo%U shipwrecked crews. Character of people on the coast. 

certificate of legal departure from Canton, though it will be seen 
from the translation that it does not exactly correspond to a port- 
clearance : — 

♦' by imperial appointment, superintendent of customs at the port of 

Canton, &c., «!tc , jrrants this is obedience to an imperial order to the effect fol- 
lowing : — ' European shijis having paid the dues of tonnage, &c , if by contrary 
winds or water they siiould be driven to any other province, not with design of 
remaining there to trade, shall, provided it be found that they possess a certificate, 
properly sealed, of their having paid siicli tonnage dues, be immediately per- 
mitted to depart, without any further exaction of charges. This decision is on 

" Now the foreign ship's merchant , having taken on board cargo, is 

about to sail to to trade ; the tonnage dues, &c , have all been paid ac- 
cording to law ; and this document is therefore given into the hands of the said 
ship's merchant, for the examination of those whom it may concern. Should 
the ship reach any pass, barrier, or other place where examination is used to be 
made, on presenting this, she must be allowed to proceed, without paying fur- 
ther charges or duties, or suffering any distress, stoppage, or hindrance. 

" The arms carried for the defense of the ship, according to old regulations, 
have been ascertained, and a list made, as hereinafter inserted. No more are 
permitted to be carried, nor may any contraband articles be taken on board ; 
a violation hereof will bring on the parties an inquiry which tliey will find inex- 
pedient. — A necessary document." 

[Here folloios a list of seamen, arms, <!^-c.] 

The above provides for the free admittance into any port of vessels 
driven thither by stress of weather. The following is the law with 
respect to shipwrecked foreigners, given in the forui of an imperial 
edict, dated the second year of Kienlung, a. d. 1737. ' 

"Along the whole extent of our coast, it continually happens that foreign 
ships and people are driven on sliore by gales of wind. It is hereby ordered, 
that the governor generals and governors of provinces take the lead, and cause 
officers to be particularly attentive in affording compassion ; that they employ 
the public money to bestow food and raiment on the sufferers, and to refit their 
ships : after which, that they cause their goods to be returned, ami see that they 
are sent home to their own country. This is done to manifest the extremely 
tender feelings of my imperial mind toward men from remote regions. Take 
this order and command it to be an everlasting law. Respect this." 

It is observable that this humane law provides relief for all 
distressed men, and there is hardly a year when Japanese, Corean, 
Lewchewan or Annamitic, boats or junks, are not wrecked on 
the coast of China, whose crews are alway.s taken care of by the. 
nearest officer where they land, and maintained and forwarded to a 
port where they can reach home, at the public expense. The crews 
of foreign ships have also been received and forwarded to the nearest 
port, when they have been cast on the shores of China. There i.s a 
great difFerence, however, in the treatment shipwrecked mariners 
receive from the inhabitants along different parts of this coast. From 
Hainan to Amoy, the people have a bad reputation, and are likely 
to plunder the wreck and crew as soon as they can reach them, but 
life is not often taken. From Fuhchau to Shanghai the people are 
more civil to the distressed, but the good intentions of this re.->cript of 
the emperor Kienlung are not very often carried out by his subjects. 

COM. GU. 31 


Grand chop formerly kept back. Lorchas and steamers. The Factories. 

In former days, difficulty was sometimes experienced in getting 
the grand chop, from the hong-merchant's inahility or dilatoriness 
in settling the ship's accounts; or it was kept back by the custom- 
house officers for the purpose of extorting money from them. The 
present arrangement has removed all unnecessary detention in this 
particular; and in short, the whole detail of the trade as at present 
remodeled, and particularly all that relates to paying the duties, is a 
great improvement on the old co-hong system. 

The port-clearance having been obtained, the captain presents 
himself at the Consulate ; and when all the fees and fines due from 
the ship are paid, his outward manifest signed and sealed by the 
consul, and his ship's pnpers all returned, he can leave the port. 
The pilot is obtained by merely sending for him at Whampoa, and 
telling him when to go aboard ship. 

The rules here given for conducting the business of a ship at 
Canton apply to all nations, most of whom have consuls residing at 
the port. In respect to lorchas and steamers which come up to 
Canton with cargo and passengers, there is less regularity. The 
former pay tonnage duty perhaps once or twice, but the small sized 
steamers not at all ; they all usually load and unload their freight 
without application to the hoppo, paying a fee to one of his tide- 
waiters stationed in a custom-house boat opposite the Factories. If 
the hoppo require it, they report their cargoes, and land or take 
in goods from the chop-boats under the supervision of a linguist. 
Steamers and ships drawing 12 or 13 feet easily come up the river 
to the city. 

Since the remodeling of the foreign trade at Canton, and the 
abolition of the hong monopoly, it yet retains many of its former 
features, and the dealers in particular articles still keep up their old 
branches of trade. Some caution is necessary in conducting business 
with the crowd of petty tradesmen who deal with foreigners ; but 
owing to the mutual ignorance of each other's language, the greatest 
portion of the trade is conducted without legal contracts, the parties 
settling their engagements by paying the bargain-money. The 
residences of the foreign merchants at Canton still retain the name 
of Factories (so called formerly from being the abodes of factors), and 
are all situated along the river bank at the southwest, corner of the 
city. They furnish no room for storing goods, and hardly enough 
for accommodating their inmates. Rents are consequently very high, 
from $1200 to $2000 being paid for a single house, and from $1000 
down to $500 for parts of factories. 


Hongkong a Free Port. Article of Treaty. RegtUalions about Lorchas, 

Sect f on 5. 


This island and the harbor are under the jurisdiction of the En- 
lish government; the port of Victoria is situated on the north side 
of the island, and is free alike to the ships of all nations. There are 
no port-charges or dues levied on goods or vessels, and ships dis- 
charge, tranship, and load their cargoes without the intervention 
of any officer, or rendering any account of their manifest to the 
local authorities. Many vessels are owned in Hongkong which trade 
with Macao, Whampoa and Canton, and also along the coast, under 
the protection of a sailing-letter furnished by the government. These 
vessels are allowed to enter the port of Canton under certain regu- 
lations provided for in Art. XVII of the Supplementary Treaty of 
the Bogue, Oct. 8, 1843, which is as follows : — 

" XVII. Small English vessels, such aa schooners and cutters, yawls, or 
fast-boats, of every kind, have hitherto been subject to no duties ; it is now 
agreed upon, that all such vessels going from Hongkong to Canton, or from 
Canton to Macao, with the exception of the letters and packages, and passen- 
gern' baggage, which according to the old regulations were exempted from 
duties, if laden with merchantable goods, whether for import or export, or 
whether yith full or half lading, even to a hundred weight of cargo, such 
vessels, according to their tonnage shall pay duties, as agreed upon. But 
these small vessels are not to be put upon the same scale with large foreign 
ships ; moreover they clear out and in several times in the course of a month ; 
also they differ from the large foreign ships which anchor at Whampoa only ; 
BO that if they should be called upon to pay duties like the large foreign ships, 
it would necessarily be inconvenient and improper. Henceforth, therefore, 
these vessels shall be classed in the following manner : the smallest of them 
shall be rated at 75 tons, and the largest of them at 150 tons, and every time 
they enter port they shall pay one mace for every ton ; those which do not 
amount to 75 tons shall be reckoned at that rate ; and those above 1 50 tons 
ahall be considered as large foreign vesseLs, and according to the new regula- 
tions pay five mace for every ton. With respect to Fuhchau and other porta, 
as there are no small vessels of this kind coming and going, it is not necessary 
to make any regulations. 

♦' The following are the rules by which they are to be regulated: — 

'« Ist. — Kvery British schooner, cutter, lorcha, &c , shall have a sailing letter 
or register in Chinese and English under the seal and signature of the chief 
superintendent of trade, describing her appearance, burden, &c., &c. 

" yd — Every schooner, lorcha, and such vessel, shall report herself, aa large 
vessels are required to do, at the Bocca Tigris ; and when she carries cargo, she 
shall also report herself at Whampoa, and shall on reacliing Canton, deliver up 
her sailing letter or register to the British consul, who will obtain permission 
from the hoppo for her to discharge her cargo, which she is not to do without 
such permission under the forfeiture of the penalties laid down in the llld 
clause of the General Regulations of Trade. 

"3d. — When the inward cargo is discharged, and an outward one if intended 
taken on board, and the duties on both arranged and paid, the consul will re? 
store the register or sailing-letter, and allow the vessel to depart." 

The Sailing Ijetter now furnished differs somewhat from that 
issued soon after the promulgation of the Treaty, and is renewed at 



Sailing Letter. 

Trade at Hongkong. 

Rates of Freight to Canton. 

The form at present 

least annually, and sometimes semi-annually, 
issued is as follows : — 

Certificate of British Registry. 

CTbfs fs to Ccttlfn, That having made and subscribed the declaration 

required by law, and having declared that sole owner in the proportions 

aperified on the back hereof of the ship or vessel called the of , which 

is of the burden of — tons, and whereof is master ; and that the sa d ship 

or vessel and having certified to me that the said ship or vessel has — 

and masts; ( ff err. foil mos a minute description of the vessel). And the 

said subscribing owner having consented and agreed to the above description, 
and having caused sufficient security to be given as required by law, the said 

ship or vessel called the has been duly registered at the port of 

Victoria in the Colony of Hongkong. 

Certified under my hand at Government- in the said port of Victoria in 

Hongkong aforesaid, this day of in 18 — there being no collector or 

controller of customs in the Colony of Hongkong. 

Governor and Com. -in- chief of the Colony of Hongkong. 

Registered under Ordinance No. — 

Issued annually. Colonial Secretary. 

The trade of Hongkong with Canton is annually increasing, goods 
being now easily and safely sent to and fro between the two ports 
by lorchas and steamers, and at a reasonable expense. The charges 
at present are based nearly on the following rates : — 

Alum - - • per picul - $0.10 

Aniseed Oil 
Betel Nut 
Bird's Nests 
Borabazettes, Cambrica 

00.80 J picul 





0.01 J 

Broadcloths, Spanish Stripes bale of 6 pes. 0. 50 
C-iralets • - - piece • 0.05 

Do. imitation - piece ■ O.Oli 


Ca-ssia Oil 





Copper & Yellow metal 

Do. - 
Cornelians ' 
Cotton Raw, Bengal - 
Do. Bombay 
Cotton Yarn 
Cotton Cloth, Drills, Ac. 
Drugs and Oil • 

Elephant's Teeth & Ivory 
Ginseng • 

Grasscloth - - case by size .25 a 0.75 

Gums and Cow Bezoar box • 1.50 

Iron and Lead • • picul • 0.12 

Lacquered Ware - acc'g to size .50 a 1.00 

Long Ella - - piece - 0.02^ 

Musical Boxes - • case • 2.00 

Nutmegs - • picul - 1.00 

Pepper - - - picul - 0.15 

picul c.ise 0.30 
case j picul 0.25 
box - 0.25 
case acc'g to size 30 cts. a 1.00 
picul - 0.25 
box orseroon 2.00 
box - 1.50 
picul • 0.12 
box - 2.00 
bale - 0.3,j 
bale • 0.50 
bale • 1.00 
piece • O.OIJ 
box J picul 0.25 
box of a picul 0.40 
picul • 100 
cask - 1 fi 1.50 

per case $0.25 
tiorce • 0.50 

barrel • 30 
flask • 0.50 
picul - 0.25 
bale 1.00 

casd $0.50 a 1.00 
case - 0.75 
picul - 30 
picul - 0.12 
barrel - 0.25 
bagor2mds. 0.25 
picul - 0.30 
picul - 0.20 
picul - 0.30 
piece - O.OIJ 
case $0.50 a 1.50 
ton of40 feet 3.50 
picul 0.12 

box - 0.25 
picul • 0.20 
ton of 40 feet 1.50 
C chest - 0.30 
Half chest 020 
( box • 0.08 
Tin - • • picul - 0.12 

Treasure and precious stones i per cent. 

Velvets - - piece - 0.02J 

Vermilion and Brass Leaf box • 0.25 

Provisions, salt 
Do. Do. 

Rattans - 
Raw Silk 

Do. - 

Do. Punjam 

Rice <t othor Grains 
Rosin, Pitch, Flour, &c. 
Sandal Wood ■ 
Sapan Wood - 
Shark's Pins - 
Shirtings, Muslins &c. 
Silk Piece Goods 

Spelter - 

Stoel and Tin Plates 

Do. under 5 tons 

Watches, Clocks 
Wiuc. Beer, Spirits 




case - 2.00 
case of 3 a 4 doz. 0.35 
case of 1 a 2 doz. 0.25 
hogshead • 1.50 
pipe 2.00 

Chow-chow cargo, if over 10 tons, at $2.00 per ton of 40 cubic feet. 

The great increase of the passenger traffic between Victoria and 
Canton and the towns in their neighborhood, and especially the great 
emigration to California and Australia, most of which centres at 
Hongkong, has greatly enlarged the commerce of the colony within 
the last four years. 



Limits of Port. Foreign Dwellings. . Jirlides of Trade. Fuhchan. 

Sectfon 6. 


Amoy is the most accessible of all the five ports, and no pilots are 
required either in entering or departing, if the sailing directions 
given on pp. 43-45 are carefully observed, though boatmen frequent- 
ly board ships to offer their services. The limits of the port as de- 
fined by the Chinese authorities, are within lines drawn from the 
southernmost point of Amoy island southeastward to the island 
nearest to it, and thence in the direction of the high pagoda on 
Lam-tai-hoo hill ; and from the northernmost point of Amoy island 
to the opposite point on the mainland. All the islands and waters 
between these lines are therefore included within the limits of the 
Port, outside of which no loading or discharging of cargo may be 
carried on, but properly speaking such operations are confined to 
the inner Harbor, between Kulongsu and Amoy. Some regulations 
were formerly issued requiring British merchantmen to engage 
pilots from and to the Chau-chat rock, but it is now optional- The 
foreign residences are all situated on the eastern shore of the harbor, 
and offer every advantage for storing and shipping goods in the ware- 
houses and jetties contiguous to them. 

The island of Kulongsu lies opposite the city, where gardens and 
walks have been laid out by the foreign residents. The mode of 
conducting business is simpler than at Canton ; the Consular and 
Shipping Regulations given in Section 4th, as well as the blanks for 
entering ships through the Consulates, and reexporting merchandise, 
are applicable to Amoy. The merchant pays the duties at the 
custom-house, to the hai-kwan, or collector of customs, who is a 
Manchu appointed by the tsidng-kinn at Fuhchau. 

The exports at Amoy consist chiefly of chinaware, kittysols, sugar, 
grain, medicines, alum, tea, &.C., most of which goes to Singapore 
and Siam. The imports consist of raw cotton, opium, cotton yarn, 
metals, cotton and woolen fabrics, and Straits' produce. The total 
value of the legal trade in English vessels during 1855 was over 
$1,800,000, which is probably about two-thirds of the entire foreign 

Scctfon 7. 

The foreign trade at Fuhchau is of very recent growth, for though 
the port was opened in 1843, the local authorities opposed all trade 
at it, and it was not until the year 1853, after Shanghai had been 
captured by the insurgents, that attention was directed to it as an 
outlet for the Souchong and Congou teas raised in the Bohea Hills, 
which usually had been taken to Shanghai. The teamen began to 


Tea the chief export. Weights. Bank Bills. Warehouses. Limits of Port. 

bring their stocks down to the headwaters of the R. Min and thence 
to Fuhchau ; and the next year, Oolung teas were also taken there. 
Opium previously had been sold at the station below Kinpai Pass, 
and a few cottons and woolens had been bartered at the city itself, but 
the whole trade hardly occupied the time of the^wo or three agents 
living there, until this diversion of the tea took place; being once 
opened it is not likely again to be closed. The tea is brought in 
open boats, protected by matting, and reaches Fuchau in excellent 
condition, where it is stored in warehouses to be made ready for 
exportation. The foreigner sends it aboard ship at Pagoda Island in 
his own covered boats, under charge of servants, and pays the duty 
himself at the custom-house through his comprador. The Canton 
men in the employ of the foreigners usudly interpret and conduct 
the business with the teamen, as well as with the officials and others 
at Fuhchau, who are ignorant of English. The consul merely reports 
the ship on her arrival, and her grand chop is issued as soon as the 
duties are paid. The tsiang-kiun, or Manchu commander-in-chief, 
has charge of the customs, and receives them by his deputy, usually 
called the hdi-kwiin, at the office on Chun-chow. 

The local weights at Fuhchau are catties and peculs, but the catty 
is the same weight as the English pound; and the pecul only 100 
lbs. av. ; the custom-house standard of 133^ lbs. av. to the pecul is 
gradually coming into use, but shipmasters and others should inquire 
what weights are used before they settle their purchases. Payments 
for small articles and incidental expenses are made in paper money, 
is.-sued by local banks in sums of 300, 400, 500, or 1 000 cash and 
more ; their value fluctuates from 1600 to 2200 cash for a chopped 
dollar; copper and iron cash vary from 1500 to 1800 for a dollar. 

The city of Fuhchau is situated about three miles from the river, 
and connected with it by a closely built suburb called Nantai. The 
river here runs nearly east, and the city is on the north bank. At 
the end of the suburb is the islet of Chun-chow, connected by a 
short bridge with it ; and on the opposite shore is a longer bridge, 
joining the islet with a far larger island, which extends miles above 
and below the city. The small island is entirely covered with houses, 
and is not unfrequently overflowed in freshes. The foreign mer- 
chants have offices or godowns on the opposite south bank ; the 
British Consulate was formerly located on a hill within the city, 
where a temple and its inclosure had been set apart by the authorities 
for their use ; it and the American Consulate are now south of the 
river. Few foreigners now reside within the walls. 

The anchorage at Pagoda Island is twelve miles from the city, 
though the limits of the port of Fuhchau extend from the iBridge to 
Kinpai Pass. The rates of pilotage are one dollar a foot from the 
White Dogs to Sharp Peak, where a river pilot boards the vessel, 
and receives likewise one dollar per foot to the anchorage at Pagoda 
I., all exclusive of charge for tow-boats. Small vessels, like lorchas 
or schooners, go above this point, and pay no pilotage. 


Limits of thelPorl. J^lavignlion of the river. Pilotage. Exposure to sun. 

Sectfon 8. 

NiNGPO has now the least trade of either of the five open ports ; it 
has however steadily and gradually increased since the place was 
opened to foreign ships in 1843. During the year 1855, the legiti- 
n)ate trade was greatly interfered with and diminished, owing to the 
pirates which infested the coast, and to the disturbances produced 
by the civil war in Chehkidng and Kiangnan. The port of Ningpo 
begins at the mouth of the river, and " includes all the portion of 
the Yung or Ningpo river comprised within a line from the northern 
extremity of the Chinhai promontory, called by the Chinese Chau- 
pau-shan, to the islet known variously as the Inner Triangle, the 
Pasyen I., and the Hu-tsun-shan ; and a second line running from the 
said islet to the northern base of the hill on the eastern side of the 
mouth of the Yung river, known as Lookout Hill." Within these 
limits only can the loading or discharging of cargo legally be done, 
The sailing directions on page 100 are plain for going to the city, a 
mid-channel course and no dangers. The rates of pilotage are $3 
from and to Square Island, and ^10 from and to Chusan I. In enter- 
ing the mouth of the river, there is liability to calms and strong gusts 
from the hills, and unless there is a leading or easterly breeze, the 
ship had better be dropped up with the tide to above the fishing- 
stakes, for between them and the Rock at the entrance on the port 
bow, there are many sunken junks and much stone ballast, which 
render it unadvisable to anchor. The pilots are generally inefficient, 
though some are in training who may by and by become capable, 
and receive certificates from the consul. Ships drawing not over four- 
teen feet water, enter with little difficulty ; they should take the chan- 
nel south of the Triangle Is., at about a cable's length off. The 
spit of sand on the northwest point of the Middle Triangle has 
increased in elevation since Collinson's survey, and a wide berth 
must be given it, when a ship comes through the Middle Channel ; 
heed must be taken, too, of the spit off" the east side of the Inner 
Triangle. The North Channel is suitable only for vessels of light 
draught, and then at the top of the tide ; the nearer the Tiger's 
Tail Rock the deeper the water. 

Shipmasters at Ningpo should be careful to have their water 
brought down from six or eight miles up the river, as the stream 
is brackish off the city, and the boatmen will declare that their tubs 
are filled high up, when to save labor they have loaded them just 
beyond the walls. Residents use rain water, which cannot be had 
in quantities for ships' tanks; many crews have been attacked bjf 
diarrhoea from drinking bad river water. In winter, Malays and 
Lascars are liable to suffer from frozen hands and feet, and often 
injure themselves by putting these members in hot water to relieve 
the pain. On the other hand, European sailors need to be very 


Provisions. Hints to Traders. Cautions. Currency. Mum- 

careful about exposing themselves to the sun in summer, the heat 
being more hurtful than even in the tropics; cases have been known 
where the heat has strupk a man down to the ground and death en- 
sued in a few minutes. 

Ships are supplied with provisions alongside, and what is worse 
too with spirits. About 25 lbs. of beef, 12 lbs. of mutton, 28 lbs. of 
bread, 18 lbs. of biscuit, or 12 lbs. of poultry, can be procured for a 
dollar. Laborers on board ship receive three mace per day each, 
and a boat to wait on a ship can be had for $5 a month. 

In conducting business, it must be borne in mind that weights and 
measures differ somewhat in every part of China. Mistakes often take 
|)lace in consequence, and merchants having commercial dealings 
at the ports open to foreigners, whether in buying or selling goods 
by weight or measure, or paying or receiving money by weight, 
should make inquiries and learn the differences, and if practicable 
reduce everything to custom-house standard. The Ningpo merchants 
are not men of established character, or of very great means, and 
care should therefore be taken when goods have been sold to deliver 
them as per muster, and in good order and condition before wit- 
nesses, lest the market falling, the purchaser should damage them 
and say that he received them in that state, as a pretext to throw 
up his bargain ; and in buying goods, every package should be 
examined before being removed from the seller's premises in order 
to guard against false packing and other frauds, which are common 
in this part of the country. Merchants should get a purchase note 
(vulgarly called a hong-chop), without which document, in the event 
of fraud or failure, the sufferer would find difficulty to establish his 
claim in a Chinese court of law. 

The officials at the custom-house are stricter than formerly, but 
obliging and kind in their intercourse, giving the port-clearance 
without unnecessary delay ; ships are allowed to drop down to Chin- 
hai without the grand chop. Sycee is preferred by the collector of 
customs, but he refuses no kind of coin at the current rate. The 
common currency is slightly chopped Spanish dollars, but the stan- 
dard is the unchopped Carolus dollar, which fluctuates from 1600 
to 1800 cash, and even 2000 at times; the Ferdinand chopped dollar 
is about 4 J mace of copper cash discount, and the Mexican dollar 
about 5.^ mace discount. 

One of the principal exports from Ningpo is alum, most of which 
goes to India. It is obtained in Ping-yang hien in Wan-chau fu, 
from the Sung-y^ng hills near the borders of Fuhkien, and not far 
from Peh-kwan (Pihquan) Harbor. The locality was visited in Dec. 
1855, by a foreigner who started from Chih-k' in Lannai Harbor, a 
little north of Peh-kwah ; he gives the following particulars ; — 

" Three hours' hard walking over a succession of precipitous hills, crossed by stone 
iteps and pathways brought him to the mines. Ten alum-making establishments were 
in operation, which, with the exception of one on a hill opposite, occupied about a 
mile of the side of, a lofty hill. The works were adiacent to the quarries from which 
the alum-BtoTie (>eemed to crop out of decomposed rock of the same lithological cha- 



Preparation of ^tum. Ret xportatwn of Produce. Residences at Ningpo. 

racter. The itoncs were thrown into a fire of brushwood where they burnt with a slight 
lambent flame, and a* they cracked, the fragmenta were raked out broken into swall 
pieces, and macerated in vats. Subsequently the disintegrated mineral was thrown 
with water into a vessel, having an iron bottom and sides of woikI, and boiled for a short 
time. The lixivium was then poured into large reservoirs wh«re it crystallized into a 
•olid mass. Blocks of alum weighing about 50 catties each w«;re hewn out of the re- 
servoir and carried in this state in bamboo frames, one on each end of a porter's pole 
to the place of shipment, where it is broken into fragments. When not designed for 
immediate exportation the blocks are stored away for drying. On reaching the depot 
the alum is found charged with a double quantity of moisture, for the porters being 
obliged to deliver a certain weight, slip their burdens in the mountain stream.i which they 
pass in the journey. Judging from the number of laborers engaged in transporting the 
mineral on the day of our informant's visit, the quHutity brought from the works could 
not be less than eighteen tons. This wis represented as less than an average day's 
work, as labor was in such demand just then for agricultural purposes that double pay 
was given; — and aged men and women, with boys an;T girls, were pressed into the service. 
Assuming that day's product as a basis for calculation, and making an allowance for rainy 
days, we may safely estimate the annual supply as between five and six thousand tons j 
and the quantity consumed by the dyers of Ningp" prefecture alone being nearly 22 
tons per annum corroborates this estimate. The supply is literally inexhaustible. 
Five dollars and a quarter per ton at the landing would afford the manufacturer a fair pro- 
fit. It often fetches much more, ae there has been an incrfasing demand for the article 
owing to the greater facilities afforded for exportation from Ningpo in foreign vessels. 
The Wan-chau alum is equal to the best Roman ; a roseate tint in some specimens 
indicates the presence of minute quantities of iron. We h^jve no means of ascertaining 
the precise geological position of the rock from which this alum is procured ; some 
circumstances seem to indicate it to be a new mineral. It is stated that no potash noj 
any other material is employed in the workb. Granitic and porphyritic rocks abound in 
the vicinity, and some parts of the district produce iron and silver.'' — N. C. Herald. < 

Alum is also used by Chinese masons as a cement, being melted 
and poured into the interstices of their stone-work, and of course in 
damp situations erelong loses its adhesiveness, and the walls crunir 
ble. Carved and inlaid ivory furniture, and enameled silver work, 
are common articles of e.vport from Ningpo. The trade in rice and 
sugar has greatly increased at this port during the last two years, but 
is still carried on under some disabilities, as most of it is coastwise, 
and not regarded as strictly a foreign traffic. 

Tiie reexportation of native goods from one port in China to 
another has been a point on which the authorities and foreign con- 
suls have had much discussion. In 1854, Mr. Parkes, the British 
consul at Amoy, made an arrangement by which Chinese subjects 
were permitted to freight foreign vessels between Amoy and Ningpo 
on payment of the same duties which the merchandize would have 
paid in native vessels, payable at the time of shipment and discharge, 
and altogether not more than 'i^ per cent, at valorem. There has 
been a disposition at Ningpo, however, to retreat from this arrange- 
ment in respect to native produce transhipped at Shanghai into the 
small crat\ plying to that city. The inspectors of customs there 
require the previous payment of the native duties into their own trea- 
sury, and then issue a certificate declaring such goods to be exempt 
from further duty at Ningpo, which certificate the collector of cus- 
tomB at the latter city receives with great difficulty. 

Most of the foreigners live outside of the city walls and across the 
northern branch of the river, where they have built residences and 
warehouses. Excursions are taken into the surrounding country at 

COM. tIL. ii"J >k 


Treatment of .Yativcs. Shanghau Increasini; importance of tfie Port. 

pleasure, and sometimes parties remain abroad for days. It is need- 
ful- to caution persons goin^ among the people iinywhere in China 
not to offer wanton disrespect to the temples or idols of the people, 
nor to desecrate or injure tombs, nor to force their way into houses ; 
in short, not only to do no positive injury to the people, but to guard 
against doing anything to shock their prejudices. Many foreigners 
act as if they thought the Chinese had no more rights than slaves, 
and looking upon them as ready to cheat in tr :de wheriever they can, 
take the badness of the native character as the excuse for their own 

Aectfon 9. 

The great increa:*e of the trade at this port since it was opened in 
1843 has shown conclusively that its position at the mouth of the 
YAngtsz' ki ng will gradually attract to its markets most of the traf- 
fic with the centre of China ; and the more that vast region is in- 
vestigated, and its products examined with regard to their adapted- 
ness to foreign con'^umption, by which at the same time the induce- 
ments will be increased to the people to buy foreign goods, so much 
the more will Shanghai increase in importance as a mart. The oc- 
cupation of the city by armed insurgents from Sept. 8th, 1853, to 
Feb. 17th, 1855, and the consequent action of the foreign communi- 
ty to defend themselves from insult and attack by the institution of 
a separate municipality, has done much to give the foreigners resi- 
ding at the port a commanding influence in the eyes of the Chinese. 
The city is now rapidly recovering from its disasters, and will soon 
have a greater population than ever. 

The establishment of the foreign Inspectorate of Customs grew 
out of these evils, and has opened the way for foreigners to be 
officially employed by the Chinese government; and through the 
influence of the Consuls and Inspectors, more has already been 
done for improving and facilitating the navigation of the river up to 
Shapghai than at all other ports on the coast. Since Sects. 13 and 
14 (pp. 106-111) were printed, the whole ground has been carefully 
examined, and a light-ship and buoys anchored, under the supervision 
of Lieut. Geo. H. Preble, U. S. N., who has also revised the old sail- 
ing directions, and issued them in a new form, which is here inserted 
as a substitute for those two sections. 

Sailing Directions for the Navigation of the Tang-taze Kiang to 
Wusung and Shanghai. 

Vessels bound to Shanghai from tlic West Coast of America or the Pacific, 
and all who are unacquainted with the navigation of the Chinese coast, are 
recommended in the northerly monsoon to make the Saddle group of isianda, 
aH being the most weatherly land-fdll. 


Islands near the Saddle Is. Barren Is. Lighthouse shoxdd be on Gutzlaff I. 

During the Boiithweet monaoon, for the same reason they are advised to steer 
for the high dome-shaped island of " Video," called by the Chinese " Wong- 
fihing-shan," which is the highest island to the southward, and in a clear day 
can b«? seen fifty or sixty miles. This island has a bold precipitous appearance, 
and is nearly square. It has also a remarkable white cliff, which near to shows 
distinctly when the island bears NVV. by N. The summit of Video is in latitude 
30° 6' N., longitude I'^iif" 46' East of Greenwich. 

N. 74° E. from Video, and five miles distant, are seven rocka called the "Four 
Sisters ;" and N 78° E. nine miles, are two rocks called the •' Brothers." Be- 
tween these rocks and Video, and between the two groups of rocks themselves, 
there are safe passages, the depths varying from thirty to forty fathoms. 

N. 24' E., and I'.i^ miles from Video, is Leuconna, which appears when seen 
from the South at that distance three abrupt and round-top huinmocka. 

N. 17" W. 1" miles from Video is the " Beehive Rock," 3o feet high, with 
a rock awash tluee cables to the Eastward of it, otherwise the depth of water 
around it is t'rom 14 to 17 fathoms. 

Between Leuconna and the East Saddle, is " Childers Rock," which is a 
rock awash, and which does not always show. When on it, the peak of E. 
Saddle bears N 9° W , the Barren Isl.inds N. 70°E., and Leuconna S. 15°E. 
The lead gives no warning of it, the depth being 24 fathoms close to. This is 
the only hidden danger in the passage up to and beyond the Saddles. It is there- 
fore needless to mention the appearance of any of the other land beyond and 
to the Westward, the charts being a sufficient guide. 

The Saddle Islands form the Northern boundary of the Chusan Archipelago, 
and comprise a group of five large islands called the "North," " South," " East," 
" False," and " Side," Saddle, with numerous smaller islets and rocks included 
between the latitudes of 3»i"40' and 30° 5o' N , and longitudes r<!2' 3')' and I22' 
49' £. The two largest of the group are saddle-shaped, about b'lO feet high, 
and of similar appearance when seen from the Eastward. The Northernmost 
point of the North Saddle Island is in Latitude 3U° 50' N., and its Easterntnost 
point in Longitude I'^i" 42" E. 

East by South from the North Saddle, and to the Eastward of the East Saddle, 
in Latitude 30" 43' N., Long. 123^ Ot/ E , are the Barren Islands, which are 
three rocks about fifty feet high, nearly East and \N est from each other. To 
the Southeastward of tlie eastern rock is a rock awash, distant from it about 
two cables. In some of the former directiotis, navig.ttors have been recom- 
mended to make these island.^, probably as a caution in coming from the East- 
ward, as they arc the most eastern rocks on the (}liinese coast belonging to China. 

Leaving the Saddle Islands, keep the North Saddle bearing about SE. by E., 
and bring Gutzlaff Island to bear South fifteen or sixteen miles distance, when 
the Amherst Rocks, if in sight, will bear NE. i E. twelve miles. From this 
position, in a very clear day, Sha-wei-shan to the north, the Amherst Rocks, the 
Saddle Is., and several of the Barren and Rugged groups, as well as GutzIaiT, 
can be seen ; such a clear atmosphere does not often occur, however, though 
both the Saddles and Gutzlaff are often in eight at once. 

Gutzlaff Island is 'ilo feet high, and in a clear day can be seen twenty-seven 
miles. It appears a small round lump, and has a small rock or islet off its N. 
Eastern point. It is to be hoped that at no very distant day a light-house will 
be established on this island, which, standing as it does in the gateway to the 
Yang-taze Kiang, affords the best possible position for one. The Light should 
be a fir.'it class light., of the flishing or revolving kind, which can be seen thirty 
miles or more. As the island is more than high enough, a tower of sufficient 
size to contain the lighting apparatus and keeper s dwelling, would be incon- 
Biderablc The yearly expense for keeping would be much less than what is 
required for keeping up the Light-ship, for which a beacon of some kind might 
tktn be substituted. 

The Amherst Rocks are a small cluster of ragged rocki, of which one is larg- 
er than the rest, and elevated twenty feet above low water. Including the aur- 


Fonr.iov roMMF.R€r. with rni\.A. 

Amherst and Ariadnt Racks. Shn-wti-shan. Lightship. Btucon. 

rounding reef they occupy an area of half-a-mile in extent, and mark the 
Easternmost rxtent of the North banks. In the old sailing directions it was 
recommended to make them, but it is now considered best, for reasons which 
are obvious, to make Gutzlaff I. as above. It may be well here to remark, that 
no vessel should attempt to pass up the river without first sighting Gutzlaff or 
the Light-vessel. The Amhrrst Rocks are in Latitude 31*09 " 0;T" N., L')ng. 
12v»°23't)6" E , and bear from the North Saddle N. 42' E , distant 24 miles. 

W. 14° S from the Amherst Rocks arc the Ariadne Rocks, on which several 
vessf is have struck. These are all under water, and seldom seen, and there- 
fore to be avoided. In heavy weather the sea is said to break upon them, but 
several of the most experienced pilots say they have never seen them. 

North of the Ariadne Rocks, sixteen miles, and about N. by W. from the 
Anihersts, is the island of " Sha-wei-shan," about the sire or a little larger 
than Gutzlaff, and one hundred and ninety-six feet high It is not often seen 
when a ship is in the right position for approaching the North bank. Vessels 
approachirig the river are therefore cautioned, that when it shows plainer than 
Gutzlaff (which is the same height), that they are loo far to the Northward, 
and in danger of entering the False Channel to the northward of the North Bank . 

After bringing Gutzlaff 1. on the before-mentioned distance and bearing, if a 
clear day, the Light-ship under the North Bank will be seen, when steer for 
her to cross the outer Bar. If the day is not clear, steer Northwest until she is 
seen, when steer for her as before directed and pass iier at any convenient dis- 
tance, leaving her on your starboard hand. If working in be careful not to bring 
the Light-ship to bear to the Westward of VV. by N. if in a ship of large draught, 
or to the Southward of West if in a small vessel, as the bank shoals suddenly 
from four or five fathoms to two, according to position, and the Ariadne Rocks 
bear E. 1 1 ° S. from the Light-ship, 13 miles distant. 

Using this caution, you may when up with, pass the Light-ship close to, &a 
most convenient, though strangers are not recommended to go rnside of her. 
Thence steer W.N VV. until you sight the Heacon erected on the South shore 
at the " Three Trees." When the South shore Beacon, or the " Three Trees," 
bears about W.SW , your ship will be in six fathoms at low water, and the 
South shore will be plain in eight. 

Continue now a \V. course, and pass the South Shore Beacon at 
two or more miles distance, when you will in all probability see the dry North 
Bank on your starboard hund, which is only covered at the highest spring tides. 
You will soon rise " Block House Island," which at first has the appearance of 
a Cluster of fishing-boats, gradually showing itself a low island covered with 
bushy trees. When ^hc large Htmse on this island bears NE. by E., you ara 
in the narrowest part of the channel, which at that point is only one mile and 
a quarter wide. After passing Block House on the starboard hand, you should 
gradually close with the South shore to about a mile, and keep it at that dis- 
tance until the marks and buoys for Wusung spit are seen. As the South shore 
bank is steep to, that shore should not be approached nearer than three-quarters 
of a mile. The second clump of large bushy trees on the low point open half 
a point of the square and well-defined outer point of Paushan, will clear you 
of the Wusung South spit, if the buoy shitild at any time be removed. 

The foregoing directions apply to vessels of a heavy draught, say eighteen 
feet ; small craft may use much more freedom, closing with the South Bank 
when Gutzlaff is 12 or 15 miles to the Southward, and working up with the lead 
for a guide. The Southern shore is not to be depended on all the way, however, 
for the Bank is very steep after passing the Beacon, and should not be approach- 
.ed under three-quarters of a mile. 

After passirig Wusung marks, keep the Western shore well on board until 
after passing Wusung village, and up to the first point on the Eastern side, or 
until you open the second creek on the Eastern shore, which will be about a 
mil? above the village, then cross over and keep the Eastern shore close on 
.board until up to the head of this reach, where a fleet of junks is usually moored 
opposite a village, which course will also take you over the Bar above Wusung, 


W-usung Village. River Channel. Two Bars. Tides. High Wader. 

the channel over which Bar in some places is scarcely a cable wide. Through 
the next reach the course is nearly south, and deep in mid-channel ; when up 
with Half-way Point, close with the Eastern Bank again, and keep it close on 
board until the foreign settlement of Shanghai is in sight, when cross over and 
keep nearest to the right or Western shore. 

The depth of water on the outer Bar at the lowest springtides is twenty-one 
feet, and on the bar above VVusung it is about twelve feet. The greatest draught 
of water ever brought up to Shanghai, has been between twenty-one and twenty- 
two feet, and a ship drawing that much water will have to wait for the spring 
tides to pass up or down the Wusung river. 

In working up after passing the Light-ship, you should not in standing to- 
wards the North Bank bring her to bear to the Southward of S.E. by E. | E.; 
and on the South Bank side should go about when in Hi^ fathoms of water. 

The deepest water is near and along the South edge of the North Bank. 
Generally the inner edge of the North Bank is lined with heavy fishing stakes 
close to, which are planted in four and five fathoms of water. A ship's length 
inside of them there is but KfewferX of water. 

It will be generally safe for a vessel to anchor off the entrance of the river, 
outside of Gutzlaff I. in four, five, or six fathoms water ; and I would not re- 
commend an anchorage being sought under the Islands at night unless there are 
appearances of bad weather, as it will frequently take all the daylight of the next 
day to work up from the Islands. 

In the summer time, if bad weather is approaching, which the barometer will 
usually foretell, an anchorage should be sought under the Islands, or the vessel 
kept to sea, as it is dangerous to enter the river when a gale is coming on, with- 
out a prospect of getting in. It is, I think, preferable to anchor rather than 
stand to sea, as the weather is sometimes thick or foggy ; the tides are strong 
and uncertain, and the ship's position may be lost. 

All the compass courses given in these directions are to be varied according 
to the stages and strength of the tides. The use of a ground log for both course 
and distance is therefore recommended, the ship's course being materially 
affected both by the strength and set of the tide. 

It is high water at the full and change of the moon in the neighborhood and 
to the Eastward of Gutzlaff, between 11 and 12 o'clock. In the river off 
WuBung, high water occurs at the full and change about 1 hour 30 minutes. 
The rise is uncertain, but ranges from one fathom to fifteen feet. Its velocity 
is from 1 ^ to 4^ knots, but it is affected both in velocity and direction by the 
prevailing wind. 

From the Saddle Islands to Wtisung the tide generally sets NW. by VV., 
and SE. by £. when fully made, if no such cause as NE- gales or heavy raini 
interfere. The flood makes first to the Southward, then S VV., and gradually 
round to NW. at half-flood, which is its direction at the strength of the tidfl. 
The first of the ebb sets to the Northward over the North Bank, and in like man- 
ner changes round to the Eastward, gradually running the strongest when 8E. 

It is at the turn of both tides that most caution is necessary to avoid being 
Bet out of the channel. Round the SE. edges of the South Bank the flood 
gets W.SW, and the ebb the contrary way. Leaving the position off Gutzlaff 
at a quarter ebb, a vessel will carry the flood to VVusung if there is any wind. 

Competent foreign pilots (English and American) will be found cruizing ip 
the neighborhood of the Saddle Islands during the summer months, and at the 
entrance of the river outside of Gutzlaff in the winter No sailing directions 
can do away with their usefulness to the stranger, where the safety of the ship 
depends so much upon a correct knowledge of the tides. The signal of the 
authorized pilots is a flag half red and white horizontal, with the number of 
the boat in black. 

The marks to guide ves.sels coming into the river, and referred to 
in these directions, which were prepared by Lieut. Preble, are des- 


Gwdtx into the River. Light Vessel. Beacon. Buoys. Poles on Abr/ft Bank. 

cribed by him in a letter to the American Consul at Shanghai, dated 
July, l8o5, from which the following is an extract: — 

First. — A Lijjht vessel of one hundred and thirty-one tons burthen has been 
moored with heavy chains and anchor in four fathOKjs of water at low water 
upring tides, near the Southwestern extremity of the SoutheaHtern part of the 
North Tung-sha Banks. Thin vessel is placed in latitude by observation 31* 
09' 15" N , Loni^itude by the mean of several observations by the three chro- 
nometers of the U. S. S. Macedonian, 121' 5i)' K. : and bears by compass from 
the centre of GulzlalF N.NVV., from whicii she is distant ^5 miles. This 
position places her on the inner edge of the outer bar marked on Collinson's 
Chart of the river, and well up towards the North bank. In working in, she 
should never be brought to the Westward of W by N. in a ship of heavy draufjht, 
or to tlic Southward of West with a smaller vessel. Tiie Light ship will be 
readily distinguished from ordinary cruizing vessels, by having her two lower 
masts and topmasts only aloft, and from her hull and masts being painted a 
briglu red, also from having inverted cones of basket work six feet in diameter 
placed over each of her topmast heads. For the present at night slje will hoist 
an ordinary ship's light until a better one can be provided. She is furnished 
with a set of iMarryats signals in order to communicate when requisite with 
vessels in the offing She has on board a European captain and Chinese crew 
to attend her, and it is hoped will prove a rendezvous for the European pilots', 
whence they can board in-bound vessels. It is proposed that when from her a 
stranger is observed to be running into any danger, she first fires a gun to attract 
his attention, and then hoists Marryat's signal in Part V. No. 168ii, — "Vessel is 
running into danger," followed by the compass signal of the course to be steered 
to avoid it. 

Skcomd— Contracts have been entered into for building a Beacon tower of 
masonry to be twenty feet square at its base, and fifty feet high, and tapering 
off-to ten feet square at that altitude, and to be surmounted by a mast or spar 
of fifty additional feet — thus making its whole height one hundred feet This 
Beacon will be erected on the South shore, near what is known to pilots and 
others as the "Three Trees." When completed, the Beacon is to be white- 
washed, and the mast painted black to afford the most distinguishable contrasts, 
and will be seen in an ordinarily clear day before losing sight of the hull of 
the Light ship. 

Third — A large nwn Jwoy painted red has been placed upon the South- 
eastern extremity of the Wusung North spit in three fathoms' water at lowest 
•spring tides. 

Fourth — A Large nun huo>j painted black has been placed upon the North- 
eastern extremity of the Wsuung South spit in three-and-a-half fathoms water 
at lowest spring tides. 

- Fifth.— The three poles on the inner angle of the stone fortification on the 
right or Northernmost bank at Wusung, used as leading marks for the entrance 
of Wusung river, are to be replaced by three new ones each sixty feet high. 
The two rear ones are to have crow's-nests built around them, and will be 
painted red. The pole in front will be shorter than the other two, and have on 
its top a bull's eye or target, and will be painted white. The white pole between 
the two red poles is the leading mark for entering the Wusung river. 

In addition fo these marks, eight iron buoys are to be placed 
alternately along the inner edge of the North Bank, and upon the 
northernmost points of the South Bank ; and others are to be placed 
to mark the middle ground in the Wusung River. 

In addition to the complete directions given by Lieut. Preble, the 
following general remarks concerning the navigation of the Chinese 
coast in both monsoons, will form a valuable appendix to the surveys 
already given, as lliey aro the results of many year.s' experience. 


Vessels sliould keep in shore. Current and Rocks in Bashec Channel. 

The Passage ftrom Hongkong to S hanghai. 
By George A. Potter, qfthe American ship " Architect." i 

VesBfla departing from Hongkong bound for Shanghai, in the northeast 
monsoon, should bo in good condition for contending with rough weather and 
for Ciurying sail. Upon leaving, either the Jjy-u-moou, or the Lamina passage 
can be talten, the latter being preferable for a large vessel. When clear of the 
islands the wind will be found to be E.NE. generally, or as the line of the 
coast trends, and when the monsoon is not he^ivy, periodical changes of wind 
occur : at such times vessels sliould be close in with the land early in the 
morning, and tack off shore at about « a.m., standing off till about 'i p.m.; and 
on the inshore tack standing boldly into the coast, making such arrangements 
during the night as will bring the vessel in a position inshore again in the 
morning. When the monsoon is moderate, vessels should not stand far into 
the bays, as Ihey will by so doing, experience light winds and oftentimes 
calms; and on the contrary when the monsoon is strong, they should stand in 
ae tar as possible into the bays, and then not stand farther off than is actually 
necessary, especially as the chango.s of wind above alluded to seldom occur at 
such times ; it must also be borne in mind that vessels alm')st always go faster 
in-sliDrc, than they do off, as there is a ground swell heaving after them when 
in with the land. During the severe monsoon gales, whicii last about three 
days, vessels should seek shelter in one of the numerous good anchorages to 
the Westward of Breaker Point, when, upon the breaking up of the g:le, they 
can make a fresh start, and perhaps get around Formosa before encountering 
another, especially after the month of November. Having reached Breaker 
Point, stretch over for the south end of Formosa, and upon getting to the 
Eastward, the wind will be found to veer northerly, or more as the coast of 
Formosa trends, and a good sailing vessel will be almost sure to fetch the South 
Cape or Lambay Island to windward. Upon getting in with the land, light 
variable winds or calms are often met; but the strong SW. current will very 
soon drift the vessel down, when she will find the breeze coming on fresh again. 
In passing the South Cape in the daytime keep close into the land, and the Bearer 
the shore the stronger the favorable current, there being no hidden dangers In 
goiniT round in the night, however, and when there is no moon, it will be 
advisable to pass to the southward of the Vela Rete Rocks, and tacking to the 
N.W. when nearly in the longitude of Gadd's Reef, or sooner if it is daylight, 
as the South Cape of Formosa is very low, and rather unsafe to approach on a 
dark night; and .'iijuin when a gale cornea on and a ves-sel is obliged to heave 
too, being to the Westward of the Cape, and near it, a strict lookout should 
be kept during the night, as sevenil vessels under these circumstances, have 
found themselves to the eastward of the Cape in the morning, having been 
drifted to windward during the night and passed probably within a dangerous 
proximity of the Vela Rete Rocks The current sets sometimes with incredible 
velocity around the (^ape, and then up northward along the coast, and the harder 
the gale the more rapid the current, gr ideally diminishing in streiiiitJi towards 
the nortliend of P'rrmosa. After rounding the Cape vessels should work short 
tacks along the cast coast of Formosa, keeping close inshore to get the benefit 
of th " current, 

Having reached the northeast cape of Formosa, (the wind not having veered 
to the Eastward, as may sometim'^s be the case), keep between the meridians 
f)f the Barren Islands and the islands off the northeast of Formosa, not stretch- 
in/ in for the coast of (/hina until able to make a lead in for Video or Lcuconna. 
Thence to Shanghai follow the sailing directions given by Lieut. Preble u. s. v. 
in his survey of the mouth of the Wusung River. 

Regarding the trip to or from Shanghai in afjir mrnsoon, little can be said; 
coasting vessels, when without observations are in the habit of sighting the land 
to verify their reckoning. lathe N.E monsoon there is a constant current down 
the coast running with more or less vel 'city according Uy the strength of the 
wind, and the wind generally blows along the hne of coast, i. e. E-JNE. from 


'I)(foons and Currents on Const. Btirometer tisefkd. Pilot Rtfrututionif. 

Hongkong to Breaker Point; NE in the Formosa Ch&nnel ; and N N£. fiom 
Formosa northwards. The first pait of the monsoon is verj strong ; and 
frequently in the month of October, it is almost an incessant gale, at a later 
stage from January to May 8E. winds are not uncommon, and they become 
more frequent as the season advances ; there i» also considerable thick weather 
in the latter part of the monsoon ; and a SC. wind to the northward of Formosa 
almost invariably brings a d-nac fog with it. 

The passage from Shany;hai to Hongkong in the S.W. monsoon is very 
tedious from the frequent alternate calms and squalls, with a constant stron r 
current up; coasting vessels generally use their kedge wiien there is not 
sufficient wind to make any progress. In workmg down it is well to keep in 
with tha coast, stretching into bays and by headlands, to get out of the current, 
if there is sufficient wind tu preclude the possibility of getting becalmed. 

The tyfoon season is considered to extend from July to October ; during 
this period of the year a barometer cannot be watched too closely. Tyfoon* 
have happened in May and June, though this is seldom the case These storms 
appear tii originate to the Eastward in the I'acific Ocean, and passing the 
Bashee Islanda, traveling to the Southward of West, their centres pass nearly 
over the parallels of Hongkong and .Macao ; a falling barometer with a norther- 
ly wind is almost a sure sign of the approach of a cyclone in this vicinity. In 
coming from the Eastward they sometimes turn off their usual course, which 
is perhaps eaused by the high land of Formosa intervening between the place 
of their origin and the coast of China and at such times they travel North, 
curving agam to the Westward This inference somewhat accounts for the fact 
that Amoy is seldom visited by these storms, and they are never felt there with 
■uch a degree of severity as at the other ports to the north and south of Formosa. 
The cyclones are generally preceded by a heavy swell from iSE. to E. 

ISflot 3ElraulatfonB for tie $oit of ibbanstaf. 
Issutd Dec. lOth, 1855, by Ckau, the Tautai and Collector of Customs. 

Ist.-i-A Board shall be appointed by the three Consuls, sanctioned by His 
Excellency Chau, consisting of not less than three, nor more than five, ship- 
masters, with whom a Naval ofiicer shall be associated if required, before 
whom all persons wishing to become pilots shall appear for examination. 

'2d — A certificate of competency from a majority of said Board being de- 
posited at his Consulate, shall entitle the person therein named to a license as 
& pilot. In all cast's where the nationality of the applicant is other than one 
of thorfe nations in treaty with China, his certificate from the Board of Ex- 
aminers must be deposited with the senior Consul, who will obtain for him the 
necessary license. 

3d. — Eviry pilot-boat is to hoist a red and white flag horizontal, on which 
the number of his boat shall appear in bbck. 

4th.— The rates of piloUge shall be by the water the ship draws, viz., from 
Gutzlaff, $5.00 per foot; from 4Jeacon-ship, $4.00 per foot; from any point 
outside Wusung, but inside Beacon ship, jftii.od per foot ; from Wusuug to 
Shanghai, $:{.0i) per foot. The same rates of pilotage are allowed for vessels 
outward bound. 

5th. — Every pilot on boarding a ship shall produce for the inspection of the 
master his license as a pilot. 

6th. — All persons acting as pilots without a license as hereinbefore prescribed, 
shall have no claim for services rendered, and be dealt with by their own 
Consuls according to law, for violating these regulations : and all such cases 
not coming within the jurisdiction of the Treaty Consuls, are to be referred to 
the local Chinese authi.ritii-s. 

7tli — Pilo s shall be responsible for the faithful and complete discharge of 
their duty ; aud any misconduct, either from ignorance, incompetency, willful 


Municipal f^overnnvtnt of Foreigners. Inspectors of Customs. Tautai, 

neglect, or otherwise, being proven, shall entail a forfeiture of the offender's 
license, in addition to any otheir liability he may have incurred by the laws of 
hia own country. 

On reaching the foreign settlement, which lie.s on the northeast 
side of the city, and along the west bank of the VVusung river, the 
ship anchors opposite the residences of the merchants. These are 
situated between two creeks called the Si'ichau and the Yangking- 
pang, on a parcel of ground which was set apart for foreigners; it 
comprises about eight square miles, and is rapidly tilling up with sub- 
stantial buildings. The mercantile establishments lie in a compact 
settlement, each one having godowns, and other outhouses within its 
own inclosure. The government of this settlement is a municipality, 
founded on a body of regulations drawn up by the residents them- 
selves, assisted and sanctioned by the English, French, and American 
consuls, who have undertaken to see them enforced over all persons 
living within the limits, the natives being examined, and when guilty 
handed over to the Chinese authorities. 'I'here have been some 
doubts expressed as to the power to make and execute these laws in 
this manner, and the system rests rather on the necessity felt for some 
well understood plan of action, and the unanimity and public spirit 
of the community for carrying it out, than on a legal foundation. 
The public affairs are administered by a Committee of three or 
more, annually elected at a general meeting of rent payers, to whom 
it makes a report. The necessary funds for making and repairing 
streets, roads and jetties, lighting streets, and maintaining a police, 
are raised by direct taxes on land and houses, and by a wharfage 
rate levied on all goods landed or shipped ; they amount now to about 
$10,000 a year. 

Owing to the entire suspension of the power of the officers of the 
Chinese government, when the iuvsurgents captured the city in 1853, 
and the consequent confusion in the customs, it was agreed between 
the Tautai and foreign Consuls to establish a foreign Inspectorate 
of Customs composed of three persons, one appointed by each of 
the consuls of the three Treaty powers, whose duty it should be 
to have a general superintendence of the foreign customs of the port, 
and form regulations for making the service effective, all to h^. dDue 
with the consent and under the supervision of the Chinese authorities, 
'i'his system went into operation July 12th, 1854, but has not 
hitherto received the express sanction of the Board of Revenue and 
Court at Peking. 

'i'he highest officer at Shanghai is the tdutdi ^ ^g or intendatit 
of circuit, whose authority extends over the three prefectures of 
Suchau, Sungkimg and T.iitsing, alt lying in the northeast of the 
province of Kiiings ; this officer is subordinate to the governor at 
Siichau, and has come to reside at Shanghai since it was opened to 
foreign commerce. His salary is legally 4000 taels per annum, biit 
the perquisites of the post are estimated at 365,000 taels, out of 
which he pays his subordinates and ofTicial exp«Uors. The office is 

CUM. GL. 33 


Corps of Insptciors. Regvlaliona for ships, loading, trannhippinfr, tfc. 

reckoned to be worth from 25,000 to 30,000 taels a year to the in- 
cumbent. Besides the tliutai, the chrhien, or district magistrate of 
Shanghai, resides in the city, with other local district officials; but 
except the chikien himself, they have nothing to do with foreigners. 
The Inspectorate is now composed of the following persons : — 


Three foreign Inspectors, $6000 per annum. 

Bookkeeper an J Secretary, 2500 „ „ 

Three linguists, 75 per month. 

Seven writing clerks, 5 „ 

One head watchman, 5 „ 

Twelve watchers, 7 „ 

Six coolies, '• 4 „ 

Captain of the revenue cutter, 300 „ 

Thirteen men for crew, 5 „ 

One howder, 12 „ 

Ten boatmen watchers, 162.50 „ 

Total outlay, $^362!00 per annum. 

The Inspectors, with the advice and cooperation of the Tdut^i, 
have published a series of regulations for vessels and shippers of 
goods, which went into effect July 12th, 1854. Since their publica- 
tion, some others have been announced, one or two of which in- 
timate that the duty on some articles has been diminished. 

Foreign Shipping. 

1. The Port. — The limits of the port are defined by the Port Regulations 
dated 26th November, 1846, to be — "Within the lines formed by Paushan Point, 
bearing West, and the Battery on the right bank at the mouth of the river 
below Wusung, bearing Southwest." All vessels landing or receiving cargo 
from shore outside the boundary line, are by treaty liable to confiscation, with 
their cargo. 

2 Rkport OS Arrival. — Masters of vessels casting anchor within the port 
should by treaty report themselves to their Consul, and deposit their ship's 
papers and manifests with him within 48 hours. For failing to do this, for 
exhibiting a false manifest, or for discharajing cargo without permit, either be- 
fore entry or after clearance, they are liable under treaty, to fine. 

3. Entrt. — No vessel can be entered until the Custo.Tis receive a copy of 
her manifest, and other necessa'y information from the Consul of her nation ; 
or, if there be none present at the port, from the Consul of some other nation . 

4. Mamff-st. — The master is responsible for the correctness of the manifest, 
which should contain a full account of the goods and cargo onboard. Should 
tJiSFfrbe any packages, of the nature or contents of which the master is unin- 
formed, these must be stated in the manifest. If the master or consignee be- 
come aware of the incorrectness of the manifest, no time must be lost in ap- 
plying to amend it. 

5. DiscHARGiKG. — As soou as a vessel is entered, the Customs issue to her 
consignee, on his application, a general permit to open hatches, which should 
be handed to the master : but the master must allow no cargo to leave the ship 
without a special permit to consignee, on which the consignment is described, 
and he must be careful to attend to the printed directions on the face of that 

6. Loading. — When the whole of the cargo is discharged, the master will 
obtain, through his consignee, from the Customs a general permit to load, but 
he muit admit no cargo without a special permit to skipper. 


Permits granted. Lighters. Exclusion of Cargo. Duties. 

7. Transhipping. — No transhipment can be made from one vesael to another, 
without special permit. N. B — The master must be careful neither to dis- 
chaiire any cargo'into, nor receive any from, an unregistered cargo-boat, unloBS 
tlie permit contain a special pennisiion to native or other boats. This is 
never refused where there are reasonable grounds of application. 

8. Hours. — All shipment, landing, and t.-jnshipment, must be effected be- 
tween sunrise and sunset, on all days, Sundays excepted. 

!>. Ci-EARA.NCK.— A vessel cannot receive her Customs' clearance, commonly 
known as her Grand Chop, until her loading is completed. Her permits are 
then collected on board by the captain of the revenue cutter, who hands them 
in to the Customs. Her Grand Chop is then issued, and on production of this 
at the Consulate, her master receives back her papers. N. B. -Masters of 
vessels clearing for a Chinese port should be careful to apply also for the Grand 
Chop in CItintse. 

Shippers and Consignees. 

1. All applications whatever regarding Customs" business should be address- 
ed to the Inspectors of maritime customs. Much delay will be saved by at- 
tention to this rule. The Custom-house is open for the receipt and issue of 
all necessary papers from 10 a.m. to 4 p m. on all days, Sundays and holidays 
excepted. Cargo may be shipped or landed, under pormit, from sunrise to 

'2. Permit to open Hatches. — Is a general permit issued on application of 
the vessel's consignees, as soon as she has been entered by the Consul, and 
her manifest has been received either from the Consul or the consignees. 

3. Permit to ("Consignee. — Is a special permit issued to each consignee, to 
enable him to land his consignment. The applicant must state the number of 
packages, with their marks, the nature of their contents, their weight, value, 
quantity, or dimensions, as the case may be. 

4. Permit to Loau. — Is a general permit applied for when the vessel is ready 
to take cargo. Until it is issued, no permit will be granted to shippers. 

5 to Shipper. — Is a special permit applied for by every shipper. 
It must give full particulars of the intended shipment: — if of TEAS, the 
marks, aggregate total of packages, viz., chests, half-chests, &c.; descriptions 
of Teas (Congou, Hyson, Twankay, «Jk.c.,) and aggregate weight of each de- 
scription ; if of SILK, the marks, number of packages, description of silk 
goods, viz., silk, coarse silk, silk piece goods, Ac, with the aggregate weight 
of each description ; if of other GOODS, the number of packages with their 
marks, weight, or value must be given, where the tarift'duty is levyable accord- 
ing to either. 

6. Estimated Weight or Value. — If the applicant for permit be unable to 
give tlie exact weight or value of his goods, he is to give in estimated weight or 
value. This is presumed to be the nearest possible approximation to the actual 
weight or value, and he is expected to give notice of any amendment he may 
have to make, as soon as he is in possession of more accurate data. 

7. ExcLt'sioN OF Cargo. — The earliest possible notice must be given of the 
exclusion of cargo fur the shipment of which a permit has been granted. If it 
has left the shore, it should not be re-landed, until notice has been given to 
one of the Inspectors, or to their Secretary, or to the Captain of the revenue 
cutter, when a person will be sent to verify the report. 

8. Cargo-boats. — Without special permission, which will always be given 
on reasonable grounds, no cargo can be shipped, transhipped, or landed, except 
in a registered cargo-boat, the person in charge of which must hand the shipper 
or consignee's permit to the master or mate. No cargo can be placed on board 
a cargo-boat, until permit to land or ship the said cargo has been issued by the 
Customs, and any cargo-boat receiving cargo without such permit is liable to be 
deprived of its register. The owner of any boat so offending, if a Chinese, is 
also liable to be otherwise punished. The number of registerca cargo-boats ^ 
not limited. 

260 FokRiGN commer«:k with china 

Ihtttf keceipL^. Brokers. Sforinjo: of Produce. Banks. 

9. Penalties.- Apnrt from the fines provided by treaty for particular ofFencea, 
any breach of the Customs' rpgulatjonn, respecting the shipment or discharge 
of goods, exposoH such goods to seizure and confiscation. 

10. Dutiks. — Consignees or shippers should apply as early as 
possible for a Shtcui-taa or Customs' memo, of the duties due by them. When 
the amount specified thereon has bebi? paid into the Hai-kwan Bank, or receiving 
office, the Itaou-skau or duty receipt obtained from the Bank is forwarded to 
the Inspectors. They return to the payer a printed receipt in English, which 
is handed to the consignee of the vessel, and by him transmitted to the Custom- 
house when he desires to clear her. 

1 1 . Tonnage Dues. — Vessels bringing full cargoes of rice or grain into port 
pay no tonnage dues. Vessels are also exempt from these when, having paid 
them af any other of the five Ports, they come either in ballast, or to complete 
the disposal of their original cargo. ^a an 

12. Durv RECEtPTS. — The Lien-tan Heu" ^fl, or inland guaranty to pay 

duty on a stated quantity of produce, is not a duty receipt (Haoushau Sw J'^^, 

nor is the quantity therein stated necessarily that on which duty will be levied. 
It may be more or less. Native merchants, tendering these Linn-tan to the 
foreign purchaser of produce, should be directed at once to exchange them at 

the Bank for the proper Bank certificate, viz : the Hiani^-tan '§|nj m , which 
is equally valid with the Hnuii-shau. When a duty receipt is for a sum larger 
than the amount of duties due, the Hai-kwan Bank will exchange it for two 
receipts, one for the amount due, and the other for the balance. Application 
direct to the Bank will save some delay, both to the payer and to the Customs. 

The trade of Shanghai is carried on more directly with the mer- 
chants who bring produce from the interior than it is at Canton, 
where the routine of the old co-liong still keeps these men at a dis- 
tance from the foreigner ; but as these country people cannot talk 
English, they come with brokers who interpret for them and con- 
duct the bargain, or else apply to the foreigner through his own 
comprador, either of whom in that case receive a commission of 1 or 
2 per cent, for their agency. These traders and brokers come from 
all the northern and eastern provinces, but the most active are the 
Canton men. The principal articles of exportation are tea and raw 
silk, in which the increase has been very rapid since 1846; the 
manufacture of several kinds of silk piece-goods is increasing, and 
will probably extend owing to the nearness to the producing dis- 
tricts, and the diminution of good workmen at Canton. The export 
of other articles is comparatively trifling. 

- Produce is received in the warehouses of the foreigners, where it 
is weighed, examined, and prepared for shipment. Payment is not 
made until the goods have been carefully inspected, unless where 
they have come in from the country under contract. This is fre- 
quently done by foreign Houses for tea and silk, especially for raw 
silk ; and some of them annually send native agents with funds into 
the interior to purchase tea and silk. The native capitalists come 
chiefly from Ningpo and Suchau, and advance on these staples at 
the interest of 1 to 2 per cent, per month, according to the state of 
the money market ; they also issue notes payable in ten days, which 
when from "-ood bankers pass currently among foreigners and na- 



Climale of Shanghai. 

Winds. JVavigation of the Yangtsz^ Kiang. 

lives, and greatly facilitate exchanges. They charge the recipient 
f 1 per $1000 for ten days, after which if not taken up, the interest 
is calculated from that day on. 

The climate of Shanghai is more variable than Canton, but has 
proved generally healthy to the foreign community since they have 
erected good dwellings. The averages of the thermometer at the 
two places, with the prevailing winds and^ notice of the seasons at 
Shanghai, are here given: — 









Prevailing winds at Shanghai. 





January, - 







N.E. to N.NW. & generally N.NW 

Ft'bruary, - 







N.E. to N.W. and generally N.W. 

March, • - 







N.E. to S.E. and variable, [able. 

April, • - 







E.NE. to S.E. chioBy S.SE. & vari- 

May, - ■ 







E.SE. to S.SE. 

June, - - 







S.E. to S.SE. 

July, - - 








August, - - 















N.E. toE. 








N".E. to N.W. 








N.W. and variable. 








N. to N. W. 

January is-generally fine. In February thick fogs occur. March 
is damp and disagreeable. April has more rainy days than any other 
month except June, which is the wettest month. In May there is 
but little rain, and that little occurs in heavy showers. July is hot, 
dry, scorching with considerable rain in the form of evening thun- 
der showers. July and August are the hottest months. In Septem- 
ber the SW. monsoon is wholly broken up, and the temperature is 
very changeable. In November the winter fairly sets in, the first 
frost appearing from the 12th to the 20th. December is the driest 
month of the year, and the weather clear and freezing, though fogs 
are of occasional occurrence. Snow and ice remain but a few days 
at a time. In May, June, and July, fogs also occur. The mean 
height of the barometer from January to April is 30.25 inches; from 
May to September 29.83 inches ; and from October to December, 
30.34 inches. 

In order to complete the series of sailing directions for ships on 
the Chinese coast, the following article has been taken from the 
London Marine Mercantile Magazine for 1854 ; with the charts of 
the Yangtsz' kiang in his hand, these hints will greatly assist the 
navigator going up the river. 

Remarks on the Passage up to Nanking, 
By H. R. Elliott, Master of H. B. M. S. ^'Espeigle," March, 1848. 
The Blonde Shoal, about ten miles from Pau-shan, is the first difficulty met 
with . to avoid which it is adviHablc to keep as near as possible, in a small vesBcl 


PL Harvey. Single Tree. Great Bush, Pagoda. Foo-ghan iCroasing. 

in your own draught of water, (8^ fathoms) on the Southern bank, as by hauUng 
off and deepening to 3 fathoms we grounded on it. It was tlien low water, ana 
there were only 2 feet on its ahoalest part. 

It appears to be composed of a bi^d of rocks, covered with mud ; the banka of 
the river on both sides present such a sameness in appearance that there is no 
possibility of giving any leading marks for them. The bearings (while aground) 
of the extremes of the land, on the South bank, carefully taken with an azi- 
muth compass, wereTrom E. 49' S. to W. 4'J° N. The whole of Tsungmin<i I. 
to Point Harvey is the san:-, low, flat, unremarkable land. When nearly 
abreast of the broad opfning (5 or 6 miles to the Southward of Point Harvey), 
it showed plainly, and several small junks appeared passing through it. 

On nearing Point Harvey, it is necessary to note that the Point itself is low 
ajid without trees on it; and to fix upon some particular object before abreast of 
it to mark the spot, to keep it in a proper bearing, (SE. by E.) in shaping a 
course to the westward. By not being prepared for the difficulty in making out 
the Point, a vessel will be liable to be set by the flood on the banks to the North- 
ward, particularly if the weather is the least hazy. 

Single Tree on the South bank, is a tree at this season apparently withered, 
and about half its height from the ground spreading into two branches, and 
having a forked appearance ; but another tree, of a withered appearance, not so 
high, is to be seen close alongside it to the Eastward. 

Great Bush is a cluster of tall trees, with thick foliage. Between Plover 
Point and Foo-shan, in the middle of the channel, we had shoal water (3^ 
fathoms), Lang-shan Pagoda bearing N. by E. J E., and the second from the 
Eastward at Foo-shan, with some buildings on it, W. ^ N. Running with a fair 
wind, we endeavored to deepen our water, first by hauling up to the Northward 
but shoaled to "2^ fathoms ; by keeping her directly across the channel to the 
Southward, we deepened to 8 or 9 fathoms. Lang-shan Pagoda will be easily 
known ; it is on the summit of one of three hills, which when seen from the 
Southward and Eastward appear nearly as one. The whole of the surrounding 
country, as far as the eye can each, is one unbroken flat. 

At Foo-shan there are four very low remarkable hills, the Easternmost is the 
smallest and at a distance not easily made out. The second hill, the ne.xt close 
to it, is higher, and there are some houses on it. This hill together with Lang- 
shan Pagoda, are excellent marks for passing over to the north side of the river. 
This part of the river is called the Foo-shan Crossing. A dift'erence between 
the depths found, and those on the chart, is to be expected, but having worked 
the vessel across, 1 consider, by close observation of the cross bearings, that 
the banks may be easily avoided. 

On reaching the North bank, from thence westward, the navigation is rather 
precarious from the great breadth of the river (the South bank not being visible), 
the want of leading marks, and the channel being much contracted. In return- 
ing down this part of the river it happened to be dead low water, the banks on 
both sides being uncovered in many places to the height of from 5 to 9 feet ; it 
was also uncovered in places where 2 and 3 fathoms are marked on the charts, 
and in one part where Kea-shan hill bore to the Southwestward of us, the 
channel was visibly contracted to less than three-quarters of a mile ; when to 
the westward of Kea-shan, we frequently shoaled to 3i fathoms, and although 
we yawed from side to side close to the banks, we seldom deepened to more 
than 5 fathoms, until we got well to the eastward of Kea-shan. From the un- 
favorable state df the weather, being mostly thick, drizzly and raining, we 
were unable to make any observations, such as the opportunity would have of- 
fered had the weather been clear, and allowed us a view of distant objects. In- 
side the banks, on the North side of the channel, there appeared even at the 
low ebb of the tide, a channel used by some small junks, their hulls being 
nearly hidden by the uncovered banks between us. In coming up after leaving 
the Foo-shan Crossing, the right bank may be kept pretty close on board (as the 
chart indicated), but several fathoms less water than is marked will be found. 


■Kea-shan Hill. Slarling L Shaydon R. Choo-shan Pagoda. Jupiter Shoal. 

When Kea-shan bears about W.SW., I consider it best to increase the dis- 
tance from the North bank, and gradually borrow towards the South side of the 
channel until you are to the westward of Kea-shan. We anchored near the 
North bank in '22 fathoms of water, Kea-shan bearing SW. by W. ^ W., Lang- 
shan Pagoda SE. by E. i E., and the East end of a low flat patch, to the 
Southward, S. i VV. Kea-shan will be easily known ; it appears when first seen 
from the Eastward like a small round knob of laud ; all the land in its vicinity 
is very flat and low. Koo-shan is a small low hill, with some houses on it, not 
easily distinguished if the weather is at all hazy. All the hills marked on the 
chart on the South bank will be easily known as far as Kiang-yinhicn ; the 
low one forming the point of the river, opposite the south point of Yin-shan, 
kept on a S W. by W. ;J W. bearing, though a distant, is a tolerably good mark 
for leading between the Cornwallis Shoal and the banks to the Northward ; the 
west extreme of the range of hills on the South bank, which bears S.SE. from 
Koo-shan, will serve as a good mark also ; a cross bearing of Koo-shan will 
show when you are near, and when past it. The Cornwallis Shoal is the small 
bank on the South side of the channel, marked with J i fathoms on each end of 
it, bearing from Koo-shan E.SE. nearly ; we saw it completely uncovered. 

Proceeding up the river, the South end of Starling Island and Hwang-shan 
will become visible ; by keeping the latter not quite on with the South end of 
Starling Island, but rather to the Southward of it, it will lead you right up to 
it, clear of the banks which project from the North side of the channel. 

Starling Island is long, exceedingly low and flat, the Southern part is wood- 
ed and populated, but the Northern part is an extremely narrow low slip of 
land, that will, judging from appearances, in all probability be swept away the 
first time there is an unusual swelling of the river. The Northern extremity 
for about a mile has already disappeared, which I found by transit bearings 
both on going up and coming down, the present bearings of the North extremi- 
ty of the island from Hwang-shan hill, being E. by N. ^ N. (by chart it is N. 
JE. by E.) ; and instead of there being \2 fathoms i;lose to it, it is rather shoal, 
and should be given a berth at low water of at least half a cable ; all the rest of 
the Island from its South Point upwards we found bold. When abreast of the 
eastern entrance to the Shaydon River it appears difficult to proceed, the chart 
showing a blank without any soundings, and instead of one small island only 
appearing on the right hand, there are three large ones visible, with houses 
and numbers of rush huts thickly studding the islands all over ; they extend 
as far North as an E. NE. bearing, from the North point of the Eastern en- 
trance of the Shaydon River. On the chart deep water (13 fathoms) is marked 
near the North point of the Shaydon River, but we found only 4 or 5 fathoms, 
and deepened our water by hauling more towards the islands abovementioned. 
After passing this place, keep towards the right bank of the river, (taking the 
precaution not to come too near the Northward extremity of tiieso Islands, in 
the event of any spit growing up in a Northern direction,) until Choo-shan 
Pagoda (which will soon be seen over the land and recognised) bears nearly 
West, when the left bank must be immediately crossed over to ; you will then 
be to the Westward of the long shoal marked with ^ fathom on it, but which 
was visible to us full 6 feet above the water a mile in extent. This shoal is 
called after the "Jupiter," which grounded on it. Proceeding onwards, there afe 
apparently no obstructions to the navigation of the river, until past the western 
entrance of the Shaywan-ho. In the channel nearly duo west from the Choo- 
shan Pagoda, a sunken rock is marked on the chart ; it was visible to us about 
7 feet above the water, and had a pole fixed on it ; it lies about a cable's length 
from the eastern shore, and abreast of a small hill on the same side. There is 
anchorage along the North side of this channel. 

Seaou-sha Island is extremely low and flat, without trees or habitations of 
any kind on it, and I should think was frequently inundated. To the Southward 
and abreast of its Eastern end, there is, 1 believe, a shoal extending from the 
Southern shore to within a cable's length of this part of the Island, on which 
H. M. ship Calliope grounded. It is said there are only 'J feet of water on it. 


Silver I. Marion Rock. Pi-tin choiv. E-ching. ^In-gan-ahan Pagoda. 

Silver Island. — We passed up and beat down to the Southward of this island ; 
depths will be found less than are marked on the charts, and very unequal ; 
going up, the point on the South or left bank may be round'id pretty close, but 
just within it, abreast of the Island, it shoals. Borrowing close to this side to 
weather the west end of Silver Island, we shoaled to 3i fathoms, for several 
casts. Off the west end of Tasha is a bank which we shoaled on, working out. 

Marion Rock. — Proceeding on past Golden Island, there is a sunken rock 
marked on the chart close over to the Northern shore ; it lies however directly 
mid-channel, and in a direct line between the West point of the creek on the 
South bank, and the most elevated and remarkable part of the bank on the 
North shore ; it has been built upon by the Chinese, and now shows 4 or 5 feet 
above the water. I observed a whitewashed mark on the rocks below the Pa- 
goda on Golden Island ; and after passing the rock, we brought the t*agoda 
and this mark in one. It then appeared in a direct line over and on with the 
rock, and appears intended as a mark for it. On our return down, by keeping 
the Pagoda open to the right of the mark, we passed close to the Southward 
of it. 

Pi-sin-choto Island. — Midway between the Eastern point of this island, and 
on the North side, is a bank uncovered, 3 or 4 feet above tlie water, with ap- 
parently a navigable channel, used by the junks on either side of it;t,we stood 
near it, and tacked in 15 fathoms of water, not far from it. Along the SE. side 
of this Island (Pi-sin-chow) are several banks, whick uncover at low water; 
they lie parallel to the shore a short distance from it, and are steep. 

After passing E-ching, there are some remarkable hills ; first, a range mark- 
ed on the chart as stretching to the N W., but also to the NE. Next, westward 
of them, are two C(mical hills with some table land at the back. 

A very little farther west is a remarkable table hill. Westward of the creeks 
at E-ching there are some shoal patches near the North shore, on tlie side of 
one of which we anchored during the night, the wind failing us ; the weather 
next morning was too hazy to observe any bearings to get our position, but I 
sounded during the night, and found 4 fathoms above half a cable from the 
shore, rocky bottom. 

Off the mouth of the creek pn the North shore, and SE. by E. from the tw^o 
hills, we had some shoal casts, over a rocky uneven bottom, extending to the 
Southward one third of the way across the river ; we tried to pass through the 
creek which leadw to the Southward of Tsau-shan, or rather T.<iau-hiau-hia 
Island, but advancing about one third the distance were obliged to retrace our 
steps, finding only half the depth of water mentioned in the chart. It is a very 
narrow channel, a longer vessel than our own would have been obliged to 
have returned the best part of the way stern foremost. Off the NE. side of 
Tsau-hiau-hia Island a shoal extends full one third of the way across the river. 
Its Nortliern edge uncovers for ab<nit three cables' length in a direction parallel 
to the shore ; when abreast of the centre part, Nin-gan-shan Pagoda bore 
N.NE. i E. The Island has pretty deep water close up to it to the Eastward 
of this shoal. 

From what has been observed, 1 consider it evident that there is at this pre- 
sent time full 15 feet less water than usual in the river. After passing above 
Choo-shan Pagoda we never felt any upward stream of tide, although there 
■was the usual rise and fall. There was sometimes a short period of slack water 
before high water, but rarely. The usual strength of the tide downwards was 
from li to 2 knots. 



Position of Macao. -, *fi Free PorK , „i,/,C/«»i^e CVwfom-ftoMse abolishedi:^ 

■ ,'; . ; 1'. 'nil).-" '■■)"'■ ' ■ '' 

5iectfon::40.i > ^ 


This city lies on a peninsula forming the southeastern end of the 
large island of HiangshSn, having an open roadstead on the east^^ 
and a small secure harbor on the west. Off the south end of the, 
town about three miles, is another anchorage between two islandaJ 
called the Typaj" where ships lie securely. The entrance to the Iht 
ner Harbor has only thirteen feet water, or sixteen in spring tides,^ 
and the Harbor itself cannot easily contain more than twenty ships^^' 
larger vessels lie in the Typa or the Roads, to complete their lading.^ 
The colony of Macao was placed on a more independent footing 
than it had heretofore been in relation to the Chinese governments^ 
by the convention between Kfying and Gov. Pinto in 1843, at whick 
time Portuguese vessels were also permitted to trade with the five^ 
open ports. The authority of the government was formally extend- 
ed to the Typa anchorage, where a fort was erected in 1844. The 
entire' area of the Portuguese jurisdiction,. from the Barrier, vvhicK 
divides the colony from the district of Hiungshan, to the Typa ^a 
out into the Roads, is about twenty square miles. ; i^ii; tji >■> o;giiirtfb 
The town of Macao lies near the south end of the peninsula, Tieadfp 
ing across to both shores, and inclosed by a wall on its north sid6i 
beyond this wall towards the Barrier are cultivated fields, with ttie, 
village of Wanghia, or Mongha, and other hamlets, occupied almostr 
entirely by Chinese. By a decree of Donna Maria, dated Nov. 20th 
1845, the port was declared to be free to the commerce of all na- 
tions, excepting of course the traffic with the Chinese, which still 
existed according to the stipulations made with that government.r 
However, on the 5th of March, 1849, Gov. Amaral issued a pro- 
clamation declaring that, " the Portuguese custom-house having 
been closed, it cannot possibly be allowed that a foreign custom- 
house should continue open at this place, and that duties should bej 
any longer there collected on all sorts of goods, provisions, materials, 
and other commodities, on most of which duties and other export' 
charges had already been paid, the imports of all kinds' from the 
ports of China shall be free from the payment of any duties at Macao; 
after the li2th of March, and no receipt of duties by the hoppo shall 
be suffered to be made." The Chinese custom officers living at 
Macao were accordingly sent out of the, place; the trade with the' 
Chinese rapidly decreased, all the leading merchants moving theiir; 
establishments to Whampoa, where special inducements were held 
out by the governor-general for them to settle. The taxes laid on 
houses and people to defray the expenses of the settlement, of which' 
the Chinese were obliged to pay their share, were also somewhat, 
increased, which tended further to diminish this part of the popula- 
tion. In two or three years, however, the trade of the colorty began' 
to revive, and during the insurrectionary troubles m 1854 and 1855 

COM. liU. 31 


Tnuk in' Loi^has. Port Regulations at Macao. Seamen destrting. Finu) 

throughout the adjoining prefecture of Kwangchau, it nearly equal- 
ed the prosperous times of 1843. The largest part of the commerce 
of the place is carried on in lorchas, of which there are many own- 
ed and manned by Chinese, and carrying at least three Portuguese 
to manage the business. These vessel."} are found along the coaat| 
from Shanghai to Hainan, and some of them return to Macao only, 
after a long interval. Many of them have been employed biy the. 
Chinese to convoy and protect their junks against the pirates aloi^ 
the coast. They also carry goods to many small places, an4 ar^, 
regarded with suspicion by the natives on some parts of the coas.t,. 
Macao itself has no manufactures. or exports, and very little cojn-( 
merce with Portugal. The trade with Manila, Singapore, and 9the^< 
places in the Archipelago, still employs three or four ships. . . ^i, 

The following port regulations now in force were issued Marcl^ 
12th, 1855, signed by Jose Carlos Barros, acting secretary to the. 

Regulations of the Port of Macao. 

Ist. — Any vcBael ncarincr the Roads, ai^d wanting .a pilot, ipast have il^. .|i^*) 
tional flag at the foremast head. • , i , i 

yd. — No notice will be taken at the office of the Captain of the Port of any 
damage occurring to vessels coming in or going out when not piloted by the* 
office pilot. 

3d. — The Captain of the Port may not employ any pilot without having pr^i 
viously examined him ; and as it is necessary to keep a pilot establishnieiftj 
vessels coming in or going out without such office pilot may. not be exempted 
firom payment of pilotage dues. 

4th. — The captain of a vessel, or his agent, shall report his vessel at the* 
Captain of the Ports office within 24 hours afler his arrival, and in dejfault of 
^ing so he shall pay a fine of loO dollars. jj 

5tn. — The captain of a vessel on landing shall present his ship's papers at 
the office of the Captain of the Port ; where they will remain until his departurie. 

6th. — Vessels cannot enter the Inner Harbor, with gunpowder on board. 
Such gunpowder must \fe deposited at the Bar. Fpxt, from whence it can bo 
received on going out. _ : ,.'..,, ;/,iu ;•> li .!• ■ ■ ij'i*-! 

7th. — It is forbidden to throw ballast or rubbiBH overboard m'^prt, ^^^^^, ^ 
penalty of 100 dollars. ' ' ' ' 'i':"' 

. 8th. — Vessels are not permitted to change their moorings iii the river withont 
the permission of the Captain of the Port. ; ^ . . c i; 

9th. — Vessels must keep their sheet anchors ready for letting go. ; - d-* 

10th. — If any man deserts his vessel, the same must be reported to th& 
Captain of the Port, who will assist in his apprehension, and if during the stay 
of the vessel in port the man cannot be found, and should appear after hdf 
departure, be shall be arrested (if «o ^eqaiued) and delivered 'to the police 
authorities. i ' r ,,..,.(■'. 

11th — II is forbidden to land invalids wjithout the consent of the Captain o5 

the Port. For contravention of this a fine of 100 dollars will be imposed. 

* 12th. — If the captain of a vessel wishes to send any sickYtian to the hospital, 

he must apply to thq Captain of the Port ; the vessel being answerable fdr th6' 

expenses. i 

13th — The captain of a vessel may not discljargc either part or the,.wih4|^ 
of his crew in Macao, without the permission of ihe Captain of the Port, rr- 

14th — Vessels coming to in the Roads, with intention of loading or unloading, 
must report at the office of the Captain of the Port, as ordained by the 5th Art.' 
fkt agents will be held answerable for the neglect. ' 

FORT OF MACA«. i,- [ S67 

Tonnnffe Dues. Hiring of Lorchas. ,,.__^-^,.^Custom-housf.'Go-dQwn/{! 

The rules respecting th6 payment Of tonnage «q4 aneliorjag^ii^lcies 
have also been modified and reduced. 'rjoi,-'.! .r! or ' ,«•.' ! . 

Regulations respecting Tonnage Dues. 

). Native and foreign vessels which heretofore were obliged id p6.y,&re 
mace per ton in the anchorage of Typa^ shall from this date paj.0n,Q^ xat^e per 

ton. .,■.,,..,'.'-,,■.;.■ 

2. This duty so reduced shall be paid only by vessels that remam ihore than 
six days in the Typa. 

3. This anchorage duty shall be sufficient for one year, to be reckoned from 
the date in which the vessel anchors for the first time in the harbor. 

4. Thus, as by the preceding article vessels which have once paid tonnage 
dues, may enter and depart freely for the space of a year j in the same mannejr 
vessels, which within one year enter and leave the harbor oftener than onpftj 
shall be obliged to pay duty for that year, when the sun^ of the.days.tliiey hB(Ve 
remained at anchor shall exceed si j(. m ■■' •i. 

f>. No tonnage dues shall be paid by ; — 

§ .1. Vessels, whethen native or foreign, not exceeding one hundred tons,; j 

§ 2. Ships that have paid in the river of Macao, for the space of a year from 
the time they anchored in the first port. 

(j 3. Vessels having a cargo entirely of rice. 

§ 4. Vessels that enter having suffered great damage, for ^he wbple tim^ 
they are employed in repairs. , . j. i ir. • ' ' 

§ 5. Steam vessels employed in conveying passengers between Hongkong) 
■Canton, and Maoao. , 

The importation of arms and armor, cannoh, projectiles, fire-balls 
(not including Chinese fire-crackers and fireworks), powder and 
orchil, is prohibited by a decree of March 31st, 1S46. The manifests 
®f all merchant vessels intended to unload at Macao shall be prcf 
"sehted at the custom-house in Portuguese, signed by the captain or 
|agent; ships leaving the river shall receive their manifests froni the 
,cu.8tom-house. Wheii Portuguese lorchas are employed for discl^iarg- 
ing .vessels, they can only demand for each trip, 
' -For lorchas under 100 tons, - - . $10 to the Typa, $15 to the Roads 
■-;»iiv.»>'i between 100 and 150 tons, $13 to.the „ $18 to the „. 
I V Ml >»^. \ }^^S^'^ ^'^^" 150 tons, - $15 to the „ $20 to the ' „ 
lir^hepaptain chooses to employ Chinese boats, the authorities wilj 
;t,^ke no cognizance of any damage the goods may receive in tbQ 
passage. If the chief officer of the custom-house see rio prohibited 
articles iu a ship's manifest, he shajl order a proper register to. b^ 
made with a calculation of the amount of duties on these goods on 
the valuation according to the last tariif, and inform the govern- 
ment of the same. A copy of the manifests of such vessels as enter 
the river and their tonnage-mesfSurement, used also to be sent to the 
Chinese officer of customs. 

The custom-house go-doWns hire fine places for storing goods, and 
their dryness and the care kept oVer the merchandize deposited 
4h«fe, offer additional advantages. Persons ^rp flot^ of coupe oblie^ 
«d;to «B^ the«H,:but when, they <|o, the c^stoa^hjouse coplies must he 
employ-^d as porters, and can also be engiaged-tOjCj^j^^oods els^- 
jyherfe, according the following scale, which a^o serves A8 a,\.guifre 
.wb-efthiriug pth<?f ^oolies; . lohoi afiJ Oiojl sorifiamio: p 


Batet of Porterage and Storage, ms '^"»> C/enr«n«. Illegal Trade. 

■ The charges for storage in the custom-house go-downs are reckon- 
ed by the half-month and month, on the following scale. Packaged 
not enumerated in this list pay in proportion to their size, articles 
for. pejrsonal use not being charged. i 

' *TAFtK' of the porterage, storing, and labor of coolies, and rent for merekb^^ 

disc and goods receiv^ into the gfi-downs of the Custom-house of Macao. 

tsxi.i tnofi; nittr.'i-'. tsti) iij'.--.-)/ -rh -;;.,<• • . ■ 

Porterage. Rent per month. 

nr'\ ba- ' " ^ ' " ^ 

By package Per pccul. By package Per peeul. 

c. c. c c. c. c tn, Ct e, 

IBaKbi^ Cotton, 3 7i 15 3 7i 015 

1 Lar^e bundle of Shark's-fina, .30 15 3 (» 015 

1 Bag of Betel-nut, .: 2 6^ 15 2 6i aiS 

1 Basket Bicho de rear, 3 7^ 15 3 74 ^ ''"O 1 5 

1 Do. Seaweed (bredo de mar) 3 74 15 3 7| 015 

1 Do. Fish-maws,.., r...'3 74 1 5 ■ 3 74 1 5 

I Btnt of Glue^....?i=i'r;:':*^;'^n.'.«.'.. 3 15 3 15 

I-Ba8ketofdriedfruit«i.Vi..;/.''/i^,V.i. 3 74 15 3 74 015 

1 Box of Tin, 1- 6| 15 61 015 

1 Bale of So Hides, ....^•'il>... 6 15 6 15 

1 Do. ofT\nAtT,::..,72^PA^..-.KV:^y..-. 3 3i 15 3 3| 15 

1 Bag of Pepper, 2 6^ 15 2 6| 015 

1 Basket of shell-fish,-. A'i'Lvi''.ij.Vv 3 3|'- ■.15 3 31 15 

1 Bag of Seriboa, 3 15 3 15 

I 'Fine goods which are of small weight, biing ,,ni. iu r 

I , 80 regular shall pay by the package, -.■. .... .3 m. 

Do. Do. being large packages...... .6 vi. 

'' Cases and small packages...... 1 m. 

For I Case of Cambric of 1 00 pieces, ..... .i. . 4 ... J iv. 2 

n.i ill j do;; ', . iChiiiti ■ . ■ 50 do.,i;j3,,:i.4ii.i>.ii^wi-i,--k-V!.>.'.t,':.i^. --0 1 5 
,.;!] J, do. . Lonscloth 50 do...... 20 

^ Bale of Woollen cloth or Camlets, 10 pieces .0 2 

""^" 1 do. Long Ells ' 20 do., 020 

1 Pipe and half pipe, .' 10 

elit'I Quarter pipe (or larger, in proportioa) , 0'8 

The custpra-house charges a dollar a day for the use of its weights; 
passes or certificates are also given to importers when requested, 
receipts for the payment of anchorage dues to the captains of ships 
^bout leaving, and all certificates of clearance ; the two last are to 
fee presented' to the harbor-master that he may furnish a' port-clear^- 
ahce or pass. Each ship pays three dolUrs for tjiese ddcutoients, of 
which two goes to the Chinese office"."'^ '" '^.u^uu .:>.-. ,: .lievz -.btm 

-! i;:r'> ^f. .8 'to SJ.'o'liiif 01 Oflt'to V ,,n 

Sectfon 11. 

This branch of commerce constitutes such an important part of thft 
foreign trade, that it demands a separate notice. The chief article 
is opium, which is now carried to all parts of the empire without 
any interference from the authorities, who doubtless receive a per- 
quisite for connivance from the dealers. If the traffic in ©pium was 


Opium trade. Salt trade. Exportation of Rice. Trade at Swatoio, 

legalized, the change would conduce to render all smuggling and 
illegal trafficking more and more discreditable ; but there is no im* 
mediate prospect of the Chinese government altering its laws in this 
respect. The use of the drug has greatly increased since the war 
with England, and the East India Company seem to be able to sup- 
ply it as the demand keeps up. The objectionable feature of the 
opium trade in a commercial point of view, that of setting at nought 
the laws of the land whereby it demoralizes all connected with it, 
still continues^ and its use causes the same disastrous results as 
ever to the consumer. Receiving ships now remain at Cumsing- 
moon, Swatow, Chimmo, and Wusung, but those formerly kept 
at Amoy, Mandarin Head, ^nd Lukong, have been removed, and 
the opium is now taken into port. Steamers, schooners, and lorchaa 
take it with other goods to other points, as Hoi-hau in Hainan 
I., Tienpak, Wanchau fi'i, &lc., where the demand is less. ' 

The illicit traffic in salt is carried on to a considerable extent 
along the coast between Whampoa and Macao down to Hainan, but 
there are no available data as to its extent The article is almost 
wholly of native manufacture, but as its preparation and sale are 
strictly confined to the official agents appointed to manage the gabel, 
their monopoly is constantly trespassed on by the people. By an 
Order itn Council of Feb. 24th, 1843, British subjects are prohibited 
going to any part of China beside the Five Ports, for any purpose 
whatever, under a penalty of o£100, or three months' imprisonment, 
on conviction. No. convictions have been made, nor is it probable 
•that any will be, as the regulation is regarded as a dead letter. ' 

The exportation of rice from any port in China has also been de- 
clared illegal by the high authorities ; but there is no serious dif- 
ficulty in good seasons of obtaining this grain at Amoy, Ningpo, and 
Canton, for shipment to other Chinese ports, a very little being car- 
ried abroad to California. The responsibility felt by the authorities 
in every part of China, to maintain the supply of breadstuff's in their 
own particular districts, induces them to keep a watchful eye on 
this traffic, though they do not yet know that their carefulness is 
unnecessary^ as the demand at different points-^induces merchants to 
equalize the supply better than they can do. ' __- 

Considerable trade has sprung up at Swatow |_Lj S^, a town ly- 
ing at the mouth of the Hau R. on which Chauchau fii is situated, 
in the eastern end of the province of Kwangtung. The goods pay 
the same duties as in Chinese vessels, and are carried into the coun- 
try in native boats. The ship3 lie off" the harbor, and the native 
merchants transact their business there. ; ., ,.. , 

Since the summer of 1854, when the highpiice oif rioe at Canton 
($6 to $6 per pecul) led to the attempt to import it from Formosa^ 
there has been considerable trade at Ape's Hill, and some other ports.' 
A ship lies there to receive grain, camphor oil, hemp, pulse, cam-- 
phor wood, or other articles in exchange for specie, cloths, &c.;, 
and the former are taken away by other vessels. Ape's Hill lies 


Trade in FoTmom, at Ape^$ Hilly i,-c. Directions for Ai/titi^ Harbor. 

southeast from Fort Zealandia. or Kok-si-con, about 30 mil«s. Thi 
customary duty is paid on gcwds taken in and out, aud a fee of $150 
in addition on each ship which loads at this port, to the chief officer 
of the place. Trade has also been attempted at Tan-shwui in the 
north of the island, and at Kok-si-con, which the native authorities 
seenj disposed to enoourage ; it will doubtless become more and 
niore import&nt, and lead to further intercourse with this fertile 

; At the northern end of Formosa is Killon Harbor, formerly fre- 
quented by the Spaniards, who endeavored to settle there in 1626, 
when the Dutch had possession of Fort Zealandia ; and by whom they 
Were expelled about ten years after. The existence of large beds of 
coal in this neighborhood has long been known, and there have been 
several junk loads imported into Hongkong, where its quality has 
been found satisfactory. The importance of this deposit led Com* 
modore Perry to send two ships of his squadron there in July, 1854, 
and the following account has been furnished for this work by Lieut. 
G. H. Preble, U. S. N., who conducted the survey. His charts are 
to be published in connection with other surveys made by officers 
in the Expedition under Commodore Perry. The harbor was visit- 
ed and surveyed in 1824 by Capt. Parkyn of the , British vessel 
1' Merope," and again by Capt. Collinson, R. N., in 1843, whoM 
chart has not been published. 

Sailing Directions for Slilung Harbor by Ijieui Preble, U. S. N. 

Kihlngj Kelnng, or KIlloii Harbor, (KHuDg Tow tflx ^ SR Head 'bt 
promontory aa it is sometimes called,) is situated in the middle of the tqj^ht 
between the nortli and northeastern points of the island of Formosa, in Lat. 25,* 
iO' N., Long. 121" 48' E.,and is landlocked on all sides, excepting the North; 
from that side protection is afforded by the coral reefs, which bound both sidea 
of the harbor, stretching round to the North, and by a small rocky islet, which 
lies across the entrance. The entrance of the harbor is half a mile wideband 
can be readily known and found by the high and bold island ofKilung,or Kil: 
lon-khid, which lies directly off it, only three and a half miles to the northward 
itih eastward, and by the high craggy land to the westward of the eiitrance, ot 
Tifhich outlines are g'iven on the chart. Killing Island is evidently of vol- 
canic formation, and its southwestern side suggests that it may be the widl of 
a crater, one side of which has bee^ broken down. It is betw^eii five and Bin 

K^indred feet high. ., , • «, f - 'i w ' i i ' 

" Inliage Point is the Weistprn pojrit oStWIxkAbr'att^ iVkToii^IKiint' Extending 
from the hi*h craggy lahd before thentionW.' Tht* name is conBid«»red appro- 
priate from the action of the sea baying cut away the soft sandstoae of which 
it is composed, leaving boulders of a darker and harder stone, elevated on pe- 
destals which at a short distance have the appearance of images of men and 
beasts. The eastern side of the entrance is formed by the low flat island al- 
ready mentioned, called Bush Island by Capt. Collinson (by the Chinese Tong- 
fnng-eee,) and by Palm Island to the eastward of it, between which and Tong- 
fungrsee. there is a passage for boats only. The island of Tong-fung-see i$ 
nearly awash, and from the distance of Kilung Island cannot be readily distiu;' 
guished or separated from the high land of the main behind it. It has on its 
inner or southern edge a few shrubs or small trees, which grow out of a patch 
of old coral that appears to have beea «Ie viited ool t>f the sta upon tbe sanddtomi 
of TThifl&itUe island is comppsedf^to vd ■/f.f/a noifut oit; -"^mio'i -^ilf bns 

Reef on JV. of Formosa. Tong-fung see I. Crag Peak. Killing Town. 

'■ Making and keeping Killing Island well to the Eastward, the entrance to' 
the harbor can be approaclied without fear, as there are no hidden dangers, and' 
the soundings are not less than twenty fathoms to within one quarter of a mile.' 
of Image Point and the islands facing the northeastern entrance. The cur- 
r<entB, however, are known to be strong and varying, and the shores so steep 
as to afford no secure anchorage for a vessel when she is in danger. It i«' 
therefore necessary to caution the navigator, that with a strong monsoon blqw-' 
ing in the offing, he is likely \vhen near the entrance to loffe the wind, oj:' 
have only a light land or sea breeze. In the middle of the entrance the sound- 
ings are from twelve t'> fourteen fathoms, decreasing a Httl,e towards th^ i^oral' 
|>atches which line the shores on each side. • i ■ i ■ t i '''.'' ' 

In making the harbor from the Westward, a dangerons reef olT the' iior{K 
point of Formosa, rep )rted by Lieut Gordon, R. N., of the surveying-vessel' 
Royalist, is to be avoided. It is in Lat. ao" Ic" N., Long. 121° 35' E., and' 
extending about a mile off, encircles th"> coast to the Westward. Tlie North 
point of the island, instead of being a high perpendicular head as generally 
described, terminates in a very low point. 

After passing Kilung Island, steer to the southward, and when well up with, 
the harbor entrance, a remarkable sugar loaf hill will be seen within and on' 
the western side of the hnrbor, called Crag Peak on the chart ; bring it to bear 
South by West, which course will take you down in mid-channel clear of the 
coral reefs on both sides. 

^ The best anchorage for large vessels is in 8^ to 10 fathoms half a mile S. 
by W. of the island of Tong-fung-see, sheltered by it, and some dangerou^ 
onral shoals, with the outer points of Jnnk and Boat Passage bearing B. by N^ 
^N just open, and Crag Peak bearing SW. This was the anchorage of the 
U.S. ship Macedonian for nearly two weeks. The holding-ground, a stiff mud" 
and sand, is excellent. Upon the northern inner point of Junk and Boat Pas- 
sage, which is also the Southwestern point of Palm Island, there are tlie re- 
mains of an old fortification, and beyond it the' village of Se-ar-le-how. 
Anchorage for a single vessel in eight or ten fathoms can also be had ia 
Merope Bay to the Southward of linage Point, on the Western side of the 
entrance. Captain Parkyn mentions having rode out a tyfooti at' thts an- 
chorage. The small village Perreang lies at tiie head of the bay. '" ' '.'''' 

■■■ Vessels drawing less than fifteen feet can obtain a snug anchorage in five 
aad six fathoms half a mile nearer Kilung to the southward of a coral shoat 
which extends to the eastward of Crag Peak. Northwest of this anchorage 
there ia a small but very remarkable rock, which resembles a golhic rninl 
and which I have called Ruin Rock. It is called in Collinson's survey, th^ 
»♦> Observatory," and he gives its latitude 25" 09' North, Longitude 121 "47' East,' 
A quarter of a mile SW. by S. from this anchorage is Sow- wan point, wher^ 
there is a small settlement and covered market. Stretching across the harbor 
from Sow-wan Point is the anchorage of junks and Chinese craft in two fathding 
water; beyond them there is nothing but shoal water and extensive mud flatsj 
dry at low tide. The town of Kilung lies at the bottom of the harbor, three 
quarters of a mile to the southward, and can only be approached by small boats 
At high water. There is a good landing-place for boats at Sow-wan Point, and 
from thence a road and causeway to Kilung. 

Between Jiink anchorage and Kilung are two small islatids " Howyct," the 
Waternmost, is high, round and covered with trees. The westernmost is low, 
flat, and clothed with only a few small bushes. There are several coal mine* 
about one mile E.SE. from Kilnng, situated on the banks of the small and shal- 
low stream, which branches off from the head of thi- harbor in that direction. 
They were visited by a British officer in 1847, as noticed in the Chinese Reposi* 
tory for July, 18 >9; and also by the oflicers of the Macedonian, and specimeni 
of the coal procured. They appeared to be a continuation of veins opened on 
the seashore of Qua-see-kow Bay, two miles E. by S. of them, discovered and 
visited by the officers of the Macedonian. The Chinese authorities were very 
averse to giving any information respecting the mines, and falsely slated tliat 


Qua-see-kow Bay and Coal Mints. Supplies. . CqoI Harbor^ 

they were three days' journey distant on the shores of a canal, which separates 
a small island from the eastern side of Formosa, that the inhabitants were! 
savages and cannibals, not under their control, and that it would be exceeding- 
ly hazardouH to get to them either by sea or land. Tlieir immediate neighbor-, 
hood was fortunately disclosed by a Chinese fisherman, who came on board in 
disguise, and offered to conduct to them for a reward of three dollars. Relying 
somewhat upon the statement of the Chinese ofRcials, the boats were armed 
»nd equipped for a three days' cruize, and dispatched from the ship at daylight. 
Before 10 o'clock the same morning, they liad returned, having visited and; 
examined the mines, which were only three miles distant via Junk and Boat 
passage. The tioxtday the survey of the Harbor was extended to include their 
locality,, and several of the officers landed atQiia-see-kow Bay and walked over 
the hills to Kilung. Afterwards fif\y tons of coal were procured from IhesO' 
mines by the U.S. storeship Supply. The impression on board the Macedoniani 
was that the whole northern end of Formosa is stored with bituminous coal of, 
good quality, and easy of access if the prejudices and exclusiveness of the| 
Chinese can be overcome ; which the great increase of steaming vessels in thd) 
Chinese waters renders very desirable. The coal procured was purchased for 
$1 .50 per ton. Opposite Junk anchorage on the western side of Killing Harbor^ 
there is a small but shallow inlet making up to the northward and southwest-t 
ward, by means of which communication is had with Tan-sliwui on the north-i 
western end of Formosa. The water communication for small boats between* 
the two places is complete with the exception of one portage, which is almost 
in. sight from Kilung. fj 

The immediate boundary of Kilung Harbor is composed of irregular hills* 
three to five hundred feet high, beyond them inland the country is exceedingly^ 
niountainous, and rises in places to over two thousand feet above the sea levelj 
A limited supply of fresh water, suflicient for the ordinary requirements of »s 
merchant ship, can be obtained near each of the seven little fishing village* 
around the shores of the Harbor, but the water is generally of a poor qualitya 
A man-of-war or large vessel should not rely upon filling up her water here/i 
The best obtained by the Macedonian was at Q.R. village south of Ruin Rockfi 
Pigs, poultry, eggs and vegetables were obtained at reasonable prices. Sulphury 
alum and camphor, were among the articles exposed for sale in the shops, and) 
of sulphur there seemed a great abundance. The rocks which line the eastern 
shore of the Harbor were so strongly impregnated with iron as to affect thff 
needle of the compass when placed upon them. Among the junks in harbor 
were several from Amoy, with which place there is a frequent communication^ 1 
and eonsiderable trade. Tides were observed at Tong-fung-see, and the averages] 
rise and fall ascerteiincd to be only two feet. The greatest fall of tide was thred*] 
feet. ' />. 

Coal Harbor. 'i] 

Two and a half miles to the Eastward of Kilung Harbor tlirre is a ^mal](] 
cove open to tiie northward, one quarter of a mile wide at its entrance and three] 
eighths of a mile deep, which 1 have called by this name on account of its pro^l 
ximity to the coal mines opened by the Chinese on the hill-sides of the SoutJ^j 
shore of Qiia-see-kow Bay. it offers anchorage for one or two vessels onlyAt 
but should these mines ever be worked by Europeans, would be valuable a^ a j 
port of siiipmcnt. The coal could be conveyed by railroad along the weit] 
shore of Qua-see-kow Bay, beneath the cliff to Harbor Rock, and a short 'EJ 
pier from the north side of Harbor Rock would enable a ship to lie safcIjLj 
alongside in three or four fathoms of water and receive her cargo. The ChrnesSI 
do not understand the art of mining the coal properly, and until they are workn 
ed under European direction, thi-se mines will be of but little value. The bewi 
anchorage in this harbor is in HJt fathoms ; no directions arc necessary for entcf.i^ 
ing it, the chart being a sufficient guide. 



Scctfon 1. 


In 1853, the government of the United States sent an expedition to 
Japan under the ctimmand of Commodore Perry to endeavor to come 
to an understanding with the court at Yedo respecting the treatment 
given to the crews of American vessels wrecked on the coast of that 
country, and to ascertain whether it could furnish coal and provisions 
to the steamers plying between China and California. A general 
trade between the two countries was also proposed by President 
Fillmore in his letter, which was delivered to the Japanese commis- 
sioners at Gorihama, a small hamlet south of Uraga in the Bay of 
Yedo, on the 14th of July, 1853. The Japanese authorities request- 
ed some delay in replying to these propositions, and Com. Perry 
agreed to defer their consultation to the following year. When he 
returned in Feb. 1854, the Japanese had concluded to accede to the 
propositions of the American President, and had appointed four 
commissioners of high rank, viz., Hayashi, a prince councillor 
(Dai-gnku-no-kami) ; Ido, prince of Tsus-sima ; Izawa, prince of 
Mimasaki ; and Udono, a member of the Board of Revenue, to treat 
with his envoy. The treaty was signed at Yokohama, a village a 
few miles south of the town of Kanagawa, but it is called after the 
most important of the two places. The ratifications were exchanged 
at Simoda, Feb. 21st, 1855. 

Treaty of Eanagawa. 

Art. 1. — -There shall be a perfect, permanent, and universal peace, and a 
sincere cordial amity between the United States of America on the one p:jrt, 
anil the fitijpire of .lapin on the other part, and belwcen their people respec- 
tively, without exception of persons or places. 

Art. II. — The port of Simoda, in the principality of Idzii, and the port of 
Hakodadi, in tiie principality of Matsmai, are granted by the Japnneae as 
ports for the reception of American ships, where they can bc> SMppliod wjih 
wood, water, provisions, and coal, and other articles their necessities may re- 
quire, us far as the Japanese have them. The time for opening tlie first 
named port, is immediately on signing this treaty ; the last named port is to 
be opened immediately alter the same day in the ensuing year. 
[JVoie. — A tariffof prices shall be given by the Japanese officers of the things 
which they can furnish, for which payment shall he made in gold and silver 

Art. III. — Whenever ships of the United States are thrown or wrecked 
on the coast of Japan, the Japanese vessels will assist them and carry their 
crews to Simoda or Hakodadi, and hand tliem over to their countrymen ap- 
coM. 01'. 35 


l\taty of Kauagaiva. Limits. Trade. Supplies. Consuls. 

pointed to receive them ; and whatever articles the shipwrecked men mny 
have preserved, shall likewise be restored ; and the expenses incurred in the 
rescue and support of Americana and Japanese who may thus be thrown upon 
tlie shores of either nation, are not to bo refunded. 

Art. IV. — Those shipwrecked persons and other citizens of United States 
Bhall be free as in other countries, and not subjected to confinement, but shall 
be amenable to just laws. 

Art. V. — Shipwrecked mariners and other citizens of the United States, 
temporarily living at Simoda and H-.kodadi, shall not be subject to such re- 
strictions and confinement as the Dutch and Chinese are at Nagasaki, but 
shall be free at Simoda to go where they please within iho limits of seven 
Japanese ri (or miles), from a small island in the harbor of Simoda, marked 
on the accompanying chart hereto appended ;and will in like manner be free 
to go where they please at Hakodadi, within limits tO-hc defined after the 
visit of the United States' squadron to that place. 

Art. VI. — If there be any other sort of goods wanted, or any business 
which shall require to be arranged, there shall be careful deliberation between 
tlie parties in order to settle such matters. 

Art. VII. — It is agreed that ships of the United States resorting to the 
ports open to them, shall be permitted to exchange gold and silver coin and 
articles of goods, for other articles of goods, under such regulations as shall 
be temporarily established by the Japanese government for that purpose. It 
is stipulated, however, that the ships of the United States shall be permitted 
to carry away whatever articles they are unwilling to exchange. 

Art. VIII. — Wood, water, provisions, coal, and goods required, shall only 
be procured through the agency of Japanese officers appointed for that pur- 
pose, and in no other manner. 

Art. IX. — It is agreed that if at any future day the government of Japan 
shall grant to any other nation or nations privileges and advantages which arc 
not herein granted to the United States and the citizens thereof, that these 
same privileges and advantages shall be granted likewise to the United States 
and to the citizens thereof, without any consultation or delay. 

Art. X. — Ships of the United States shall be permitted to resort to no 
other ports of Japan but Simoda and Hakodadi, unless in distress or forced 
by stress of weather. 

Art. XI. — There shall be appointed by the government of the United 
States consuls or agents to reside in Simoda, at any time after the expiration 
of eighteen months from the date of the signing of this treaty, provided that 
either of the two governments deem such arrangement necessary. 

Art. XII. — The present convention having been concluded and duly sign- 
ed, shall be obligatory and faithfully observed by the United States of Arrte- 
jrica and Japan, and by the citizens and subjects of each respective Power; 
and it is to be ratified and approved by the President of the United States, 
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by the august 
Sovereign of Japan; and the ratifications shall be exchanged within eighteen 
months from the date of the signature thereof, or sooner if practicable. 

After the squadron had visited Flokodadi as intimated in Art. V., 
and returned to Simoda, there was a long discussion on many points 
with the Japanese commissioners, they not being willing as yet to 
grant general trade, but preferred to wait and acquire more ex- 
perience before entering into a commercial treaty with the United 
States. The following additional Regulations were, however, agreed 
to, and though not forming part of the Treaty of Kanagawa, have 



Limits on shore. Landing-places. Mode of Trade. Pilots and Pilotage. 

the same force. The provisions respecting trade in the 9th article 
show the intention of Art. viii. of the Treaty. 

Additional Regulations. 

Art. 1st. — The Imperial Governors of Simoda will place watch-stations 
wherever they deem best, to designate the limita of their jurisdiction ; — but 
Americans are at liberty to go through them unrestricted, within the limits of 
seven Japanese ri, or miles ; and those who are found transgressing Japanese 
la'vvs may be apprehended by the police and taken on board their ships. 

Art. yd. — Three landing-places shill be constructed for the bouts of mer- 
chant sliips and whale sliips resorting to this port ; one at Simoda, one at Ka- 
kizaki, and the third at the brook lying .south-east of Centre Island. The 
citizens of the United States will, of course, treat the officers with proper 

Art. 3d. — Americans, when on shore, are not allowed access to military 
establishments or private houses, without leave ; but they can enter shops and 
visit temples as they please. 

Art. 4th. — Two temples, the Rioshen at Simoda, and tlie Yokushen at 
Kakizaki, are assigned as resting-places for persons in their walks, until 
public-houses and inns are erected for their convenience. 

Art. 5th. — Near the temple Yokushen at K-ikizaki, a burial-ground has 
been set apart for Americans ; where their graves and tombs shall not be 

Art. 6th. — It is stipulated in the treaty of Kanagawa, that coal will be 
furnished at H ikodadi, but as it is very difficult for the Japanese to supply it 
at that port. Commodore Perry promises to mention this to his government, 
in order that the Japanese government may be relieved from the obligation 
of making that port a coal depot. 

Art. 7th. — It is agreed that henceforth the Chinese language shall not he 
employed in official communications between the two Governments, except 
when there is no Dutch interpreter. 

Art. 8th. — A harbor-master and three skillful pilots have been appointed 
for tlie port of Simoda. 

Art. 9th. — Whenever goods are selected in the shops, they shall be mark- 
ed with the name of the purchaser and the price agreed upon, and then be 
sent to the Goyoshi, or Government office, where the money is to be paid to 
Japanese officers, and the articles delivered by them. 

Art. 10th. — Tlie shooting of birds and animals is generally forbidden in 
Japan, and this law is therefore to bo observed by all Americans. 

Art. 1 Ith. — It is hereby agreed that five Japanese ri, or miles, be the limit 
allowed to Americans at Hakodadi, and the requirements contained in Article 
Ist of these Regulations are hereby made also applicable to that port within 
that distance. 

Art. 12th. — His Majesty, the Emperor of Japan, is at liberty to appoint 
whoever he pleases, to receive the ratification of the Treaty of Kanagawa, 
and give an acknowledgment on his part. 

Regulations respecting Pilots in the Port of Simoda. 

A lookout place shall be eetablished at some convenient point, from which 
vessels appearing in the offing can be seen and reported, and when one is dis- 
covered making apparently tor the harbor, a boat shall be sent to her with a 

And in order to carry this regulation into full effect, boats of suitable size 
and quahty shall always be kept in readiness by the harbor-master, which, if 
necessary, shJiU proceed beyond Rock Island, to ascertain whether the vessel 
in sight intends entering the harbor or not. If it may be the desire of the mas- 


Position of Sitnoda. Hakodadi. Position and trade. Commerce toith Japan- 

ter of said vessel to enter port, the pilot shall conduct her to a safe anchorage, 
and during her stay shall render every assistance in his power in facilitating 
the procurement of all the supplies she may require. 

The rates of pilotage shall be : for vessels drawing over 18 American feet, 
fifteen dollars ; for all vessels drawing over \',i and less than Id feet, ten dol- 
lars . and for all vessels under 13 feet, five dollars. 

These rates shall be paid in gold or silver coin, or its equivalent in goods, 
and the same shall be paid for piloting a vessel out as well as into port. 

When vessels anchor in the outer harbor, and do not enter the inner port, 
only half the above rates of compensation shall be paid to the pilot. 

The prices for supplying water to American vessels at Simodn shall be 1400 
cash per boat-load, (the ca.sks being furnished by the vessel.) And for wood 
delivered on board, about 7200 cash per cube of five American feet. 

The town of Simoda opened to the American trade by this Treaty 
is a small seaport in the principality of Idzu, near the southeastern 
end of Nippon, and about 150 miles by sea from Yedo. It is a poor- 
ly built town, containing about 7000 inhabitants, most of whom de- 
rive their living from agriculture and fishing. Its harbor affords a 
secure and easy retreat to the small vessels plying along the coast 
and up to the cnpital, and from hence communications are soon sent 
overland to Yedo. The town lies at the opening of a richly culti- 
vated valley, through which the Inodzu-gawa flows, a small stream 
barely sulficient at high tide to float loaded scows a kw miles up 
the valley. Simoda is surrounded with hills, presenting a great 
variety of picturesque scenery ; the intervals are highly cultivated, 
and the slopes are terraced a good part of their sides. 

The town of Hakodadi is larger and richer than Simoda, and 
forms the entrepSt of the trade witli the eastern part of Yesso, re- 
ceiving the stores and goods from Nippon with which the settlers 
and aborigines of the island are supplied. Rice, wheat, pulse, vege- 
tables, and marine produce, are brought from the south in such 
quantities as to indicate that the land in Yesso is very inadequately 
cultivated. The town is prettily situated on the eastern side of 
the harbor, on the slope of wooded hills, and is better built than 
Simoda ; its dockyards, store-houses, and shops indicate too the pros- 
perity and traffic of the inhabitants. It lies in the principality of 
Matsmai, about thirty miles east of the city of that name, and has 
constant intercourse with all parts of the island. It is probable that 
it will be made an imperial city, like Simoda and Nagasaki, and 
placed under the control of special governors who can manage the 
trade with foreign countries. 

These two ports in Japan, all whose harbors have been so long clos- 
ed to western nations except the Dutch, have been opened so recent- 
ly that it is idle to speculate as to the amount of commerce likely to 
be carried on with them. Nor can one guess what the staple imports 
will be until the wants of the Japanese people are ascertained ; nor 
what they can furnish in large amounts for foreign markets at a 
reasonable price. The commerce is likely to be of slow growth, and 
may be much hampered by unwise restrictions on the^^part of the 
Japanese authorities. 


JK'egotixttiotis otT^gasaki. English Convention. Two Ports open. 

£ect(on 2. 

Soon after the Treaty of Kanawaga was made known to the world, 
the commander-in-chief of the English naval forces in the East 
Indies, Admiral Sir James Stirling, visited Nagasaki in H. M. S. 
" Winchester," with a small squadron, and entered into negotiation 
with the Japanese authorities. The obunyo and omedski (i. e. the 
imperial governor and his deputy) of Nagasaki, Mezino Chekfu-no 
Kami and Nagai Ewan Ocho, were appointed to treat with him, and 
their deliberations resulted in allowing the English permission to 
trade at Nagasaki and Hakodadi, for as nothing is said relating to 
the port of Simoda, it is to be inferred that English ships will not be 
allowed to trade there. On the whole this Convention is less advan- 
tageous than the Treaty of Kanagawa, especially in respect of inter- 
course with the people, which is quite cut off at Nagasaki by the 
Port Regulations appended to it. Trade at that port is also reduced 
to whatever the Japanese authorities please to allow, by the stipula- 
tions contained in Art. V. that the peculiar advantages of the Dutch 
and Chinese shall not be trenched on. The notes appended to the 
articles have not the same authority, and do not form part of the 
convention.^ However, the whole will probably erelong be super- 
seded by a new treaty, notwithstanding the strange stipulation in 

abt. vn. 

Convention of Nagasaki. 

I. The ports of Nagasaki (Fi8en)anfl Hakodadi (Matsmai) shall be open 
to British ships for the purposes of effecting repairs, and obtaining fresh 
•water, provisions, and other supplies of any sort they may absolutely want 
for the use of tho ships. 

The first Article of the Convention opens the ports of Nagasaki and Hako- 
dadi to British ships for repairs and supplies, [t opens the whole and every part 
of those ports, but ships must be guided in anchoring by the directions of the 
local government. Safe and convenient places will be assigned where ships 
may be repaired; workmen, materials, and supjilies, will be provided by the' 
local government, according to a tariff to be agreed upon, by which also the 
modes of payment will be regulated. All official communications will hereafter, 
when Japanese shall have time to learn Encrlish, be made in that language. A 
British burial-ground shall be set apart on Medsume sima, fenced in by a stone 
wall aind properly protected. 

II. Nagasaki shall be open for the purposes aforesaid from and after the 
present date, and Hakodadi from and after the end of fifty days from the Ad- 
miral's departure froii this port The rules and regulations of each of these 
ports are to be complied with. 

The second Article provides that at aach of the ports of Nagasaki and Hako- 
dadi the port rctrulations shall be obeyed ; but the Japanese Government will 
take care that they shall not be of a nature to create embarrassment, nor to con- 
tradict in any other way the general tenor and intent of the Treaty, the main 
object of which is to promote a friendly intercourse between Great Britain and 

III. Only ships in distress from weather, or unmanageable, will be per- 
mitted to enter other porta than those specified in the foregoing articles^ 
without permission from the Imperial government. 

278 FonF.iGN roMMF.Rrr. with japan. 

Japanese Laws to ht observed. Future privileges. Stamps to prove nationnlify. 

The third Article declares tliat onlv ships in distress from weather or unman- 
ageable shall enter other ports than Nagasaki and FIrikodadi without permission 
from the Imperial ("Jovernment ; but ships of war have a general richt to enter 
the ports of friendly powers in the unavoidable poiformTince of public (luties. 
which right can neither be waived nor restricted ; but Her Majesty's ships will 
,t • not enter any other than open ports without necessity, nor without offering 
• '.proper explanations to the Imperial authorities. 

IV. Britiph ships in Japanese ports shall conform to the laws of Japan. 
If hig^h officers or commnndcrB of ships shall break any such laws, it will 
lead to the ports beinw closed Should inferior persons break them, they are 
to be delivered over to the commanders of their ships for punishment. 

The fourth Article provides that British ships and subjects in Japanese i>orta 
shall conform to the laws of Japan; and that if any Hubordinate British subjects 
commit offences agmnst the laws, they shall be handed over to their own officers 
for punishment; and that if high ofTu-ers or commanders of ships shall break the 
laws, it will lead to the closing of the ports cpecified. All this is as it should 
be. but it is not intended by this Article that any acts of individuals, whether 
high or low, previously unauthorized or subsequently disapproved of hv Her Ma- 
jesty the Queen of Great Britain, can set aside the convention entered into with 
Her.Majesty alone by his Imperial Highness, the Emperor of Japan. 

V. In the ports of Japan either now open, or which may hereafter be 
opened, to the ships or subjects of any foreis^n nation, British ships and 
subjects shall be entitled to admission, and to tlie enjoyment of an equality 
of advantages with those of the most favored nation, always excepting the 
advantages accruing to the Dutch and Chinese from their existing relations 
with Japan. 

The fifth Article secures in the fullest sense to British ships and subjects in 
every port of Japan, either now open, or hereafter to be opened, an equality in ■ 
point of advantage and accommodation with the ships and subjects or citizens 
of any other foreign nation, excepting any peculiar privilege hitherto conceded 
to the Dutch and Chinese in the port of Nagasaki. If therefore any other na- 
tion or people be now or hereafter perniitted to enter other ports than Nagasaki 
or Hakodadi, or to appoint consuls, or to open trade, or to enjoy any advantage 
or privilege whatever, British ships and subjects shall, as of right, enter upon 
the enjoyment of the same. 

VI. This convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall bo ex- 
changed at Nagasaki on behalf of Her Majesty, the Queen of Great Britain, 
and on behalf of His Highness the Emperor of Japan, within twelve months 
from the present date. 

VII. When this convention shall be ratified, no high officer coming to 
Japan shall alter it. 

Arrang^ement regarding^ Stamps. 

An arranjrement made subsequently to the convention requires that British 
ships intending to visit Japan, shall be provided with a document in proof of 
their nationality, and as a check upon the conduct of vessels in Japanese port^ ; 
and her Majesty's Government has directed a form of certificate of registration 
to be adopted,* which has been accepted as satisfactory by the Japanese au- 
thorities ; and merchant ships arriving in Japanese ports are to submit their 
certificate of registration to the officers to be appointed by the Japanese au- 
thorities, and to permit thera to make such extracts from it as may seem good 
to thera before such ships can be admitted to obtain repairs or supplies. Her 
Majesty's ships-of-war will not be provided with such dooum?nl3, but the 
officers in command xipon proper application will afford all reasonable infor- 
mation regarding their ships. 


• * The form of register issued to vessels at the Custom-house ; it is furnished by the 
Hongkong government. 


Port Regulations. Bittern Rocks. Sasagota Bay. Cape Greig. 

Regulations for the Port of Nagasaki. 

Art. 1 . Ships shall anchor within Iwo-sima, and there await the directions 
of the Governor. 

Art. 2. No firearms to be discharged. 

Art. 3. No person to land on any of the islands. 

Art. 4. No soundings to be taken, nor boats to be pulling about. 

Art 5. Should any communication be desired, a boat of the upper officers 
shall be called ; but no communication shall be held with merchant boats, and 
no exchange of articles take place, or trading of any sort. 

The above being according to the law of Great Japan, all commanders and 
other officers shall obey the same, and orders shall be given to the crew that 
the aforesaid law shall not be broken. 

Sectfon 3. 

The return of H. B. M. surveying-brig "Saracen," since the direc- 
tions given on pp. 123-183 were printed, has made important addi- 
tions to the nautical data given there, which are here introduced for 
the guidance of ships passing up through the Straits of Corea and 
Sangar to Hakodadi, or into the Pacific. The minute directions of 
Admiral Krnsenstern for entering the harbor of Nagasaki are also 
inserted to complete the series. 

Sailing Directions for the Straits of Sangar. 
By Lieut- Com. John Richards., R. JV. 

Approaching the Straits of Sangar from the SW., the Bittern Rocks lie W. 
by S. about 16 miles from Cape Gamaley. The largest of the group lies to the 
SW., in Lat. 40' 31' N., Long. 13!)° 31' E.; it is about iii feet high, and in size 
and appearance resembles the hull of a ship of about 20il tons. The smaller 
rock is about 6 feet high, and lies from this E.NK. about a cable and a half. 
There is also a third rock awash to the SE. of these two, and forming nearly 
an eqnilnteral triangle with them. They appear steep to ; we got no bottom 
with 130 fms. at the distance ofa_ mile and a quarter to the VVpstwiird if them. 

The land about Cnpe Gamaley is moderately elevated and level. The coast 
between it and Cape Greig is low and sandy. The entrance to Sasugnta Bay 
(of Krusenstern's chart) I found to be very narrow and barred right across, with 
only just sufficient depth to admit junks at liigh water. The bay itself ap[)ears 
t<i be nothing more that a large shallow lagoon ; its entr.ince lies about si.v 
miles to the Southward of Cape Greig. Between Sasagota and C;ipo (Jreig the 
coast is very low and sandy, but safe of approach, having rtgular soundings, and 
vrry fair anchorage in Northeasterly winds Cape Greig is in J^at. IT 8' 3o" 
N., Long. 140° 17' 30" E. ; it is remarkable from its peculiar form, and as tjie 
commencement of the high land extending to Cape Singar. The outer part 
of the Cape presents a c!ifFy bluff, whose flat apex is 77(i feet above the sea 
level, from whence the land descends to the Eastward. There are no dangers 
near, and the Cape itself is almost as steep as a wall. We got somulings in 
85 fms. W. by S. 5^ miles from it ; 40 fms. will be found within a mile of it, 
and 22 fms. at two cables. 

Cape Sangar bears from Cape Greig N. 31 E., 8i miles. The bay between 
contains much foul ground, but may nevertheless be useful to vessels kept out 
of the Straits by Easterly gales. The bottom of this bay is very foul ; the best 
anchorage is about li mile to the Northward of it (or about one-third the dis- 
tance fiO.n Cape Greig to Capq Sangar,) in 12 fuis., \ ofa mile from the shore. 


Capt Sangar. Gun Cliff. Cape Toritoisaki. Low I. and Tide Race. 

Cape Sangar is in Lat. 41° 16' 30" N , Long. 140'' 22' 45" E. The extremity 
of the Cape is a bluff of 362 feet, from whence the land rises to the height of 
2200 feet at the distance of 4 miles inland ; there is also a large rock of 300 feet 
high at the distance of two cables NR. of the bluff, connected to the Cape by a 
low neck of sand and stones. On a N W. and SE. bearing, this rock makes like 
an island at high water. 

The Cape is steep to, but the strong eddies near it render it unadvisable to 
approach nearer than a mile. Cape Sangar to Gun Cliff is S. 74° E. 9^ miles. 
In the bay between these points, and off the town of Memoyah, about half a 
mile from the shore, in 8 fms. will be found Ciipital anchorage, indeed the best 
in the Straits next to Hikodadi. A little to the Southward oi^ the town there 
is a fine stream of delicious water, very convenient for embarking rapidly. 
Wood is also abundant ; several large junks were loading with timber at the 
time of our visit, and the beach was covered with squared logs of beech, 
cypress, and pine. 

The Gun CiifFis steep to; it is about 200 feet high, and has a battery of six 
guns on i's apex. There is also a remarkable black rocky cliff | of a mile to 
the Westward. 

After rounding this point, the approach to the shore is less steep, and bottom 
will be found in 30 to 40 fms. right across to the opposite coast of the penin- 
sula of Nambu, the nearest point of which is distant five miles. From the 
south point of the West coast of Nambu to Cape Toriwisaki, the coast is nearly 
straight, a steep cliffy shore, with very deep water close to. The cliffs along 
this Hue are colored with the most brilliant and varied tints: like the entire 
coast of the Strait, they are of basaltic formation. Among the most remarkable 
are the " Red Cliffs " towering to the height of I6it0 feet, and plainly visible 
on the opposite shore of the strait ; they are 17 miles to the Southward of (/ape 
Toriwisaki. Proceeding North, at the distance of eight miles South of Cape 
Toriwisaki, are two very remarkable pointed cliffs resembling horns, forming a 
double head, which I named " Double-head" accordingly. Nearly 2 miles 
SW. from Double-head is a rock 42 feet high, and North abi>ut three cables 
from this, is a rook aw.ish at low water. Between Double-head and the low 
island off Cape Toriwisaki, the ground is generally foul over 10 fms. depth. 

Cape Toriwi^<aki is a low tapering point, off which at the distance of a cable 
lies a small island elevated only 4il feet at its highest point ; this I named 
" Low Island." Tho ground all round Low Island and Cape Toriwisaki is very 
foul, except to the NE., where a vessel may anchor to wait a tide in 13 fm^., 
with the centre of Low I. bearing SW. by S. distant about a mile. This 
anchorage will be very useful to vessels approaching Hakodadi from the 
Eastward, particularly during the light Southwesterly winds common to the 
Straits during the summer months. There is a tide race near the full and 
change of the moon three miles North of Low Island, and with a NE. swell 
very heavy overfalls. Ou such occasions care ought to be taken to give this 
spot a berth. 

There is a clear channel betwt-en the Race and Low Island. From Low 
Island to the Eastward, the coast is foul for about three miles; after which the 
shore may be approached closely. There is a remarkable red cliff, showing 
well to the Westward, lOJ miles from Low Island. The land in this neigh- 
borhood may be further recognized by a high sharp bluff two mil"s to the 
Westward of the Red CliflT, and a high round bluff two miles to the Eastward. 
From the latter bluff the coast is very low to within four miles of Cape 
Nambu, where it rises to 126o feet, and descends agiin towards the Cape in a 
gentle slope, making like an island at a distance. The Red Cliff is 15 miles 
from Cape Nambu : between these points there is good anchorage, but the best 
will be found on the Western side of the bay, just about off where the high and 
low land meets on the coast line, with the round bluff bearing VV.N W. 2 miles, 
in 15 fms. 

Cape Nambu is in Lat. 41' 26' 30" N., Long 141° 29' 20". The land near it 
is about 70 feet high, and level for a mile, after which it rises with a regular 


C. Esarme. C. Blunt. Hakodadi Head. C. Tsjtika. C. Madiejda. 

swell to the height of 1263 feet- Off the Cape, at the distance of three cables, 
there is a white rock 70 feet high and ^ of a cable in diameter. There is also 
another rock, rather larger, two miles within the Cape, at a cable's length from 
the shore. T'he coast within four miles of the Cape is studded with rocks of 
minor dimensions, and the ground altogether fonl. 

Cape Es.>rme is in Lat 41° 28' 10" N , Long 141° 12' 30" ; it is a steep cliff of 
about 60i) feet ; the volcano immediately above the Cape is 1935 feet. The west 
side of this mountain is covered with patches of sulphur, having the appearance 
of snow at a distance. It was frequently napped with a light cloud of steam, 
but not otherwise active. A ship might anchor in the large bay about 2 miles 
W. of Cape Esarme, but further to the Westward. I should recommend using 
a stream or kedge when unable to make way against the tide From Cape 
Esarme to Cone I. it is S. 57^ W . b'j miles. Foul Point is -^1 miles to the 
Eastward of Cone Island — it is low, and has a dangerous reef extending from 
it for the distance of two cables. The land in the immediate neighborhood of 
Cone Island is high and cliffy, and the approach very steep and safe ; there 
is however a dangerous low point one mile to the Westward. 

Cape Blunt is in Lat. 4! '42' 40" N., Long. 140''5!V 50" E ; from the Cape, 
Cone Island bears iN. HG° E. 2i miles ; Hakodadi Head N. 78" W. 12milea, 
and Low Island S. 1!)° W. 9^ miles (which is the narrowest part of the Strait). 
This Cape is very steep to, and the N.E. current frequently runs with greater 
force close to the rocks than out in the stream. The ape.x of the bluff imme- 
diately above the cape is elevated 1()22 feet ; from thiispol the high land ranges 
in towards the Saddle Mountain. The const for about seven miles to tlie Weal- 
ward is a level plain of about an average elevation of 20i) or 3lMi feet; beyond 
seven miles, it descends to the low beach connecting the high land of Hakodadi 
with the main. 

The peak of the isolated mountain of Hakodadi is elevated 1131 feet above 
the sea level, and is in Lat. 4r45' 35' N., Long. ]40'^44'9" E ; it is very steep 
and precipitous, and perfectly safe of approach : at a distance it appears like an 
island. Mussel Point is 4§ miles due West from Hakodadi Head, the coast in 
the neighborhood is a uniform plain, elevnted about 3i)0 feet, rising gradually 
inland ; the sea face cliffy, but generally covered with green scrubby bush, e.x- 
cept in two places within the bay, where large white cliffs stand boldly out and 
form landmarks visible IT) miles (to the S E.V There is a reefoffMussel Point 
extending nearly two cables; it is very steep to, and ought not be approached 
nearer than2cable8. Cape Saraki lies SW. 4^nules from Mussel Pt.; the coast 
between is very level, but fringed with rocks, and requires care in approaching. 
To the Westward of Saraki the coast is very low, with a sandy beach safe of 
approach, and clean irround for anchorage to within 3 miles of Cape Tsjuka. 

CapeTsjukais in Lat. 4 T 31 '4.'/' i\ , Long. 140° 27'I0" E ;itbcarsSSW. II 
miles from Cape Saraki, and iN. 5(i° E. I2 from Cape Nadiejda; it is a very high 
cliffy point, and may be further known by three rocks that run ^ mile from a 
point situated one mile to the Eastward of it; the outer rock of the three is of 
a conical form and 70 feet higli. The land to the Westward for four miles is 
high and cliffy ; about half way between the Cape and the end of the cliffs there 
are two waterfalls. In the bight of the bay between Capes Tsjuka and iNadiejda 
vessels may stop a tide ; but a southerly wind on the Western tide sends in a 
cross swell, for which reason I would not advise running far into the bight. A 
good anchoring position is in 15 to 20 fms., with the Southern white cliff bear- 
ing West about a mile. - 

Cape Nadiejda iw in Lat. 41''24'4()" N, Long 140° 14' 30'' E.— a high bluff sim- 
ilar to Cape Hlunt, but not so safe of approach . The coast, for more than a miip 
on each side of the Cape, has numerous rocks (generally above water) fringing 
it, some of which run off to the distance of nearly two cables, but I am not 
aware of the existence of any dangers under water extending beyond the above 
distance. From Cape Nadiejda to Cape Matsmai it is N. 76° W. five miles. 
The bay between these points is very rocky, excepting off the East end of the 
city of Matsmai, where good anchorage will be found at the di«tanc« of iiaU f. 

CUM, UU. 30 


Currenl in Ihe Slraita. Tide. Fogs. Winds. Vtssels froing H'est, 

mile from the vhore in 12 fms. This anchorage is of course unsafe in Southerly 

During the months of June, July, and August, 1 found a constant NE. cur- 
rent setting through the middle part of the Strait. The breadth of this current 
varied considerably according to the state of the wind and weather; before and 
during a NE. wind, its strength was much diminished, but with the wind from 
the opposite quarter, it would expand and fill up two-thirds of the entire chan- 
nel against the strength of the Western tide. The tide in the stream runs 
about 1'^ hours each way near the full and change of the moon, and there are 
only two regular tides by the shore in 24 hours. 

The flood or Eastern stream makes at Cape Sangar at 6.30 a.m , on full and 
change days ; at 7 o'clock at Cape 'I'sjuka, and at 7.30 at Cape Toriwisaki. 
The Western stream commences about 12 hours later. The turn of the stream 
takes place IjJ hour later every day. 

The prevailing winds during our stay were from the South, with much fine 
clear weather. We had the wind less frequently from the NW. than any other 
quarter. Dense fogs prevailed during the months of May and June; after 
that period they were comparatively rare. 

The winJs in shilling usually followed the course of the sun ; after a few 
days of light Southerly wind and fine weather, it freshened and veered to the 
Westward, accompanied by fine clear and cold weather ; at NW. it usually died 
away, or flew round suddenly to the Eastward ; in the latter case it was always 
followed by a dense fog or a gale — the weather getting fine again as the wind 
veered to the Southward. 

Vessels approaching the Straits of Sangar during foggy weather, should guard 
against being carried by the current to the Northward past the entrance. Should 
the weather be clear when nearing ("ape Gamaley, it may be as well to sight 
it; but if doubtful, shape a course (allowing for the probable current) straight 
for Cape Greig. Should a fog come on suddenly when nenring the Cape, re- 
collect that the coast is clear and sandy, and the soundings are regular to the 
Soutliward, but rocky and foul ith irregular soundings to the Northward of 
it. The Cape itself is steep to, and standing out prominently from the coast 
line, forms the best landmark in the neighborhood No particular directions 
are required in passing through this strait to the Eastward, as there are no 
hidden dangers, and the Northeasterly current will always be found strongest 
in the middle of the stream. A vessel bound to Hakodadi in thick weather, 
should, after passing Cape Sangar, endeavor to make Cape Tfjuka and proceed 
from thence to Mussel Point ; or, giving Cape Tsjuka a berth, feel her way up 
into the bay between it and Cape Saraki by the lead, and anchor till the 
'Weather clears. 

Approaching the Straits of Sangar from the Eastward, steer for Cape Nambu, 
and endeavor to mike it on a NW. bearing. Do not pass the Cape at a great 
distance (a mile is sufficient), and after passing it, haul in a little to avoid the 
current, and you will be able to anchor should it fall cnlm In this case, by 
keeping this shore close aboard, you may probably be able to drift up to Low 
Island (off" C. Toriwisaki) with the Western stream, when the NE. current 
is running like a mill-stream in the middle of the channel. 

At the anchorage off Low I., you must wait a favorable chance of getting 
across. During the summer months, the winds are frequently light from the 
Southwestward for a considerable period, and I have observed that it gener- 
ally freshens a little when the Western stream makes — this is the right time 
to weigh. Pass half a mile or so off Low Island ; and in crossing the current, 
take care not to be set to leeward of Hakodadi. 

Proceeding from Hakodadi to the Westward against SW. winds, keep well 
inside Cape Tsjuka; and if unable to get round that point, anchor with the 
stream or kedge about two miles to the Eastward, getting under weigh again 
when the next Western tide makes. Should the wind be very light, one tide 
may not clear you of the strait; in this case it will be better to wait a tide to 
the Eastward of Cape Nadiejda, aud take the whole of the folio wing one to clear 



Positions and Distances in Straits of Sangar. Asses' Ears fs. Pallas Rocks. 

you of the strait, than run any risk of being swept into the Strait ajrnin hy the 
current. W-ssi-Is passing through the Strait, particularly to the Westward, 
ought to have a good kedge and 150 iathoms of hawser ready for immediate u«e, 
and must hug the land closely. 

Positions in the Straits of Sangar. 

Latitude N. Longitude K. 

Cape Greig,' • • 
Kosima Peak,- 
Cape Sangar,- • 
Capp Matsmai, 
Cape TBJuka,- ■ 

Gun Cliff, 

Cafte ^Jadiejda, 

41 8 30" 
•41 22 15 
41 16 20 
41 25 30 
44 31 45 
41 14 30 
41 24 40 

140 17" 30 

139 51 38 

140 22 45 
140 8 00 
il40 27 10 
(140 34 '15 
140 14 30 

Latitude N. Longitude E. 

Hakodadi Peak.-.H" 4.5'35'' 140"44' 9" ■ 

Kamida( 47 3 140 '15 37 

Low Island, 41 33 .30 140 56 20 

Cape Blunt, 41 42 40 140 59 50 

Cape Esarlne,- • • • 11 48 10 141 12 30 

CapeNambu, ...41 26 30 141 29 20 

Magnetic Bearings 


N. 53 W. 
N. 20 W. 

Cape Greig to Kosima, 
C. Matsmai, 

C. Xadiejda, • N. G W. 16 

C. Sangar. - N. 31 E. ^ 

Cape Sangar to Kosima, N. 73 W. 231 

C. Nadii-jda, - N. 3.5 W. loj 

C. Tsjuka - N. 17 E. \r,\ 

Mussel Point, N. 2o E. 30j 

Low Island, ■ N. 58 E. 30l 

Gun Cliff, - N. 74 E. 9j 

Cape Nadjcida to Kosima, S. 85 W. 17 

C. Matsmai, • N. 76 W. 5 

C. Tsjuka, • N. 56 E. 12 

C Tsjuka to Mussel Point N. 35 E. 12^ 

and Distances in the Straits of Sangar. 

Distance. Bcarirtg Distance. 

2.'ii miles. f Cape Tsjuka to HakodadiH. N. 47 E. 17 milei. 

18* Cape Blunt to Hakodadi H. N. 78 W. llj 

Low Island, - S. 19 W. 9t 

C. Numbu, • S. .-il E. Ilk 

Cone Island, - N. 86 E. 2} 

Cone Island to C. Esarme, N. 57 E. 8j 

Low I. to Hakodadi Head, N. 38 W. 14^ 

C. Esarme, - - N. 43 E. 19 

C. Natnbu. - - S 71 E. 2.'.| 

Cape Namhu to C. Esarme, N. 27 W. 25 

C. Blunt, 
Hakodadi Head, 
Low Island, - • 
Red Cliff, - - - 

51 W. 27i 
N. 59 W. 30j 
N. 71 W. 25+ 
N. 81 W. 15| 

Directions for Asses' Ears Islands and Pallas Rooks. 

By Lieut. John Richards, R. JV. 

The Asses Ears may be described as two small islands extending NE and 
SW., nearly 4 miles, but notmorethan a mile in extent NW. and SE. The 
NE. island is nearly li mile long NE and SW , by ^ of a mile wide ; it is 
elevated 600 feet, and nearly level at the top, with cliffy precipitous sides, ex- 
cepting to the Southward, where there appears to be some shelter for fishing- 
junks, as several were observed at anchor. The SW. island is less than half 
the size of the NE one, but 100 feet higher, and very craggy. Its remarkable 
peak moiit probably suggested the name of the group to its first discoverers. 
'I'he intermediate small islands and rocks are high and cliffy, the latter partak- 
inw generally of the sugar-loaf form. The only "outlying" rocks noticed ex- 
tend due South from the Southern island for about one-third of a mile, and 
may be almost considered part of the main group. The approach from the 
Northward is perfectly clear. Between the Asses' Ears and the Pallas Rocks, 
the ground seems pretty even, and the general depth is 81 fathoms. I made 
the peak of the Southern Asses' Ears to be in Lat. '.\2^ 2' N , Long. 128" %' E. 

The Pallas Rocks are three in number; two lie close together, and one north- 
east, li cable from the largest, which is also the Southwestern of the group. 
The largest does not exceed a third of a cable in diameter, and is about 60 feet 
high ; the other two are about one-lnlf that elevation They are steep too ; we 
got soundings at the distance of a mile due South of them in *J5 fathoms — sand 
and shells. The largest rock is in Lit. ^'i' 14' 17" N., Long. 128° 13' 30" E. ; 
variation 2.58 W. The peak of South Asses' Ear Island bears by compass S. 
.39° K. 15i miles,— North extreme of NE. island S. f)! ' E 15^ miles ; the high 
land immediately above Cape Gotto just in sight N. 49"E. about 29 miles. 


Entrance h .YngnsaH. C. JSTomo. Cape Sewrole. Harbor has Three Parts. 

Sailing Directions for Nagasaki Harbor, 
By Adiniial Krusenstern. 

The entrance to Nacrasaki lies in lat. 3*2° 43' 45" N., and Ion. 230' 15' 0" W., 
in the middle of the Buy of Kiusiu, between Cape Nomo, and Cape Seurote. 
P'roiii Cape Goto, in lat 3'^° 34' AO , and Ion. 231" 16', W., the entrance to the 
harbor bears E. by N. 51 miles. The distance from thn easternmost of the 
Goto Is. is under 33 miles, and less from a chain of small rocky islands, which 
stretch to the NE. from the Gotos, and probably join Cape Seurote, and seem, 
at this point, to render a passage impracticable ; and which, according to the 
report of the Japanese, is only navigable for boats. Having ascertained the 
entrance, no doiibt can exist as to the course to be steered ; but should the want 
of an observation occasion any uncertainty, the mountainous nature of this part 
of the coast renders Nagasaki very remarkable. The land at Cape Norao and 
Cape Seurote is not particularly high ; but Nagasaki is surrounded by lofty 
mountains, among which is a chain higher than the rest at the southern ex- 
tremity, which lies rather E. by S. of the entrance. It is best to keep as much 
as possible in the middle between the Goto Islands and Kiusiu, and to steer a 
NE course until opposite the entrance, and then due East. In this direction 
the hill behind Nagasaki soon becomes visible. When within about 9 or 1(1 
miles of the entrance, a large tree is seen on the S. of Iwo-sima; and this tree, 
which can be seen over 10 miles, being brought to bear S. 85° K., is then in a 
line with the point of the abovementioned hill. With these two marks it is 
impossible to miss the course ; but if on making the land of Kiusiu you steer 
for Cape Nomo, and then along the coast, you are not only in danger' (either 
in a calm, or by the tides, which at the full and new moon are very strong) of 
being driven near the rocks, but might very easily mistake an entrance in lat. 
32' 41)' for the true one, and which, though it leads to Nagasaki, might prove 
dangerous, having never been explored. 

Cape Nomo, in lat. 23' 35' 1(»", and long. 230° 17^" W., consists of a hill, 
with a split or double summit, and at a little distance has the appearance of an 
island ; when near it is remarkable by a large rock in its front. Between Cape 
Nomo and the entrance into the harbor are a number of rocks and small rocky 
islands, one of which is of considerable height; and others, like the Papenberg 
in the Bay of Nagasaki are remarkable from being planted with trees from the 
base entirely up to the summit. Behind the islands and rocks is a bay, the 
South side of which is bounded mostly by a flat and very well cultivated coun- 
try • farther inland it is more mountainous, the hills stretching in a NW. direc- 
tion as far as Nagasaki, in large ranges adjoining each other, and planted with 
avenues and groups of trees. Behind Cape Nomo the coast assumes a SE. 
direction ; and here there appears a large bay, which in the Japanese charts is 
called Arima, but which we were unable to examine. The last point seen by 
\Xi is in lat. 30° 32' N , and Ion. 230" II'. W. 

Cape Seurote bears N. by W. of Cape Nomo, 25 miles, and from the entrance 
.^. 30° W. 17i miles, and is in lat. 32° 58' 30", and Ion. 230° 25'. W. The Cape 
itself is not very high, and may be known by a hollow to the SE., from which 
the land rises to the North, and is, on the whole, more mountainous than Nomo. 
Southward of Seurote are several islands, of which the largest and nearest to 
the cape is called NaUima ; and the southern Kitsima. 

The harbor of Nagasaki has three parts ; it contains as many roads, all perfect- 
ly safe. The first is without, to the W. of Papenberg, the second in the middle to 
the eastward of that island ; and the third, at the bottom of the harbor, in front 
of the city. The entrance is formed to the Southward by the north end of Iwo- 
sima and to the northward by Cape Facunda ; which two points lie NE. and 
SW.'40° distant about 2J miles from each other. In the middle between them 
the depth is 33 fathoms, a bottom of fine gray sand. In th.' direction of E.SE., 
E SE. A E , and East (the course of the outer road), it gradually decreases to 
22 or 25 fathoms, over a bottom of thick green ooze, with fine sand. This 


lioosimcu Papenberg I. Kamino-sima. JVedzumi-simn. Tow boats. 

outer road, to the west of Papenberg, is completely sheltered from every wind 
except the N\V. and W.N W. ; but as this wind blows but seldom during the 
NE. monsoon, and never very strong, it is perfectly safe at this time of year. 
The anchorage is excellent, and we had difficulty in weighing the anchor after 
it had lain without strain for eight days, so that unless a vessel intends to re- 
main here, it will be sufficient to cast out a kedge instead of a second sheet 
anclior. Ours layto the North in a depth of 18 fathoms. This road is formed 
on the W. and SW. by the lofty island of Iwo-sima, which lies nearly North 
and South, and is I^ miles in length ; the hill whicii forms it is divided in the 
middle by a low valley, where there are some houses, and upon the top of the 
northern half of the island a large isolated tree marks the entrance to the har- 
bor. Nearly NE. from the tree is a valley with a considerable village, sur- 
rounded by trees, and in the same direction, about 2 cables from the shore, is a 
rock, which I believe is covered at high water. E.SE. of Iwo-sima is Taka- 
eiina, divided by a cliannel not half a mile wide, and probably free from rocks. 
There is probably no passage between Kayak-sima and Taka-sima. North of 
Kayak-sima lie some rocks, called Kanda-sima; and farther to the NE., half 
a mile, the small Island of Amiabar, l<i miles in circumference. On its NE. 
point is a fort. The last islands surround the outer road from the SW. to the 
SE. ; to the E. about 2 miles from the main land, to the NE. Papenberg, and 
the Island of Kamino-sima to the North. From these another chain of rocka 
stretches to the West, between which there does not appear to be a passage for 
the smallest craft. 

The middle road East of Papenberg, is surrounded by land, and is as safe as 
Ihe inner one, to which I should prefer it, as its anchorage is better. To the 
West lies Papenberg, a small island, under half a mile in circumference and the 
highest in harbor, and remarkable from a row of trees reaching from both shores 
to its summit. Its name P.Tpenberg, is derived from the tradition that during 
the extirpation of the Christians from Japan, the Catholic priests were thrown 
from the top of this mountain. To the SW., lie the islands Amiabur, Kayak- 
sima, and Taka-sima; and in a rather more southerly direction, tlie channel out 
to sea, but in which, during the SW. storms, the waves are broken by small 
islands lying as well without it as within it; and on this account it is necessary 
to anchor nearer to Papenberg. Southward and eastward is the right bank of 
the channel leading to the city; to the NE., Nagasaki ; to the N. and N W., a 
part of the left bank of the channel of Nagasaki, and the Island of Kamino- 
sima. From the outer road to the centre, the depth decreases gradually from 
25 to 17 fathoms. In this passage keep closer to the Papenberg than to the 
opposite shore, and the former may be approached within a cable's length, a 
depth of IS or 20 fathoms. 

Northeast of Papenberg about three quarters of a mile, is a small flat wooded 
island, Nedzumi-sima (Rat Island), about the same size as Papenberg; and 130 
fathoms further, in the same direction, is the small Bay of Kibatsch, in which 
there are from 6 to 10 fathoms water. This is the best place to refit a ship in 
all ihe harbor of Nagasaki, for in the inner one the shore is everywhere so mud- 
dy that no ship can approach it. It was on the left side of this little bay that we 
were allowed a small space, scarcely longer than the ship iUtelf, surrounded 
with bamboos, as a walk. 

Ships coming to Nagasaki should not suffer themselves to be detained by 
boats, but sail as far as the outer road, and even run at once into the middle 
any road, without the least danger, particularly during the southwest monsoon. 
The assistance of the Japanese in this passage is unnecessary, and by rejecting 
it they will avoid the unpleasant predicament of being kept two days in the 
middle of the entrance, when, if a blow were to come on they would be exposed 
to great danger. Unless this advice be adopted, they must hire a hundred 
boats to tow them to Papenberg, and they will experience the additional 
mortification of losing 1 00 fathoms of towing line, which the Japanese will cut 
off the moment they have carried them in. 


JSt'ngasakt Inner Harbor. Tides. Pelletp's Directions for the Entrance. 

From the middle to the inner road, or to the city of Nngasaki, the coiirne 
lies N. 40° E ; the distance ia about 2j miles, and the depth decreases griidiially 
from 18 to 5 fathoms. Nearly half way, where the channel is not more than 
40(1 fathoms wide, are situated the imperial batteries, a number of buildinps, but 
without cannon ; similar batteries are erected along both shores. In the vic- 
inity of the emperor's guard, on the right bank, there is a bay, which was al- 
ways full of boats, and where there is no doubt plenty of water for large ships; 
on both sides of the channel there are several similar bays. This one, owing 
to its romantic appearance, was very striking, and seemed to be the largest. 

The anchorage near Nagasaki is not so good as outside, as the bottom is a 
thin clay ; besides, as the southwest channel is here open to the sea, there is 
less shelter than close under the Papenberg. 

The mean of a great number of observations, taken during the stay of the 
Nailiejda, made the latitude of the flagstaff* at Deziina to be 31i°44' 18", and 
of Nagasaki 3'2° 43' 40". The longitude of the centre of the town of Nagasaki 
was calculnted from 1028 lunar distance by Dr. Horner and Capt. Kruscnstera 
as 230" 7' f>3 ", or, in round numbers 230° 8' W. The mean of the observations 
for the variation made it 1 ° 4-')' o6" VV. The mean time of high water, full and 
change, vt-as 7A 52' 41". The greatest range, April 2d, 1805, was II ieet 5 in- 
ches ; the lowest, March 25th, 1 foot 2 inches. 

Directions for the Entrance to Nagasaki Harbor. 
Mridged from Capt. Fleettcood Pelleic, R. J\'. 

Those who are unacquainted with Nagasaki Harbor should make the land 
to the northward in lat. 32° 47' N. or 32' 48', as the NE. trade wind blows here 
the greater part of the year. Having made the land in this latitude, you may 
run along the shore at 2 or 3 miles' distance, as it is steep and bold to approach, 
and by doing so it will be almost impossible to miss the harbor. 

By nwking the land in lat. 32° 48' N., you will be about 3 miles to leeward 
of some islands of rugged aspect, one of which is perfectly barren, and formed 
like a sugar-loaf, and the largest of them forms a high ridge of rugged rocks ; 
from hence to the island at the entrance of Nagasaki Bay, SE. about 9 or 
10 miles, there is no danger. If close in with the shore, the southern extremity 
seen will be a high bluff point with some rocky islets off it ; this point is about 
7 miles to leeward of the entrance, and was mistaken by us for the East side of 
the entrance, and in steering for it the real entrance was discovered ; care 
should be taken not to fall to leeward, as the fresh NE. winds render it difficult 
to beat back to the harbor. . _ ' 

On the bluff point last mentioned there is a watch house with a curious roof, 
'and on a small island, about 3 miles to the northward of it there is another, 
'situated lower down than the first; a third is on the middle of Cavallos, and 
here Dutch colors are displayed ships to coming in. Attention to these marks 
will prevent any mistake, and a further guide is a very high hill a longdistance 
inland, having upon it a remarkable hump, the land of square form resembl- 
ing a tower; this hill is directly over Nagasaki. 

After rounding the point of Cavallos, Papenberg, and several small islands 
near it, which form the inner entrance, of the harbor, will be plainly seen ; also 
a reef called the Bone Roaster, close to the islands on the western side ; these 
must all be left to starboard, and the mainland of Kiusiu must be borrowed on, 
steering direct for the rugged and rocky islet outside of which you may leave 
on the larboard hand, within half a cable's length. There are also some islets 
on the other side, that cannot easily be mistaken for those off Papenberg, 
which must all be left on the larboard hand, and those on the eastern side must 
'be left to starboard, there being no passage within them. When round Papen- 
burg, the town and harbor open to view ; the latter turning suddenly to N.NVY. 
forms a deep and spacious bay. Papenberg is a high, round island, covered 
with trees, resembling the English fir; to the eastward, nearly opposite Papea- 
burg, a small town will be seen in a wattled enclosure. 


Lewchew Is. under Japanese rule. .American Compact of JVnpa, 

Section 4. 

During the American Expedition to Japan in 1853 and 1854, Com- 
modore Perry visited Lewchew many times, and had much oflicial 
intercourse with the authorities of the islands. 'I'his group is 
peopled by a race that have imitated the civilization of the Chinese, 
but who have adopted the language, and are now under the super- 
vision of the Japanese, especially the Prince of Satzuma who lives 
in the south of Kiusiu, and with whom alone in Japan the Lew- 
chevvans are permitted to trade. They however acknowledge a par- 
tial fealty to the Chinese, and send a junk annually to Fuhchau with 
envoys and presents for Peking, and an assortment of goods to trade 
there ; the government and merchants maintain b factory at that city. 
Japanese junks frequent the port, but no Chinese vessels or people 
come to trade. The authorities have always shown great reluctance to 
supply ships coming into the harbor with water and provisions, but 
whether it is owing to the restrictive policy of the Japanese, or to 
;their own fears lest their power be weakened by permitting too 
much freedom to their own people, has hot been ascertained. The 
islan dssupply enough for the population, and export coarse cottons, 
grasscloth, saki or rice-whiskey, sugar, with a little millet and other 
grains, to Japan and China. 

After he had completed his negotiations with the Japanese, Com- 
modore Perry and the highest authorities of the islands agreed to 
certain stipulations respecting the future intercourse of Americans 
with the Lewchewans, which will at least form a basis for the con- 
duct of the two parties. The islanders have so long maintained a 
seclusive policy, however, that practical experience of the good 
effects of more trade and intercourse, is the most likely way to induc6 
them to relax in their laws. 

Compact of Napa. 

Hereafter, whenever citizens of the United States come to Lewchew, they 
shall be treatnd with great courtesy and friendship. Whatever articles thesfe 
persons aak for, whether from the officers or people, which the country can 
furnish, shall be sold to them; nor shall the authorities interpose any prohi- 
bitory regulations to the people selling; and whatever either party may wish 
to buy, shall be exchanged at reasonable prices. 

Whenever whips of the United States shall come into any harbor in Lew- 
chew, they shall be supplied with wood and water at rcHsonable prices ; but 
if they wish to get other articles, they shall be purchascablc only at Napa. 

If ships of the United States arc wrecked on Great Lewchew, or on islands 
under the jurisdiction of the royal government of Lewchew, the local autho- 
rities shall dispatch persons to assist in saving life and property, and preserve 
what can be brought ashore, till the ships of that nation shall come to take 
away all that may have been saved ; and the expenses incurred in rcsciiino- 
these unfortunate persons shall be refunded by the nation they belong to. 


Pilots. Supplies. Official Purveyors. Coins taken. 

Whenever persons from ships of the United States come ashore in Lewchew, 
they shall be at liberty to ramble where they please, without hindrance, or 
having officials sent to follow them, or to spy what they do; but if they vio- 
lently go into houses, or trifle with women, or force people to sell them things, 
or do other such like illegal acts, they shall be arrested by the local officers, 
but not maltreated, and shall be reported to the captain of the ship to which 
they belong, for punishment by him. 

At Tumai is a burial-ground for the citizens of the United States, where 
their graves and tombs shall not be molested. 

The Government of Lewchcw shall appoint skillful pilots, who shall be on 
the lookout for ships appearing off the Island, and if one is seen coming to- 
wards Napa, they shall go out in good boats beyond the reefs to conduct her 
in to a secure anchorage, for which service the captain shall pay the pilot 
five dollars ; and the same for going out of the harbor beyond the reefs. 

Whenever ships anchor at Napa, the local authorities shall furnish them 
with wood at the rate of three thousand six hundred copper cash per thousand 
catties ; and with water at the rate of six hundred copper cash, {43 cents) for 
one thousand catties, or six barrels full, each containing 30 American gallons. 

Signed in the English and Chinese languages by Commodore Matthkw 
C. Perrt, Con>mander-in-chief of the United States' Naval Forces in the 
East India, China and Japan seas, and special envoy to Japan, for the United 
States; and by Sho Fu-fing, Superintendent of AfTsiirs (Tsn-li-kwan) in 
liewchew, and Ba Rio-si, Treasurer of Lewchew at Shui, for the Government 
of Lewchew ; and copies exchanged this 1 Ith day of July, 1854, or the reign 
Hienfung, 4th year, 6th moon, 17th day, at the Town Hall of Napa. 

Pigs, bullocks, poultry, coarse sugar, fish, eggs, greens, egg-plants, 
pulse, sweet potatoes, and rice, with water and wood, constitute 
the chief supplies which a ship can expect to get at Napa. The 
watering-place is about a mile up Junk River, and beyond the town 
of Napa, on the left hand of the river, and is easily reached at high 
water in a long-boat. No supplies can be bought in the markets of 
N.ipa, but they are furnished by official purveyors to such an extent 
as they see fit, and brought off to the vessel. The most eligible 
place for landing in rough weather is near Tumai, where the Ameri- 
can Commodore had a coal depot built, but in ordinary times a land- 
ing can be made near False Capstan Point ; it is the nearest to Napa, 
and there is a small boat passage through the reefs just north of it. 
The people are shy towards foreigners, not because they are afraid 
of them so much as of their own oppressive officials, who may punish 
them for too much intercourse. 

The Mexican dollar is reckoned at 1440 copper Chinese cash, 
and is readiljr eceived. Gold is taken at par ; both it and silver are 
much used in making hair-pins and other articles, and do not circu- 
late as money, like the cash. 



Sectfon 1 

The only native coin now in use throughout China is the tsien 3^ 
or cash made from an alloy of copper, iron, and tutenague. Although 
worth less than the twelfth part of a cent, this coin is nevertheless 
much adulterated by forgers, and depreciated by the government : 
inferior descriptions of it also find their way into the southwest 
provinces in considerable quantities from Cochinchiua, where tin 
and iron are almost the only ingredients used in its composition. 
The Chinese cash is circular, nine tenths of an inch in diameter, and 
has a square hole in the middle for the convenience of stringing 
them. It is cast, and not stamped or minted ; the obverse bears the 
name of the province in which it is cast in I\Ianchu, on the right 
side of the square hole, and the word €^-S^ for ^ on the left ; on 
the reverse is the name of the reign (as Taukwang, Hienfung, &/C.) 
in Chinese above and below the hole, with the addition of two cha- 

racters iH W <""^ P"^> *• «• ' current money,' on the right and left 
of it. Large coins of the same form have lately been issued from 
the Fuhkien mint, bearing the value of 10, 20, 50 and 100 cash re- 
spectively, but the people will not receive them at their nominal rate 
on account of their lightness. 

The mode of casting cash is given in the Chinese Chrestomathy : 

"From the Board of Revenue at Peking models are obtained, and in each 
provincial city a mint is established, over which a director is appointed. 
When the mint is to be worked, the director weighs out the proper quantity 
of copper, and delivern it to the workmen to be cast into money, and to be 
returned according to the quantity given ; but these workmen often throw 
sand into the mold with the metal, and are thus enabled to purloin the copper. 
When about to cast, they lake tiie metal and put it into a to be fused, 
and afterwards pour it into a clay mold. Afterwards, when the metal has be- 
come cold and hard, it is turned out of the mold. The weight of each piece 
of the money is one mace (tsien), and hence it is called by the same name ; 
the value fixed by government is tlie thousandth paVt of a tael's weight of 

COM. UL. 37 


Caiting cash. .Vo silxftr coin. JVbminal moneys. Cash a bast coin. 

" The second, fifth, and ei>jhth days of each month are the periods fixed 
for commencing tiie work ; and the third, sixth, and ninth are the days for 
weighing the money, and delivering it to the commissioner of finnnce. The 
people who work the mint are required to be always in the estihlishment, 
not being at liberty to go in and out at pleasure ; but they are changed in 
rotation; and, except on the third, sixth, and ninth days, after they have 
weighed and delivered the money over to the commissioner of finance, are 
they permitted to leave the mint, but are required to return on the same 
evening."— CAj'nese Chxeslomalhj, page 257. 

Silver coins of various kinds have been in use in China at different 
periods, but none' are now issued by the government ; Spanish, 
Mexican, and South American dollars (though not acknowledged by 
the government) are employed as a commercial medium throughout 
the maritime provinces ; but the habit of stamping them, practiced 
by bankers, shroffs, and merchants, as a pledge for their purity, soon 
takes from them one of the chief advantages of coined money — that 
of having a fixed and certain weight. As a commercial medium, 
therefore, the broken dollars in circulation, being always taken by 
weight, do not differ very materially from sycee silver. The only 
difference is that the former has a fixed, the latter an uncertain, 
standard of purity ; and also the former being much thinner, dis- 
honesty practiced with it does not requite the labor, and is more 
readily detected too than when practiced with the solid ingots of 

The nominal moneys are the fj^ Hang W^ tsien, yf'fan and ™ lU 
called by foreigners tael, mace, candareen and cash, the proportion 
of which, one to the other, is decimal. The candareen is equal, 
only in accounts, to ten cash, but owing to the deterioration of these 
last, the actual value of a copper cash is about the eighteenth part 
of a candareen, 1900 ordinary cash or 1800 picked ones, being com- 
monly paid for a tael. These terms — tael, mace, candareen and 
cash — are, properly speaking, denominations of weight, the cases in 
which stamped pieces of silver (other than uninjured dollars) pass 
current as coin, being few, expect in the smallest transactions. It 
is more convenient, however, to speak of them as nominal moneys. 
In fact, usage has occasioned a slight difference (which is not how- 
ever recognized by the Chinese,) between the money and the com- 
mercial tael, at the standards assigned by foreigners to each. At the 
money standard of 120 oz. 16 dwts. English troy weight for 100 taels, 
the pecul, which contains 1600 taels, should weigh 132^^3^ lbs. 
avoirdupois, while its actual standard is 133^ lbs. ; and it follows 
therefore, that while 3 taels' weight equal 4 /6s., 3 taels of money 
equal 84.16. Money is never reckoned above taels, and other arti- 
cles are usually reckoned in decimals when under a tael. The dif- 
ference appears to have arisen from motives of convenience with 
respect to turning Chinese into English weightsand vice vcrsA. 

The circulating medium at Canton is, as has been mentioned, 
whole and broken dollars ; the value of which in relation to the tael 


Rales of the Dollar. Tad to Dollar. Old Head and other Dollars. 

varies in different transactions, according to long established usage. 
In calculations or accounts between foreigners and merchants, and 
almost always in bargains among the Chinese themselves, taels are 
converted into dollars at the rate of - taels 720 per $1000 

Payments in cash are generally weighed at - ,, 717 per 1000 
But payments for Bengal opium at - - ,, 718 per 1000 
Payments for Malwa or Turkey opium are at ,, 717 per 1000 
Tradesmen generally, when paid by compradors, 

receive payments at ... 715 to ,, 717 per 1000 
Payments into the E. I. Co.'s treasury were at ,, 718 per 1000 
At Macao, payments are usually at - - ,, 720 per 1000 

The jmlue of the tad in relation to sterling money was reckoned 
in the books of the East India Company at 6s. 8c?., but its intrinsic 
value varies according to the price paid for dollars per ounce in Lon- 
don. Hence, to convert taels into sterling money, multiply the price 
paid for dollars by the multiplier 1.205. Thus, if the price of the 
dollar be 60rf. per ounce, the value of the tael will be 60X1 208= 
72-i^^rf. ; if at 66d., it will be 79/^?<y^jrf. ; and for any other price in 
the same proportion. 

Dollars, even of the same weight and purity, are not received 
alike by the Chinese ; thus, at Chusan and Ningpo, during the war 
with England, Republican dollars passed more freely than Spanish, 
But Spanish dollars, of certain coinages in the reign of Carlos IIII., 
called old head Carplus dollars, if uninjured by the practice of 
stamping, always bear a premium, rising latterly as high as 28 per 
cent. ; while undefaced Ferdinand dollars are only a little above par. 
Chopped dollars are considered par. There is one kind of Spanish 
dollar bearing the stamp of the letter G, or G* to denote their being 
coined at the Guadalajara mint, called by Chinese koto tsien^l ^^ 

or 'hooked dollars,' from the resemblance of that letter, which are 
always received at a discount, sometimes as great as 5 per cent. 
They are now seldom seen. Republican dollars and rupees pass 
freely at Amoy and Canton since 1853, when the authorities at 
Canton agreed to take all coins in payment for duties at their real 
purity. The cause of the fastidiousness of the Chinese respecting 
certain coins is like that of the Turks and Arabs, and among all 
these nations may have been at first owing to the habit of receiving 
coins of a certain stamp from a uniform experience that such coin 
was always good, and of disliking to receive any other sort from 
ignorance of its purity ; and this, through the influence of specula- 
tors in the difference of exchange among the sorts of coins tending 
to uphold this artificial premium and discount, has perhaps still fur- 
ther contributed to maintain the artificial distinction. 

The following remarks, chiefly by fl. M. Clark of the E. I. Co.'s 
Factory, on the ''hinese currency, describe many particulars res- 
pecting the counterfeiting of dollars and other points relating to 
the currency of China. 


Govermiwnt Money shops. Honing silver. Counterfeiting Dollars- 

"The dread of change, which has been generally considered ae the lead- 
ing characteristic fentiire in the domestic, as well as foreign, policy of China, 
has extended its full influence to the circulating medium of the country. The 
government is determined that its coffers, at least, shall suffer no defalcation 
by depreciation of the currency ; and hence the imperial taxes and duties are 
required to be paid in pure silver. In every large town, are yin tien 'or money 
shops,' the inferior class of which are establishments of money-changers and 
shroffs ; the more respectable are private banks. Of the latter class every 
officer, who has any superintendence of the revenue, employs one or more, to 
receive the taxes and duties, with a fixed allowance for loss in melting, and 
having reduced them to sycee silver, to become reponsible for the pnrity 
thereof. The establishments which are thus connected with government are 
licensed, a privilege for which they have to pay, but not largely. They are 
remunerated by the surplus allowance or waste, which always exceeds whr>t 
is necessary. Taxes are generally handed over to them by the governments; 
merciintile duties are paid into tlieir banks by the merchants from whom they 
are owing, and the banker in such case gives the merchants a receipt for the 
amount, accompanied by a certificate that it shall be paid to government 
within a certain period. The refined silver is cast into ingots, and stamped 
with the names of the banker and the workmen, the year and district in 
which it is cast, and sometimes the kind of tax for which it was cast to pay. 
Should any deception be afterwards discovered, at whatever distance of time 
tlie refiner is liable to severe punishment. 

" However wisely this system may have been contrived for the maintenance 
of the imperial resources, in a commercial point of view it is most burden- 
some and inconvenient. Since tlie establishment of foreign trade, the intro- 
duction of dollars has supplied the defect to a certain, though but very 
limited, extent; and so sensible did the native authorities appear to be of its 
advantages, that for a time the coinage of dollars in imitation thereof was al- 
lowed — nay even practiced under authority of a provincial treasurer. 'But,' 
says the Yin Lun, a Chinese treatise on money, ' though they commenced at 
a higher rate than the foreign dollars, in a short process of time they sank 
greatly below the standard, whilst the foreign money preserved its original 
degree of purity.' The manufacture of dollars is now disallowed by the laws; 
but, according to the common report of natives, is still carried on in spite of 
them to a very considerable extent. In the district of Shunteh, south of Can- 
ton, there is said to be a very large establishment, in which as many as a 
hundred workmen are frequently employed. Dollars are there manufactured 
of all gradations of value, some alloyed with lead, some made of base metal 
and coated over with silver, and others deteriorated by cutting out pieces of 
silver and filling up their places with lead, disguised by repeated stamps ; this 
last method is frequently practiced with genuine Spanish dollars. These 
false coiners are said to possess European stamps, procured at great expense ; 
but sometimes they attempt imitations, in which the omission or disfiguring 
of some letters easily betrays the deception to a European eye. So common 
however, are their dollars in circulation, that men from this district are most 
usually selected as shroffs, and there is a book in print for the use of the pub- 
lic, giving an account of the process of manufacturing each variety of false 
money, and rules for detecting the forgery. These rules are practically 
known by the shroffs, so that they can tell any description of dollars or de- 
gree of alloy at single glance. When the dollar is made of true value, the 
imitation is often very good, and detection is indeed difficult; yet the shroffs 
perceive the imitation and reject it. The profits of the concern in Shunteh 
are so large, that it can easily afford to quiet all interference on the part of 
the local officers. 


Chinese coined Dollars. Coins ivom as Charms. Banks. 

" On the east coast of China, smooth faced dollars used to occur in large 
quantities, which were round pioces of unstamped silver of a dollar's value, 
mixed with other dollars worn smooth. The provincial treasurer in Fuhkien 
once issued a native dollar to some extent. The obverse bore a portrait of 
the god of Longevity, with an inscription showing that it was cast in tlie 
reign of Taukwang, and by the treasury scales weighed 7 tiuxce 2<anrf., and 
was also tsvJi wan yin ping, i. e. 'a cake of pure sycee silver.' The reverse 
exhibited a tripod, denoting that it was a government coin, and Taiwan in 
Manchu, to show that it was cast in Formosa. The workmanship of this coin 
was very rude. 

" With regard to the cash, which is the only native coin now in circulation, 
the government have within the last few years taken strong measures to sup- 
press the private manufacture of it, but in vain. The rapacity of the governors 
is strongly exemplified also in the gross adulteration of the public coin ; that 
of Kanghi, about 150 years ago, or even than that of Kienlung, not more than 
50 years since. It is debased in the coarsest manner with iron dust and sand 
(lieh shd), and presents a gritty appearance to the eye. 

"In China, as in Europe, coins and medals have attracted the attention of 
antiquarian collectors ; and some of them offer subjects of interest to the 
curious. In the middle ages, they were valued as affording specimens of 
many ancient forms of characters, which in the times of feudal anarchy imme- 
diately preceding had been forgotten. Symbolical figures of birds and animals 
are those with which the medals are generally stamped. Coins are also 
strung together in different ways, and worn on the person, or suspended over 
beds, as charms, and sometimes as ornaments. This fancy does not .tppear 
peculiar to the Chinese. ' Many of the ancient coins found in Greece,' says 
Walpole, 'are pierced, and through the hole a string is passed, by which they 
are hung as ornaments round the heads of women and young girls- This 
custom is not new, we find it mentioned by Chrysostora, who particularly re- 
fers to the coins of Alexander.' " 

A few remarks on the banking establishments above referred to, 
will not be irrelevant to the present subject. There are some bank- 
ers unconnected with ordinary mercantile business ; but the ma» 
jority are either agents, drawable at will, in which case no interest 
is allowed ; or they take money at an interest not exceeding 12 per 
cent., in which case some days' notice must be given before any 
portion can be withdrawn. They do not appear to difler materially 
from similar establishments in Europe ; but they are not chartered 
or privileged banking companies. Paper money was formerly issued 
by the government, but is not now known ; its place is supplied at 
Fuhchau by the notes of local banks, which pass freely in the city 
and most parts of the prefecture. Their value rises from 300 cash 
up to $50 and more. Promissory notes circulate with nearly the 
same facility as in Europe. Many of the Canton banks confine their 
transactions to this and the adjoining province of Kwangs'. Some 
have correspondents in one or two other provinces ; and a few only 
have agents in all the provinces. The bank that possesses most 
credit in Canton is one named Anshing, the correspondence of which 
is principally with Peking and Nanking ; with these places its inter- 
course is as regular, and perhaps more so, than that of the govern- 
ment. — There are in some places banks of loan, which advance 


Pawnbrokers. Rides for redeeming Pleelgts. Rates of Interest. 

money for short periods, at a daily interest of about J per cent, for 
periods of at least three days. 

Nearly allied to these are the establishments of pawnbrokers, which 
are very numerous in China. The licensed ones are of three classes. 
Those which possess large capital and are licensed to grant loans to 
any amount, are placed under considerable restrictions; they allow 
three years to redeem, with a grace of three months. These have 
to pay largely for their licenses, and are also subject to an annual 
tax. They must give three years' notice of retiring. Inferior pawn- 
brokers are licensed to allow only two years to redeem. And others 
again, of a still lower description, may sell off the pawned articles 
after one year; but freemen are not permitted to open such estab- 
lishments. Unlicensed pawnbrokers are liable to severe punishment. 
'J'he length of time which they are compelled to allow for the re- 
demption of pledges is very injurious to them, as the articles must 
often lose their entire value. If a pawnbroker suffer from theft or 
from fire originating in his own premises, he is not exonerated from 
the responsibility of repaying to the pawnee the value of the articles 
which he had in pawn. When fire is communicated to the pawn- 
broker's house from a neighbor's, he is required only to make good 
halfJhe amount of loss. The highest legal rate of interest is three 
per cent, per month. In the winter months, it may not exceed two 
per cent, on raiment, so that the poor may be enabled more easily 
to redeem. The pawnbrokers issue tickets for the articles they take, 
which again have a certain value, and are hawked in the streets. 
These shops offer great temptations to thieves, who can immediately 
place their plunder on the shelves, and by hiding or destroying the 
tickets, prevent the right owners recovering their property. The 
statement which has been sometimes made respecting interest among 
the Chinese, that it is usually paid during only ten months of the 
year, appears to have originated in error. One or two months' 
freedom from paying interest is sometimes allowed, as a matter of 
favor, but we cannot learn that any rule exists on the subject. 

On the subject of interest, the translator of the Chinese Penal 
Code has some correct remarks, in a note to those sections of Chi- 
nese law which come under the head of Usury. The exorbitance 
of the rate of interest upon which a contract for a pecuniary loan 
may be lawfully made, is a peculiarity in the Chinese laws which 
he considers it difficult to account for. It is not, however, to be 
understood that the ordinary rate of interest in China ever attains 
the legal limit. At Canton, for instance, the rate is generally con- 
sidered to be from 10 to 15 per cent, per annum, rarely exceeding 
the latter amount. But on loans made on pledges, if a small amount, 
the legal rate is usually charged. 

" In a state of things so unfavorable to the accumulation and transfer of 
property, there cannot at any time be much floating capital ; and the value of 
that capital, as far as it is denoted by tlie interest which it bears, it is natural 
to expect, will be high in proportion to its scarcity. In other words, where 


Reasons for the high rate of legal Interest. Ingots of sgcee. 

there arc many borrowers and few lenders, and where it forms no part of the 
system of the government to grant to the former any peculiar degree of pro- 
tection or encouragement, it seems a necessary consequence, that the latter 
will both demand and obtain a more than ordinary compensation in return for 
the use of his property. Trade therefore, as far as it requires such aid, can 
not be so extensively carried on, as it is in those countries, in which there 
being more available capital, that capital is procurable at a cheaper rate, and 
accordingly a smaller return of profit found adequate to the charges of com- 
mercial adventurers." 

"The rate of interest upon a pecuniary loan (quoting the words of the able 
translator) must, generally speaking, be influenced by a twofold consideration. 
Besides what is considered to be strictly equivalent to the advantage arising 
from the use of the money, the lender must be supposed in most cases, to re- 
ceive likewise a cert-iin compensation for the risk to which he exposes his 
principal. The former consideration will always be limited by, and bear a 
certain ratio to, the peculiar state and degree of the general prosperity ; but 
the latter can evidently be determined by no rule or proportion, which does 
not include the consideration of the relative situation and circumstances of 
the parties interested in the transaction. In England, indeed, where the se- 
curity of property, and the exclusive rights of individuals are so well under- 
stood, and so effectually protected by the laws, it may, in general, be almost 
as easy to guard against risk, as to compensate for it. But in China, where 
the laws connected with property are comparatively vague and undefined, and 
being distinct from the sources of power and influence, are less the law's re- 
gard ; where, owing to the subdivision of property, there are few great capi- 
talists ; and where also there is but little individual confidence, except be- 
tween relations, who, holding their patrimony in some degree in common, 

can scarcely be considered as borrowers or lenders in the eye of the law, it 

is not 80 surprising that it should be deemed expedient to license in pecuniary 
transactions, the insertion of stipulations for very ample interest" 

Gold and Silver formerly could not legally be exported from 
( hina, except in foreign coins, but by the Treaties treasure was made 
free of all duty. A large amount was, up to 1853, annually taken 
away, not only of broken dollars, but also of sycee silver. The most 
common weight of the ingots is ten taels each ; their shape resembles 
a parallelogram, smooth and flat on the upper, but rather rough and 
rounded on the lower surface, and bearing a slight resemblance to 
a Chinese shoe, from whence they arc called shoes by foreigners. 
Gold leaf is also used in payments not under f 40 or -^SO, being both 
a portable medium of conveyance, and very secure from fraud. 

it appears from a memorial addressed to the emperor in 1838 
that most of the native silver is obtained from mines at Hoshan in 
Yunnan in the department of Tsidngchau, and at Sungsing on the 
borders of Cochinchina. These mines are farmed out by the govern- 
ment to overseers, and between forty and fifty thousand workmen 
are employed in them, who annually produce not far from two mil- 
lions of taels of silver. There are other mines in the empire, not 
8o rich as these two, though probably more productive in the aggre- 
gate ; but it is impossible to even guess what China receives annual- 
ly from her gold and silver mines. ...» 

The fineness of gold and silver is expres.sed by dividing the metal 
into a hundred parts called touches. Thus, if aft ingot be said to be 




Fineness of Bullion. 

Table of Weights. 


at 95 touch, it is understood to contain 5 parts of alloy, and 95 parts 
of pure metal. The fineness of the metals, as thus expressed, may 
be converted into English proportions by the following analogies. 
If gold, for instance, be at 91.66 touch, say as 100 : 91.66 : : 12 : II, 
the standard, and vice versa ; and to convert standard silver into 
touch, say as 240 : 222 : : 100 : 92.5, the touch of sterling silver. 


Pecul. Catties. 





Lbs. avr. 

Grs. Troy 

1 100 
















oz. IJ 









Sectron 2. 


The numerals of the Chinese in the complex, simple, and con- 
tracted forms, with their pronunciation in the court, Canton, and 
Amoy dialects, are as follows: — 

Compttz form. 


Contracted form, 


il or : 


1 'rh 



Amoy Amoy 
read. pronounced, 

yit chit. 
jf no. 

3 j^ 


ll| or - 

!I1 san 



















. t • 













8 :M 








































Cypher. Decimals. Dimes and Cents. Macus or Counting-board. 

The Chinese, like the ancient Greeks, do not reckon '.hove a 
myriad, but they have, through the Budhists, learned to use a few 
characters for the higher numbers, as pik >g for 100,000 ; rf, u ^j^ 
for 1,000,000 ; king ^, 10,000,000 :g hdi; for 100,000,000, &-c. 
There are higher terms than these, but numbers above a myriad are 
usually expressed by uniting those below it, as peh wan ling ling sdn 
tsien yih peh luh-skik-wu ]§* ^ ^ OH^ — '^y^'j^^ or 
1,003,165; ^^ or O is used to denote a cypher. Twenty is also 
written 'H* and -^f" JiA, and 30 -^ sdn, which are merely -|-* com- 
bined twice and thrice; but the common way to express all numbers 
above ten is by combining the digits, as shih-yih 11 ; shih-'rh 12; 
'rh'Shih 20 ; 'rh-shih-yih 21 ; yihjpeh ling luh 106 ; &,c. 

The decimals are not called tenths, hundredths, &c., as in the 
Arabic notation, but each progressive term has a separate name. 
The five first are the fan ^ a tenth ; li J^ a hundredth ; hdu ^ 
a thousandth ; sz' ^* a ten thousandth ; hwuh ^^ a hundred thous- 
andth, &c. 

In money accounts, the hdu is used for dimes or tenths of a dol- 
lar, and sz' or sin-sz' in imitation of the word cents ; as .sdn ko yin 

tsien, sz' hdu yih sz' H © ^ It ^ — ' |i ^« '- ^ ^^ This 
has arisen probably, from the confusion which would ensue i( fan 
and li were used, they being the names of moneys. 

The Chinese use a kind of abacus, called swan pan ^ ^^ or 
' counting board.' It consists of a shallow wooden box or frame, 
divided in two unequal compartments, by a bar running lengthwise. 
Through this bar at right angles are inserted a number of parallel 
wires, usually seventeen but sometimes more ; and on each wire are 
movable balls, in the lower compartment five, and two in the upper. 
The principle on which computations are made is ; — that a single 
ball in the lower compartment, being placed against the bar and called 
a unit, is increased towards the left, or decreased towards the right, 
by tens, hundreds, &c. A ball in the upper division denotes a value 
five times that of any ball opposite to it in the lower compartment ; 
thus, if opposite to a unit, it denotes five ; if to ten, fifty ; and so 
also, if opposite to a hundredth part, it denotes x^iyth parts. The 
machine is an imperfect mode of reckoning, and serves rather to as- 
sist the mental operation ; consequently, if the result is erroneous, 
the sum must be reckoned over again. 

In noting down calculations, the Chinese follow the order of the 
balls on the abacus, and accordingly place the numerals after each 
other from left to right in the same order and method as those do 
who employ the Arabic numerals. For this purpose the contracted 
forms of figures are used. — Thus, ^^ denotes 2309, the charac, 
ter for thousand being placed under the first figure, so that it may 
be read off at once without difficulty. 
COM. ot. 38 



Different ff 'eights. Balances. Steelyards. Moruy yards. Various PexnUs, 

Sbettion 3. 

1 kernel of millet ( — ■ ^jj^ ^) is one ^ shv : 
10 shit ^^ or kernels make one ^ lui ; 

10 lui mi make one ^^ cAm ; 

24 cAii ^f make one tael [PJj Hang; =r I3 ot 

16 taels make one catty Fp Kn ; =1^/6 

2 catties make one i^| yin ; = 2§ /6s. cw. 
30 catties make one ^^ kiun ; =1 40 /is. av. 

100 catties make one j>cc«/ ■^ tan (lit. a load) ; = 133^ /6s. «i'. 

120 catties make one stone ^jzj skik. 

The first three of these denominations, with the yin, kiun, and 
shih, are nominal. Instead of the first three, the decimals given in 
the preceding .section are used for less weights than a tael, and 
generally whenever a fractional number is to be expressed. At Fuh- 
chau a pecul is 100 lbs. av. ; at other places a shih of 120 catties is 
called a pecul. 

In China, most articles are sold by weight, not excepting liquids, 
wood, silk, cloth, grain, and live stock. Grain is however retailed 
by measure. The minor decimal weights are used in weighing bulr 
lion, pearls, precious stones, valuable drugs, &c. There are three 
instruments for weighing, ri'z., the balances, steel-yards, and money 
scales. Balances are used for weighing large sums of money; stan- 
dard weights are furnished by the Board of Revenue at Peking, from 
100 taels down to one cash, made of brass. The steelyard is made 
of wood, marked off into catties, mace, &.c ; the largest of them 
will weigh two or three peculs ; it is called dotchin by foreigner.s, a 
word corrupted from toh-ching J^ ^^, to weigh. The counterpoise 
of the small common steelyards is usually a piece of stone. The 
money yard, called li tang J^ ^ is a small ivory yard like the 
dotchin, ur^d to weigh money, drugs, pearls, and small things, up 
to two taels' weight. 

At Macao, the pecul is distinguished by the Portuguese into three 
kinds, viz., the pecul halanqa or common pecul, by which cotton, 
and valuable goods are sold; the pecul seda of 111/cr catties or 
\i8^ lbs. by which alum, pepper, and coarse goods are sold ; and 
the pecul chapa of 150 catties or 200 lbs., by which rice is sold. In 
the sale of paddy, one third is allowed for the troublo and diminu- 
tion in weight which attend the takin^ off the husk, or which is the 
same thing, paddy is sold at two thirds the price of the same weight 
ol' rice. 


Measures. Three sorts of peeks or tau. Measures for Oil and Spirits 

There have been differeut valuations of the pecul, arising from 
the different estimates put upon the tael, but the standard weight 
now is 133J /6s. avoir., equal to 60 kilogrammes 474 grammes. In 
marketing at Canton, the catty weighs from 14 up to 15^ taels, ac- 
cording to the article, seldom coming up to a full catty. The range 
given for the pecul by various authors is from 133J lbs. to 114.06 /6s. 
and 126.04 /6s., the last two are in use at Peking. At Amoy, brown 
sugar is sold by the pecul of 94 catties, sugar candy at 95 catties, 
indigo at 110 catties, and rice at 140 catties, but in foreign com.- 
merce these variations are not acknowledged. 

Sectfon 4 

1 grain of millet (yih lih suh ""* /^ ^) is a ^ suk ; 
6 suk tK make one ^ kwei ; 

10 kwei ^E. make one ^^ tsoh, or pugil ; 

10 tsoh 1^ make one <p^ chdu, or handful ; 

10 ckdu f5^ make one '»} choh, or ladle; 

5 choh ^ make one "^ yoh, or cup; 

2 yoh ^ make one 'p koh, or gill; 

10 koh 'tf make one /I shing, or pint; = 31.6 cubic tsun. 
10 shingJi make one -^ #a«, or peck ; = 316 ,, ,, 

5 tau "X make one j^j-f hoh ; — 1580 ,, ,, 

2 hoh ^ make one ^ shih ; =3160 „ „ 

1 fu ^E is equal to 6 tau 4 sking ; 

1 yii 1^ is equal to 16 tau ; 

1 ping ^^ is equal to 16 hoh. 
There are only four of these fourteen measures actually in use, 
the others are now entirely nominal ; these four, which are used in 
retailing rice and other grains, are the koh, the half sAm^, the whole 
shing, and the tau. The first three are made of the joints of the 
bamboo. The tau is made of wood, and shaped like the frustrum of 
a pyramid, with a handle across the top ; it is of two sizes; one, call- 
ed ski tau ' the market peck,' or shih kin tau, '10 catty peck,' holds 
just ten catties of dry rice, and measures 316 cubic tsun according 
to government measure. The shih in this proportion is just a pecul. 
But the common one, called tsdng tau, * granary peck,' holds only 6J 
catties, and measures 309.57148 inches, or nearly 1.13 gallon. The 
common shing contains 30.4iM15 cubic inches, or a trifle less than 


Ijong Measures. Different chih or covids. Measures of Distances. 

a pint, but this and the two smaller measures, owing to the inac- 
curacy of the bamboo, are not always uniform in their capacity. 

Measures are used for selling spirits and oil, which contain a 
certain weight and not quantity ; there are four in common use, 
containing one, two, four, and eight taels respectively. Coarse jars 
are also made, holding 15, 30 and 60 catties of these liquids, so uni- 
form in size that the- contents are bought by the jar, and not weighed. 
Timber is not sold by measurement ; fine woods are sold by weight, 
and common lumber by the stick. 

Sectfon 5. 

Like the people of all other countries, the Chinese have had great 
trouble and perplexity in fixing a standard of weights and measures. 
A certain number of kernels of grain — whether disposed lengthwise 
or crosswise is uncertain — was taken as a starting point for the 
measures of length. 

1 lih 

%3. grain is one 


10 fan 

yX make one 

y tsun, or punto ; nearly l^ in 

10 tsun 

»J make one 

/\ chih, foot or covid ; 

10 chih 

/\, make one 

5t chdng : 

10 chcing^ make one ^ | yin. 

The chih (cubit, covid, or Chinese foot) fixed by the Mathematical 
Board at Peking is 13.125 English inches ; that used by tradesmen 
at Canton varies from 14 625 to 14.81 inches; that employed by the 
engineers of public works is 12.7 inches, and that by which distance 
is usually measured is 12.1 nearly. At Canton, an English yard or 
md is reckoned at 2 chih 4 tsun, which makes the English foot equal 
to 8 tsun. The chih is reckoned in the tariff at 14.1 English inches, 
which is about the average length of this measure in Canton ; this 
rate makes the chang to be 141 inches, or 3j^ yds. ; the usual length 
of a chdng in Canton is a very little over 4 yds., though some of 
them are but little over 1 1 feet. The foot-rule of tailors is called 
pdi tsien chih, and the shorter one of masons ckau tung chih. The 
chdng varies according to the chih. 

The terms used in measuring long distances are : — 

Halfa/5Mn"*J makes one * jffi Hi 

5 tsun "f make one 71 f^"'' 

5 chih /?. or feet make one "^y pu, or pace ; 

360 pu yy" or paces make one ±. H, or mile ; 

250 li S or miles make one ^ '"' ^^ degree. 



T%e Chinese li or mUe. The mau or acre. Japanese coins. 

Formerly, I92i li were reckoned to a degree, which makes the 
length of the li 1897^ English feet, or 2.78 li to a mile. But the 
European mathematicians at the capital, deviating from their prede- 
cessors, divided the degree into 250 li, or 1460.44 ft., intending to 
make it exactly one tenth of a French league, probably the French 
astronomical league, which is j^j of a degree. The degree is sub- 
divided into 60 ^N or minutes, and each fan iftto 60 ^b miau or 
seconds. The old estimate of the li makes a chih 12.054 inches, a 
little less than that commonly regarded as the rate in measuring 

Sectfon 6. 

5 chih /v make one /^ pu (pace), or ^ kung (bow). 
24 pu ^ make one yi fan; 
60 pH "^y make one ^ kioh, or horn ; 

4 kioh ^ or 240 pij, make one Q4 mau, or Chinese acre ; 
100 mau 0J5| make one K]^ k'ing. 

Taking the chih to be 12.587 inches, a square pu will measure 
27.499636 square inches ; this divided by 9, gives 3.0555 square 
yards ; which multiplied by 240 pu gives 733.32 sq. yds. in a Chinese 
mau, equal to 6.61 mau to an English acre. But the Chinese always 
estimate land by the k'ing and mau, below which they reckon in 
decimals. The mau anciently contained 100 square pti instead of 
240, but whether it was then larger or smaller than at present is 
uncertain ; it now contains 6000 square chih, or 6599.88 square 
feet (others reckon it 8942.6 sq. ft.) ; a k'ing contains 15.13 square 
acres. The land tax is reckoned about 2 mace the mau. 

Sectfon 7. 

The coins of the Japanese are made of gold, silver and copper, and 
debased a little; most of them are well made pieces, though all 
of them are cast like the Chinese, and not minted. Accounts are 
kept in rio taels, momme mace, and bu candareens, which have the 
same relative value as in China. Gold and silver pieces of certain 
denominations, and ancient coins, are weighed among merchants, 
the only coins which have a certain standard of value being those 
of the imperial coinage, which have the imperial coat of arms, a 
flower and three leaves of the kiri or Dryandra, upon the face. 

The Japanese coins are of various shapes. In a native work on 
numismatology they are represented as circular, square, or rectan> 


Japanese gold coins. . 7'hree sorts of copper coins. Silver ichibu. 

gular like pieces of Indian ink, thin and elliptical, and also in un- 
shapen lumps ; most of these, however, are drawings of old coins not 
now in use The gold kobangs are thin and elliptical. They are two, 
the obang 4^ ^1 and the kohang or kopang f J-% '/"'ij ; the first is 

nearly as large as the palm of the hand, and both are about the 
thickness of an English farthing. The kohnng — which has the nomi- 
nal value of a tael of gold, and is the tenth part of an obang — is about 
two inches long, and rather more than an inch wide ; it should 
\yeigh 3 mace 5 cand. or 203 grs. troy. These pieces are marked 
on one side with short parallel lines, and on both sides with several 
stamps. The older coins are thipker, and more valuable than the 
new ones, but are not in general circulation. At Batavia 

Thj old kobang weighs 275 grs. troy, and is said to be 22 carats fine. 
The new kobang weighs 180 ^rs. troy, and is about 16 > „ „ 
The old kobang is then worth 44s. id. sterling ; it passes for 10 fix dollars. 
The new kobang is worth 21s. 'id. „ and passes for 6 „ 

The following remarks upon the Japanese currency were dra,wn 
up by one connected with Commodore Perry's Expedition, and ex- 
plain the singular valuation the Japanese government puts upon 
bijUipn and coin :— : 

The integer of Japanese currency is the too-hiaku 3 S an ovjil- 
shaped copper piece, about the siie and shape of an egg cut longitudinally, 
which is reckoned, as its name imports, at 100 zheni or cash. The cash is 
like the common Chinese ts'mi or cash in size, but is rather thinner, and has 
more iron in its composition. There is another copper coin, purer, larger, 

and better made, called shi-tnon zheni, Uv{ a/* ^® or four-cash zheni, worth, 
as its name imports, four of the smallest coins. The relative value of these 
three copper coins is 1,4, 100, but their relative weight is only about .077, 
.13, and .56, being these fractions of a tael. The enormous differeDce 
between a coin rated at 100 times the value of another, and weighing only 
seven times as much, has of course thrown the latter out of circulation. The 
too-hiaku, so far as we know, was first coined in the reign Tenpo, about 
twenty years ago, and its arbitrary valuation has raised the price of provisions 
and labor to correspond to its lesser r -'al value, while its convenience over 
the other two kinds of cash has also made it more popular. ^-i 

Most of the silver in circulation is a coin called the ichi-bu, ""* yf^ which 
means "one quarter,'.' aa its weight is one-fourth of a taeL When the ore is 
spielted, and the pure silver is brought to the Government, it is bought or 
reckoned at a bullion value of 22.> canndareens to a tael, instead of 100 
candareens, its actual weight; and when the met-il is sold for purposes of art 
or luxury, it is purchased by the people from the Government at the same 
rate. But when coined, the Government places an arbitrary valuation of 640 
candareens on the tael, or 160 on the ichibu, when compared with the copper 
currency, it being reckoned at 1600 copper cash, or 16 too-hiaku. By this 
arrangement the Government makes a profit of nearly 300 per cent, on every 
ichibu issued ; if the meul is extracted from the mines by paid agents, it 
probably stands the mint in more than this, as there must be every induce- 
ment to mike it cost all they can get. Gold is also taken by the mint at 
one rate and issued at another, but the disparity is much leas than with silver. 
A tael's weight of goldhuUion is recJtoaed at 1^ tiels in silver currency, and. 



Disparity belwetn bullion and coin. Proportion of gold to silver. 

the same weight of coined gold at 23| taels. The gold ichibu is reckoned 
at 16 tod-hiaku, the same value as the silver one; but most of this metal is 
coined into thin oval pieces, called koban, worth 1, 5, and 20 taels. There 

are, besides these, a gold and silver coin, called ni-shiu, Z2» y^ worth half 
an ichibu or 8 too-hiaku, and a small silver piece, an is-shiu, — ^ ^Or* 
worth 4 too-hiaku. 

The Japanese Government has decided to take the dollar at its value 
compared with bullion, and not with current coin, asserting that it must be 
recoined into ichibu before it can be circulated. A dollar weighs 71.2 
candareena, which, at the proportion of 225 candareens for a taei's weight of 
silver, makes it worth 160 candareens, or the same as a silver ichibu. The last 
is reckoned, in the copper currency, at 16 too-hiaku, while the dollar weighs 
just three times as much as an ichibu, and is worth actually 48 too-hiaku^ 
though the Japanese will only receive it at the bullion value of 16. It is by 
this depreciation of the dollar, instead of levying an export duty like the 
Chinese, or charging a moderate custom-house fee on goods, and allowing 
specie to be taken at its proper value, that the Japanese design to derive 
their profit frOm the trade. The American gold dollar is by them reckoned 
at 4.4 candareens, or 836 cash — the twentieth part of a §20 gold piece of 
88 candareens' weight. This valuation, compared with silver, makes a gold 
dollar worth .521 cents in silver ; and even when actually weighed against 
Japanese gold coin, supposed tc be of equal purity, it is worth only 1045 
cash, or 6.»i cents. From this it appoars that thoir own go'd, when compared 
with their own silver coin, is worth about 5 to 1, while silver and gold in all 
western markets are as 16 to 1. But if a foreigner pays out gold coins for 
goods, he cannot expect the Japanese to put any higher valuation on them 
than they do on their own ; and the depreciation for a gold dollar from 1045 
(its real value) to SS6 cash (its estimated value,) is, therefore, very sinall, 
compared with that of a silver dollar from 4800 to 1600 caish. No one will 
wonder then that the Japanese Government intends to retain its specie within 
its own limits ; for, at this rate, all the gold in the country would be imme- 
diately bougin up for exportation. In practice, by the present arrangement, 
a gold dollar is worth only 17.j cents of copper, and in reality, its value 
among the people is only 22 cents; consequently, when it is found that a $20 
gold piece is reduced to $3..')5 by going across the Pacific from San Fraii- 
cisco to Simoda, only a small portion of the depreciation is chargeable to the 
Japanese rulers. Nor is it surprising to learn that gold is chiefly used for 
luxury and ornaments — the delicate mountings on the sabres and daggers of 
the gentry being of this metal, and that large quantities of gold leaf are used 
for gilding. This singular cheapness of gold could only exist in a secluded 
country like Japan, and where the mines produce mach more of it than thoy 
do of silver. 

Taking the silver ichibu as worth 1600 ca8h, and onp-third of a dollar, tho 
Japanese copper coin — the too-hiaku — is really worth .02083 of a dollar, or a 
little over two American cents; it weighs a little less; consequently, silvet 
and copper bear about the same proportion among them as in the United 
Stitcs ; and it is not untii we compare the value of a silver dollar there »t 
4800 cash, with the value it bears in China, of from I4U0 to 170U cash, and 
the still greater discrepancy between the copper zheni and the too-hiaku, a» 
stited above, that the extraordinary features of the currency of Japan can be 
understood. Further investigations are still wanted to ascertain how much 
bread, clothes, and labor, can be obtained for nn ichibu, before the comparisoh 
of tho currency of Japan with that of China, England, or America, is perfect- 
ly satisfactory. 



Japanese copper, silver, and gold coins. 

Tlteir relaliw valites. 

The names and relative values of the coins most commonly used 

are as follows : — . «.tv 

A copper cash called '^ ^ 3^j§ ichi mon zheni, 100 make a too-hiaku 
but 6800 can be procured for a tael of silver. This coin is cast 
everywhere, and sometimes much adulterated. In the princi- 
pality of Shendai, cash are cast so brittle that they break by a 
fall on the stones. The use of this small cash has latterly dimi- 
nished. , ^KL __| _. /,t 

A large copper cash, called /C %^ oho zheni, and |Z9 ^ ^^ ski-mon 
zheni ; 24 make a tod-hiaku. 

An oval copper cash, called ^ Q tod-hiaku, 64 are equal to a tael 
of silver. 


An oblong silver coin, half an inch long, called — " 7^ isshiu, worth 

4 tod'hiaku. . ,1 

A gold and silver coin called — •:^ ni-shiu, worth 8 tod-hiaku or 

^ of a tael ; it weighs the same as an American gold dollar, and 

is worth 17 cents. 

A silver coin called ""• ^ ichibu, or ichibugin, worth 16 tod-hiaku, 
and weighing J of a tael. The nibu, worth half a tael, is not 
much used now. 

A gold coin of the same value, called ichibu kin, about one fourth 
the size. . *,. 

A thin oval gold coin called f\\ y% koban, worth one tael of four 
ichibu, or H400 cash. 

The large gold koban worth 5 taels, and the ohang worth 30 taels of 
silver. .m. 

1000 cash make an ~~^ ^ ikkan or string ; this is a nominal money 
and worth about 9 mace of silver ; 120 cash are usually reckon- 
ed to a mace, but the exchange varies. Besides these there is 


Japanese Weights, Measures and Miles. Cochinchinese gold and silver coins- 

the ita-gane >^ •^^ or ' money slips,' of both gold and silver ; and 
the yj> ^^ kodama or ' little pearls,' made in Satzuma, both of 
which are of uncertain weight and stamped in evidence their purity. 
They are seldom seen- 

The weights in Japan are the same as in China, both in relation 
one to the other, and in relation to European weights, — the pecul 
here being generally accounted equal to 133^ lbs. avoirdupois, or 
125 Dutch pounds ; it is said however only to weigh 130 lbs. av. ; a 
catty (ikkin) is 160 me or mace, and 1000 me is a kan, or 6^ catties; 
a pecul is called hiakkin ; 1250 catties make one koku, in which 
revenues are rated. 

The measures of length and of capacity are of the same relative 
proportions as in China ; there is likewise a measure called go shiaku 
znu which is 5 Chinese co^ids, or half a chnng ; there is also a car- 
penter's ojl of G chih called ken-zdu, used in building ; rough timber 
is purchased by the yama ken zau of 6 cliih 3 tsun ; the kane or rule 
of 8 puntos is employed in measuring cloth ; and the kuzhira of lO 
puntos in measuring wood. The Japanese ri, or mile, varies in 
length ; the common estimate makes it 2^^*^ English miles. 

SectfoTt 8. 


The coins, of Cochinchina are gold and silver taels, the former being 
usually fourteen or fifteen times the value of the latter, — and the 
cash, which are called by the natives dong, and shaped like the, are made of pure zinc. The precious metals are scarce 
among the people, and most transactions are carried on in cash, 
which is very inconvenient owing to its brittleness and great 

'I'he gold and silver used by the Cochinchinese is generally refin- 
ed, but sometimes much alloyed. The golden ingot, or loaf as it is 
called, is the largest ; there is a half ingot of gold of the same shape, 
of 5 taels' weight, worth 277 rupees, or about 693yV. 40 cent. The 
dinh vang, or golden nail, weighs one tael, and is worth 138 fr. or 
534 rupees. A silver ingot of the same form as the loaf, called nun 
bac, weighs 10 taels; it is an oblong piece of silver, worth 32 Co.'s 
rupees, or $14, or SI fr. 57 cent. There is another piece of silver 
money, called dinh bac, or nail, weighing one tael, worth about Sfr. 
\5 cent., or 3J rupees; this has its subdivisional halves and quarters; 
the half is called nua dinh bac ; the golden loaf of 10 or 5 taels 
equals 8238 or SI 19 ; the golden dinh vang of 1, | or ^ tael weight, 
equals $24, 812 or 86 ; the silver dinh bac of 1, ^ or | tael weight, 
equals 81.40, 80.70 or 80.35. 

Besides these more strictly native coins, the late king Minh-menh 
issued a coinage of dollars, the pieces of which were hitended to 
COM. OL. 39 



Cash. Cochinchinese fVeights. Land Measures. Long Measures. 

be of the same weight as the Spanish dollar ; but in general it is not 
worth more than 1^ of a rupee (4 francs) or about 70 cents, from 
the adulteration of the metal, one third of it being copper. 
His successor 'J'hieu-fri coined both gold and silver dollars, having 
a dragon on one side and his name on the reverse. The whole, half 
and quarter gold dollar are worth $12, §S6^. and $3^ respectively ; 
the same denominations of silver are worth $0.70, $0.35 and $0.17. 
The workmanship of all these gold and silver coins is highly credi- 

The copper coinage is cast ; 60 dong or cash make 1 mot tien or 
heap; and 10 mot tien make 1 kwan or string; these 600 cash are 
worth between 50 and 60 cents, and weigh about 3^ lbs. av. The 
rates of exchange between cash and the silver coins vary from three 
to six kwan to a dollar. On the average, 2600 cash are equal to a 
Spanish dollar, and 600 to 25 cents. 

The earliest sijver and gold coins are shaped like pieces of Indian 
ink but much thinner. They have slightly raised edges, and their 
value and date are marked on them in raised characters. At every 
new issue the coins previously current lose several per cent, of their 
value. This custom is extremely inconvenient, particularly to fo- 
reign ers, who are unable to read the characters which are stamped 
on them. 

The weights in Cochinchina, although bearing the same name, are 

heavier than in China. They are : — 

f 1 tran ; equal to .0000003905 gramme 

1 huyj ,000003905 

1 chau; .00003906 

1 hot, in Chineee kwuh ; 

10 ai or atoms 

10 traa 

10 buy 

10 chau 

10 hot 

10 hao 

10 li 

10 phan 

10 dong or mace 

10 luong or taels 

16 luong 

10 can or catty 

50 can 
100 can 
500 can 

• make < 

I hao, 

1 li. 

1 phan, 

1 dong, 

1 luong, 

1 nen; 

I can, 

1 yen; 

1 binh; 

1 U; 

1 quan. 



Hdng ; 

do. kin ; 

do. tan ; 

6.246 kilograms 

The luong weighs about IJ ox., but the can is lib. 6oz. lOgrs. av. 

Measures of grain vary in every province, and purchasers always 
agree beforehand what measures shall be used. The hao is 28 litres, 
or about ^ of a bushel, 2 of which make a shita or tao. 

Land measures bear the same proportion to each other as in Chi- 
na, 'i'he thuoc (cubit, chih, or foot) contains 18 French inches, or 
19.12 inches English; it is also used by architects and carpentersr 

10 11 

1(1 phan 

10 tac 
5 thuoc 
3 ngu 

10 »ao 



1 phan, in Chinese /an ; 
1 tac, do. tsun ; 

1 thuoc, do. chih ; 
1 ngu or perch ; 
1 sao or rod ; 
mau, in Chinese mau. 

equal to ,0048726 metres, 


Tungkiiig and Camboja. Siamese Trade. Treaty with Great Britain. 

By another perch of 16.J thouc, by which land is measured, 10 
sao in a mau or acre, makes it 80.3979 metres. 

Long measures. The ell or thouc /\. used only 
for measuring cloths and silks, contains 25^ ins. English. There 
arc .six values to the thuoc, varying from 0.405 to 0.64068 metres, 
or 16 ?ns. to 25.4 ins. 

10 phan ") f 1 tac (tsun) ; equal to .064968 metres 

10 tac I 1 thouc fcAiA; ; = .6496r 

10 thouc y make \ 1 truong (chung) ; = 6. 4968 

30 thouc I I 1 cai vai, or that i 19.49(i4 

The li is ^'^th of the common French league, 25 to a degree, or 
444.39 metres, equal to 1458 feet English. A dam or stadium is 
two li or 888 metres ; 5 dam make I league. 

As no trade is now carried on with Tungkino, we are ignorant if 
any difference exist between the moneys, weights, and measures of 
that place and those of the rest of Cochinchina, to which it is now 

In Camboja, which has been partitioned by the kings of Cochin- 
china and Siam, there are small round silver coins, of various size, 
the largest hardly equal in size to a farthing ; which are said by Mil- 
burn to be called galls. They are roughly made, and very liable, 
from their extreme smallness, to frequent loss. Spanish dollars are 
also employed there, and for small change, the Cochinchinese cash. 
The weights and measures are the same as in China, 

AecKon 9. 

The foreign trade of Siam has taken a new start since ihe acces- 
sion of the present king, and will probably increase rapidly under 
the more favorable regulations which have been established by the 
Siamese government. The Siamese ships trade largely with China, 
and as this branch is not prohibited to foreign vessels, it is probable 
that much of their traffic with the country will be in the same direc- 
tion. The British Treaty was signed April 18th, 1855, and as it 
contains the principal rules under which the Siamese are ready to 
trade with all countries, is inserted in full. 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great British and Ireland 
and all its dependencies, and their Majesties Phra Bard Somdetch Phra Para- 
roendo Maha Mongkut Phra Choni Klan Chan Yu Hua, the first King of Siam, 
and Phra Bard Somdetch Phra Pawarendo Ramese Mahiswarese Phra Pin Klan 
Chan Vu Hua, the second King of Siam, desiring to establish, upon firm and 
lasting foundations, the relations of peace and friendship existing between the 
two countries, and to secure the best interests of their respective subjects, by 
encouraging, facilitating, and regulating their industry and trade, have resolved 
to conclude a Treaty of amity and commerce for this purpose, and have there- 
fore named as their Plenipotentiaries ; that is to say, 


BritiA Consul at Siatn. Crimitials. Limits of Trade. Bujfing Lands. 

Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain aa4 Ireland, Sir John Bowring, 
Knight, Doctor of Laws, A--c., «fec ; 

And their Majesties the first and second Kings of Siam, his Royal Highness 
Krom Hluang VVongsa Dhiraj Suidh ; his Excellency Somdetch Chan Phaya 
Param Maha Puyura Wongse ; his Excellency Somdetch Chan Phaya Param 
Maha Bijrineate ; his Excellency Chan Phaya Sri Surrwongse Simuha Phra 
Kralahome ; and his Excellency Chan Phaya, acting Phraklang. 

Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, 
found them to be in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the 
following Articles : — 

Art. I. — There shall henceforward be perpetual peace and friendship be- 
tween Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and her successors, 
and their Majesties the first and second Kings of Siam and their successors. 
All British subjects coming to Siam shall receive from the Siamese government 
full protection and assistance to enable them to reside in Siam in all security, 
and trade with every facility, free from oppression or injury on the part of the 
Siamese. And all Siamese subjects going to an English country shall receive 
from the British government the same complete protection and assistance that 
shall be granted to British subjects by the government of Siam. 

Art. II. — The interests of all British subjects coming to Siam shall be placed 
under the regulation and control of a consul, who will be appointed to reside at 
Bangkok. He will himself conform to, and will enforce the observance by 
British subjects of all the provisions of this Treaty, and such of the Ibrmor 
Treaty negotiated by Captain Burney in \H'26, as shall still remain in operation. 
He shall also give effect to all rules or regulations as are now or may hereafter 
be enacted for the government of British subjects in Siam, the conduct of their 
trade, and for the prevention of violations of the laws of Siam. Any disputes 
arising between British and Siamese subjects shall be heard and determined by 
the consul in conjunction with the proper Siamese officers ; and criminal offenses 
will be punished, in the case of English offenders, by the consul, according to 
English laws, and in the case of Siamese offenders, by their own laws, through 
the Siamese authorities. But the consul shall not interfere in any matters re- 
ferring solely to Siamese, neither will the Siamese authorities interfere in ques- 
tions which only concern the subjects of Her Britannic Majesty. 

It is understood, however, that the arrival of the British Consul at Bangkok 
shall not take place before the ratification of this Treaty, nor until ten vessels 
owned by British subjects, sailing under British colors and with British papers, 
shall have entered the port of Bangkok for the purposes of trade, subsequent to 
the signing of this Treaty. ^ 

AtiT. III. — If Siamese, in the employ <if British subjects, offend against the 
laws of their country, or if any Siamese having so offended, or desiring to desert, 
take refuge with a British subject in Siam, they shall be searched for, and upon 
proof of their guilt or desertion, shall be delivered up by the Consul to the 
Siamese authorities. In like manner, any British offonders, resident or trading 
in Siam, who may desert, escape to, or hide themselves in Siamese territory, 
shall be apprehended and delivered over to the British Consul on his requisition. 
Chiiinse, not able to prove themselves to be British subjects, shall not be con- 
sidered as such by the British Consul, nor be entitled to his protection. 

Art. IV. — British subjects are permitted to trade freely in all seaports of 
Siam, but may reside permanently only at Bangkok, or within the limits assign- 
ed by this Treaty. British subjectw coming to reside at Bangkok may rent land 
and buy or build houses, but cannot purchase lands within a circuit of two hun- 
dred seng (not more than four miles English) from the city walls, until they 
shall have lived in Siam for ten years, or shall obtain special authority from the 
Siamese government to enable them to do so. But, with exception of this limi- 
tation, British residents in Siam may at any time buy or rent houses, lands, or 
plantations, situated anywhere within a distance of twenty-four hours' journey 
from the city of Bangkok, to be computed by the rate at which boats of the 


Passports. Servants. Ships of war. Export and Import Duties. Opixun. 

country can travel. In order to obtain posseBsion of such lands or housps, itwill 
be necessary that the British subject shall, in the first place, make application 
through the Consul to the proper Siamese officer, and the Siamese officer and 
the Consul, having satisfied themselves of the honest intentions of the appli- 
cant, will assist him in settling, upon equitable terms, the amount of the pur- 
chase money, will make out and fix the boundaries of the property, and will 
convey the same t^ the British purchaser under sealed deeds, whereupon he 
and his property shall be placed under the protection of the Governor of the 
district, and that of the particular local authorities : he shall conform in ordin- 
ary matters to any just directions given him by them, and will be subject to the 
same taxation that is levied on Siamese subjects. But if, through negligence, 
the want of capital, or other cause, a British subject should fail to commence 
the cultivation or improvement of the lands so acquired within a term of three 
years from the date of receiving possession thereof, the Siamese government 
shall have the power of resuming the property upon returning to the British 
subject the purchase money paid by him for the same. 

Art. V. — All British subjects intending to reside in Siam shall be registered 
at the British Consulate. They shall not go out to sea, nor proceed beyond the 
limits assigned by this Treaty for the residence of British subjects, without a 
passport from the Siamese authorities, to be applied for by the British Consul, 
nor shall they leave Siam, if the Siamese authorities show to the British Con- 
sul that legitimate objections exist to their quitting the country. But within the 
limits appointed under the preceding article, British subjects are at liberty to 
travel to and fro, under the protection of a pass, to be furnished them by the 
British Consul, and counter-sealed by the proper Siamese officer, stating, in the 
Siamese character, their names, calling, and description. The Siamese officers 
at the government stations in the interior, may, at any ti ne, call for the pro- 
duction of this pass ; and, immediately on its being exhibited, they must allow 
the parties to proceed, but it will be their duty to detain those persons who, by 
traveling without a pass from the Consul, render themselves liable to the 
suspicion of their being deserters ; and such detention shall be immediately re- 
ported to the Consul. 

Art. VI. — All British subjects visiting or residing in Siam shall be allowed 
the free exercise of the Christian religion, and liberty to build churches in such 
localities as shall be consented to by the Siamese authorities. The Siamese 
government will place no restrictions upon the employment by the English of 
Siamese subjects as servants, or in any other capacity. But wherever a Siamese 
subject belongs or owes service to some particular master, the servant who en-' 
gages himself to a British subject, without the consent of his master, may be 
reclaimed by him, and the Siamese government will not enforce an agreenient 
between a British subject and any Siamese in his employ, unless made with the 
knowledge and consent of the master, who has a right to dispose of the service 
of the person engaged. 

Art. VII. — British ships-of-war may enter the river and anchor at Paknam, 
but they shall not proceed above Faknam, unless with the consent of the Si- 
amese authorities, which shall be given when it is necessary that a ship shall 
go into dock for repairs. Any British ship-of-war conveying to Siam a public 
functionary, accredited by the British government to the court of Bangkok, 
shall be allowed to come up to Bangkok, but shall not pass the forts called 
Phrachamit and Pit pach nuck, unless expressly permitted to do so by the Si- 
amese government. But in the absence of a British, the Siamese 
authorities engage to furnish the Consul with a force sufficient to enable him 
to give effect to hia authority over British subjects, and to enforce dincipline 
among British shipping. 

Art. VIII. — The measurement duty hitherto paid by British vessels trading 
to Bangkok under the Treaty of lH«i6, shall be abolished from the date of this 
Treaty coming into operation ; and British shipping or trade will thenceforth 
be only subject to the payment of Import and Export duties on the goods land- 
ed or shipped. 


Tariff on Exports. Consul to enforce Regulations. Revision in 10 years- 

On all articles of Import, the duty shall be three per cent., payable at the 
option of the importer, either in kind or money, culculated upon the market 
vaJue of the goods. Drawback of the full amount of duty shall be allowed up- 
on goods found unsaleable and re-exported. Should the British merchant and 
the custom-house officers disagree as to the value to be set upon imported arti- 
cles, such disputes shall bo referred to the Consul and proper Siamese officer, 
who shall each have the power to call in an equal number of inerchants as as- 
sessors, not exceeding two on either aide, to assist them in coming to an equi- 
table decision. 

Opium may be imported free of duty, but can only be sold to the opium 
farmer or his agents. In the event of no arrangement being effected with them 
for the sale of the opium, it shall be re-exported, and no impost or duty shall 
be levied thereon. Any infringement of this regulation shall subject the opium 
to seizure and confiscation. 

Articles of Export, from the time of production to the date of shipment, shall 
pay one impost only, whether this be levied under the name of inland tax, 
transit duty, or duty on exportation. The tax or duty to be paid on each arti- 
cle of Siamese produce, previous to or upon exportation, is specified in the 
tariff attached to this Treaty ; and it is distinctly agreed, that goods or produce 
that pay any description of tax in the interior shall be exempted from any fur- 
ther payment of duty on exportation. English merchants are to be allowed to 
purchase direut from the producer the articles in which they trade, and in like 
manner to sell their goods directly to the parties wisliing to purchase the same, 
without the interference in either case of any other person. 

The rates of duty laid down in the tariff attached to this Treaty are those 
that are now paid upon goods or produce shipped in Siamese or Chinese vessels 
or junks ; and it is agreed that British shipping shall enjoy all the privileges 
now exercised by, or which hereafter may be granted to Siamese or Chinese 
vessels or junks. 

British subjects will be allowed to build ships in Siam, on obtaining permis- 
sion to do so from the Siamese authorities. 

Whenever a scarcity may be apprehended of salt, rice, and fish, the Siamese 
government reserve to themselves the right of prohibiting, by public proclama- 
tion, the exportation of these articles. 

Bullion or personal effects may be imported or exported, free of charge. 

Art. IX. — The Code of Regulations appended to this Treaty shall be en- 
forced by the Consul with the coSperation of the Siamese authorities, and they, 
the said authorities and Consul, shall be enabled to introduce any further regu- 
lations which may be found necessary in order to give effect to the objects of 
this Treaty. 

All fines and penalties inflicted for infraction of the provisions and regula- 
tions of this Treaty, shall be paid to the Siamese Government. 

Until the British Consul shall arrive at Bangkok and enter upon his functions, 
the consignees of British vessels shall be at libery to settle with the Siamese 
authorities all questions relating to their trade. 

Art. X. — The British government and its subjects will be allowed free and 
equal participation in any privileges that may have been, or may hereafter be 
granted by the Siamese government to the government or subjects of any 
other nation. 

Art. XI. — After the lapse of ten years from the date of the ratification of 
this 7'reaty, upon the desire of either the British or Siamese Government, and 
on twelve months' notice given by either parly, the present, and such portions 
of the Treaty of 1 326 as remain unrevoked by this Treaty, together with the 
Tariff and Regulations thereunto annexed, or those thai may hereafter be in- 
troduced, shall be subject to revision by commissioners appointed on both sides 
for this purpose, who will be empowered to decide on and insert therein such 
amendments as experience shall prove to be desirable. 


Discharging and loading of ships. Smuggling. Delivery of guns at Paknam. 

Art. XII — This Treaty, executed in English and Siamese, both versions 
having the same meaning and intention, and the ratifications thereof having 
been previously exchanged, shall take effect from the 6th diy of April in the 
year 1656 of the Christian era, corresponding to the 1st day of the 5th month 
of the i2l8th year of the Siamese civil era. 

In witness whereof, the abovenamed Plenipotentiaries have signed and scal- 
ed the present Treaty in quadruplicate, at Bangkok, on the 18th day of April, 
in the year 18^5 of the Christian era, correponding to the 2d day of the 6lh 
month of the 1217th year of the Siamese civil era. 

L. S. L. S. L. S. 

L. S. L- S. L. S. 

General Regulations 


I — The master of every English ship coming to Bangkok to trade, must, 
either before or after entering the river, as may be found convenient, report the 
arrival of his vessel at the custom-house at Paknam, together with the number 
of his crew, and the port from whence he conies. Upon anchoring his vessel at 
Paknam, he will deliver into the custody of the custom-house officers all his 
guns and ammunition, and a custom-house officer will then be appointed to the 
vessel, and will proceed in her to Bangkok. 

II. — A vessel passing Paknam without discharging her guns and ammunition 
as directed in the foregoing regulation, will be sent back to Paknam to comply 
with its provisions, and will be fined eight hundred ticals for having so dis- 
obeyed. Afler delivery of her guns and ammunition, she will be permitted to 
return to Bangkok to trade. 

Ill — When a British vessel shall have cast anchor at Bangkok, the master, 
unless a Sunday should intervene, will, within four and twenty hours after 
arrival, proceed to the British Consulate, and deposit there his ship's papers, 
bills of lading, &c., together with a true manifest of his import cargo ; and 
upon the Consul's reportinsr these particulars to the custom-house, permission 
to break bulk will at once be given by the latter. 

For neglecting to report his arrival, or for presenting a false -manifest, the 
master will subject himself, in each instance, to a penalty of four hundred ticals, 
but he will be allowed to correct, within twenty-four hours after delivery of it 
to the Consul, any mistake he may discover in bis manifest, without incurring 
the abovementioned penalty. 

IV. — A British vessel breaking bulk and commencing to discharge, before 
the permission shall be obtained, or smuggling, either when in the river or out- 
side the bar, shall be subject to the penalty of eight hundred ticals, and confis- 
cation of the goods so smuggled or discharged. 

V. — As soon as a British vessel shall have discharged her cargo and com- 
pleted her outward ladinjr, paid all iier duties, and delivered a true manifest of 
her outward cargo to the British Consul, a Siamese port-clearance shall be 
granted her on application from the (consul, who, in the absence of any legal 
impediment to her departure, will then return to the master his ship's papers, 
and allow the vessel to leave. A custom-house officer will accompany the 
vessel to Paknam, and on arriving there, she will be inspected by the custom 
officers of that station, and will receive from thum the guns and ammunition 
previously delivered into their charge. 

VI. — Her Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiary, having no knowledge of the 
Siamese language, the Siamese government have agreed, that the English text 
of these regulations, together with the Treaty of which they form a portion, and 
the tariff hereunto annexed, shall be accepted as conveying in every respect 
their true meaning and intention. 



Siamese Tariff. 



Siamese Gold and silver CoinS' 

Tariff of Export and Inland Duties 


Sic. I. — The undermentioned articles shall be entirely free from inland or 
other taxes on production, or transit, and shall pay export duty as follows :— 






'i t 






1 Ivory, 10 O^pecul. 26 

2 Gamboge, 6 00 „ 27 
y Rhinoceros' horns, 50 „ 28 
4 Cardamoms, best, 14 ,. 29 
6 Do. bastard. 6 ., 3(J 

6 Dried Muesela. 10 „ 31 

7 Pelicans' Quills, '2 "i ,. 3'i 

8 Betel iNut, dried, 10 „ 33 

9 Krachi Wood, "2 „ 34 

10 Shark's Fins, white. 6 „ 36 

11 Shark's Fins, black, 

12 Luckraban Seed, 2 „ 36 

13 Peacock's Tails, 10 ^ 100 tails 37 

14 Buffalo & Cow Bonp8,0 Oj ^ pecul. 3» 
16 Rhinoceros' Hides, 2 „ 39 

16 Hide Cuttings, 10 .. 40 

17 Turtle Shells. 10 ,. 41 

18 Do soft, 10 „ 42 

19 Bicho de Mar, 3 „ 43 

20 Fish Maws, 3 ,. 44 

21 Birds' Nests, un- 4.'> 

cleaned, 20 ^ cent. 46 

"22 Kingfishers' Feathers, 6 0,, 100. 47 

23 Cutch. 2 0,, pecul. 48 

£4 Bevche Seed (Nux 49 

^Vomica) 2 0, „ 50 

25 Pungtarai Seed, 2 0,, 61 

Sec. II. — The undermentioned articles being subject to the inland or transit 

duties herein named, and which shall not be increased, shall be exempt from 
export duty : — 

S 3 § 

Gum Benjamin, 


Angrai Bark, 


.\gilU Wood, 

2 00 

Ray Skins, 


Old Deer's Horns, 


Do. soft or young 

10 ^ cent. 

Deer Hides, fine. 

8 0,, 100. 

Do. common, 

3 „ 

Deer Sinews, 

4 If pecul. 

Buffalo and Cow 



Elephants' Bones, 


Tigers' Bones, 


Buffalo Horns. 


Elephants' Hides, 


Tigers' Skins. 

1 }£> skin 

.\rmadillo Skins, 


Stick Lac, 

110,, pecul. 


Dried Fish, Plahmg, 

120 „ 

1 2 

Do. PlasalU, 


Sapan Wood, 
Salt Meat, 

2 1 

2 ;, 

Mangrove Bark, 


Rose Wood, 

2 ;, 




4 0^ kogan 




52 Sugar, white. 

2 » pecul. 

58 Dried Prawns, 


53 Do. red, 


59 Til Seed, 


54 Cotton, clean and 

60 Silk. Raw, 


10 per cent. 

61 Bees' Wax, 


55 Pepper, 


62 Tallow, 

10 0^ pecul. 

56 Salt Fish. Platu, 

1 10,000 fish. 


6 0,, kogan. 

bl Beans and Peas, 



1 2 „1000bdl8 

Sec ill. — All goods or produce, unenumerated in this Tariff, shall be free 
of export duty, and shall only be subject to one inland tax or trauBit duty, not 
exceeding the rate now paid. 

The fineness of the precious metals is expressed as in China by 
toques or touches, 100 denoting purity. They are weighed by the 
tical of 9 dwt. 10 grs. troy. |^ 

The coins used in Siam are small globular pieces of gold and 
silver, of various sizes and denominations. The only small change 
is in cowries ; no regard is paid to shape of the shells. — Accounts 
are kept in ticals, salungs, and fuangs, in the following relative pro- 
portions : — 




Siamese coins- Dollars taken. WtigUs. Measures of length and size. 

1 P&i ; equal to 1 1 eta. 

32 Saga or red beans ; 

1 Fuang ; - - 7J fit*. 

I Salung or miam - 15 eta. 

y make ^ 1 Bat, or tical ; - 6) cts. 

I Tumlung, or tael ; == <^iA\i 

1 Chang, or catty ; = §4S 

1 ttk^i OT pecul ; .S*i4nO 

1 Pura. - - $240,000 

From 200 to 450 Bier or cowries 


Pai . 


Pai or Sompai 


FOang ^ - 


Salung or miam 


Bat - 


Bat - 




Hip - 

The gold and silver ticals are the principal coins ; the former is 
said to pass for 10 of the latter ; but the common exchange is from 
14 to 17 ticals of silver for one of gold. There are also half ticals, 
sailings, and fiiangs of both metals, and half fiiangs of silver. „ 'l*M 
silver tical weighs 225^ English grs., and is from 11 oz. 4 t^cisilo 
11 oz. 12 dwts. fine ; thus it is worth from '2,9d. to 30c?. sterling ; ^ 
pass commonly for a Spanish dollar, and 2J for a Dutch ducAtft^r^. 
From 800 to 1000 cowries are given in exchange for a fiiang ; 10 
salung are accounted equal to 1 Chinese tael, so that 5 Siamese 
taels equal 8 Chinese taels. 

Spanish dollars are taken at Bangkok in exchange for cargo, or 
for ship dues, and by the government converted into the currency 
of the country, but they are not current in the bazar, or in common 
commercial transactions. 

The Siamese Weights are the same as in the table of money. 
4 Ticals make 1 tael, 

20 Taels „ I catty = 2 lbs. 9 oz. 4li dwts. av. 

50 Catties or 80 ticals „ 1 pecul = 129 lbs. av. 

The coyang is also known by merchants, and usually reckoned 
at 40 peculs ; the duty on a few of the articles in the tariff is levied 
by the coyang. 

The Measures of length are :— 

12 Niu 1 f 1 Kop 

2 Knp I 11 S6k = 19i Eng. inchea. 

2 Sdk I I 1 Ken _ 3tt Eng. inchea. 

2 Ken )■ make .{ 1 W4 r= 78 Eng. inchea. 

20 Wa 1 Sen _ 13<) Eng. inches. 

100 Sen I 1 Roeneng or league _; 2 J miles nearly. 

400 Sen J [l Vote __ 9J miles. 

The dry Measures, and those for measuring liquids, are but few ; 
and these, from the nature of the vessels employed, are very inde- 
finite : — -■" ;^ 

_. ,- ( 2.' Cocoanut skf.lts full make \' Bucket. 

Dry Mea-sure.J g^ ^^^^^^^ make J C«rr 

... C 20 Cocoanut sh$llsfuU make I Bucket. 




Coiiis in Java. Paper money. Weights. Measvru. 

Scctfon 10. 

The monetary system of Netherlands India has latterly been as- 
similated to that of Holland. The silver standard coin is the gulden, 
which is nominally divided into 100 centen; and there are also half 
and quarter gulden, and dimes of 10 centen. The new Netherlands 
guilder has been imported in large quantities, and though the mon- 
etary system is not entirely carried into effect, it is so nearly so now 
thai, silver money commands only a very small premium over paper. 
Gbl4 a^d silver coins of all descriptions are admitted into Java, but 
^e rather articles of trade than parts of the currency. 

The only copper coin used in the island is the duiten, single and 
ilcRijJie; 120 single duiten go to the guilder, and will remain in cur- 
rent ii^.xintil converted by government in the national currency. 
Every o'tlier kind of copper coin is strictly prohibited. 

A paper currency is also issued under gov^ernmental control by 
the Java Bank, at Batavia; this bink has branch offices at Soerabaya 
and Samarang. The notes are for/. l000,/.500,/:300,/.200,/. 100, 
jT.SO, and/.2o, for silver currency ; and in sets of/.500,/.300/200, 
/. IOO,/.oO,/.2o,/.lO and/.o for copper currency. These bills are 
being gradually taken up by the government, and specie issued in- 
stead. Government has established a fixed rate of agio between cop- 
per and silver of 20 per cent. 

The weight for gold and silver is the Dutch mark troy, divided 
into 9 reals, each weighing 422 grs. English. The commercial 
weights in common use are based on the Chinese weights, thus : — 
16 Taels ^ f I Catty ; = J^ lbs Dutch troy. 

JOO Catties \ i, J • Pecul ; = Vib lbs. ditto, or 136 /6s. avoir. 
3 Peculs \ """^ S 1 email Bahar ; - - - = 408 — 
4i Peculs J [ 1 large Bahar; - - . == 612 — 

In foreign trade, however, the Dutch troy pound of 2 marks is 
generally used. The proportions of Dutch and English weights are, 
1 Dutch troy pound - - = 7596 grs. troy. Eng. 
1 Dutch commercial pound = 7625 — — 
The measures for rice and gram are the pecul and coyang, and for 
smaller quantities, the timhang and gantang. The coyang weighs at 
Batavia, 27 peculs, or 3375 lbs troy Dutch. 

Samarang, 5W „ or 3500 lbs. — — 
Soerabaya, 30 „ or 3750 lbs. — — 

The timhang contains 5 peculs or 10 sacks ; 5 gantangs make 1 
measure, and 46 measures are equal to a last. These measures are 
principally in use among the natives. The most general liquid 
measure, in all the Dutch settlements, is the kan, 33 of which are 
equal to a little more than 13 English gallons. Of long measure, 
the el is 27| English inches ; and the foot of 12 duimcn or Dutch 
inches, is equivalent to 122^ English inches. ~^ 


Port, River, and Light Dues at Manila. Coins. freights. Measures, 

J^ectfon 11. 


The ports of Manila and Sual m the island of Luzon, Ilo-ilo in 
the island of Panay, and Zainboangan in Mindanao, are now opened 
to the ships of all nations at peace with Spain. 

Port Dues. p,,tob 

A foreign vessel, discharging or loading whole or part cargo, 25 cents 

A foreign vessel arriving in ballast, and departing in ballast, l^i cents 

Do. putting in for repairs, provisions, &c., or stress of weather. . l^i cent* 
But if she lands or takes anything in the shape of cargo, she pays the 

full dues of 25 cents 

Coin is not considered cargo. 

RiVe.r Sues. Anchori^g in Enteriog 

the B«y the Rivrf. 

Vessels discharging or taking in cargo, per ton 6^ cts. ]8| cts. 

Vessels neither discharging nor taking in cargo, ,, 3 J ,, fcj „ 

Vessels entering in ballast and taking cargo, or enter- 
ing in cargo and going out in ballast, „ 3J „ 9| „ 

Vessels entering and departing in ballast, free 6^ „. 

N. B. A vessel going to iManila in ballast to load, would pay only 3J cents 
per ton river dues ; but if she takes any parcels of musters, &c., they will be 
considered as cargo, and subject her to full River Dues of 6:i cents per ton. 

Light Dues on all vessels, 6^ cents per ton. 

Coins. — Accounts are kept in dollars, rials, and grano.s, in the 
following proportions : 

34 Maravedis, or 12 granos \ ( I rial ; 

8 Rials, or quintos - > make^ 1 silver dollar or peso ; 

16 Dollars - - - . ) ( 1 gold doubloon. 

The weights commonly in use are the pecul and its parts. There 
are also the following Spanish weights : 

8 Drams - - ^ f 1 Ounce 

16 Ounces or 2 marks | | 1 Pound 

*2ii Pounds - - S- make ■{ I Arroba, = 2.'>4 lbs. ar. 

4 Arrobas - - ( | 1 Quintal; = lOti lbs av. 

5i Arrobas, or 137 i /6.f. J {l Vecnl; = MO lbs. a.v. 

Measures. — The Spanish foot is about 11^ English inches. It is 
divided into 12 pulgadas, each containing 12 lines. The vara, or 
measure for cloth, is two feet, or 4 palnios, or S6 pulgadas, equal to 
33i English inches; 100 varas are equal to 92.^ Eng. yards. Cotton 
goods and some other fabrics are however sold by the English yard. 
The corge is 20 pieces. The caban, a measure for grain, contains 
3^(/tj cubic feet. 16 Manila peculs equal 1 ton English weight. One 
ton weight of hemp measures iust 2 tons of 40 cubic feet. 

Export Duties. /a; 

Goods are stored for 1 per cent, on entry, and the same wnetj ^re- 
shipped ; and an additional 1 per ct. is charged if they remain more 
than a year. A ship, on her arrival must not communicate with the 
shore until the hnrbor-master has boarded her ; and 30 hours after 
this the manifest must be presented at the custom-house, detailing 


Export Duties. Import DiitUs. Opiuin. Arms. 

the marks, numbers, and bales, of the cargo ; a vessel may retain 
her cargo on board 40 days after the manifest is presented. 
The products and manufactures of the Philippine Is , or any import- 
ed goods which have paid duties by Spanish vessels to Spain, I per cent. 

Same by Spanish vessels to any other country 1^ „ 

By foreign vessels to Spain, 2 „ 

By foreign vessels to any other country, 3 „ 

„ C by Spanish vessels to any place, 1 J- „ 

tiemp, ^ jjy. fofgigQ vessels to any place, 1 „ 

Tobacco, in leaf or manufactured, free . 

_ . (by Spanish vessels li per cent. 

^*" { by foreign vessels 4^ 

. , J 4 by Spanish vessels 2 „ 

Sliver, corned I y-' r • i a 

' I by foreign vessels, 4 „ 

Silver uncoined, and Gold coined or uncoined free. 

Import Dnties 

Are levied on a fixed valuation, according to the following scale : — 

_ . , J . _, J ( in Spanish vessels 3 per cent. 

Spanish goods imported J j^ f^';;^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

_, . J . » J ( in Spanish vessels 7 „ 

Foreign goods imported J j^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^^,^ ^^ ; 

_, , , - ( Sin^raporc in Spanish ships 8 „ 

Do. do. except from { china in Spanish ships 9 „ 

-, . . ,. _ a ■ C in Spanish ships 10 „ 

Spirituous liquors from Spam > . ^ ^^^^-^^ j^^^^*;^^ yg | 

_^ J r- 4 C in Spanish ships .. 30 „ 

Do. do. foreign ports J ^^^^»;^j^^ ^^^^^^ gp ^^ 

Beer and cider from Spain J '^ |jidgn''bottSmB" ! . .' ! i " ! ;. ! ! '. ". '. 10 \\ 

^ J r • -* ( in Spanish ships 20 „ 

Do. do. foreign ports ^.^^^ij^jg^^j^ip'^ ^ ^^ 

„ ., i. 11 _» ( in Spanish vessels 3 ,, 

Spanish wines of all sorts, J .^ ^^^^-^^^ ^^jp^ f^^^ gp^j„ g ^^ 

Wines of all sorts, from fo- C in Spanish vessels 40 „ 

reign countries ^ in foreign ships 50 „ 

Except champagne and con- C in Spanish vessels 7 „ 

stancia, ( in foreign crail 14 „ 

Foreign fabrics of cotton and silk in imitation of native cloths, Sj»m.h Fomgj 
especially 'stripes or checks of black, blue or purple colors, 
grey, white or stamped cottons from Madras or Bengal, towels, 
napkins, and table-cloths 15 ^ c«. 25 

Cotton twist, grey, black, blue, or purple, bolos (a kind of bowie- 
knife), clothes, boots, shoes, preserved, candied, or pickled fruits 40 50 

Madras handkerchiefs and cambayas 20 30 

Bicho-de-mar, rattans, diamonds, tortoise-shell, birds-nests and 

mother-o'-pearl • 1 2 

Machines of all kinds for the improvement of native industry, 
(except printing-presses) red, yellow, and green cotton twist, 
gold and silver coin and bullion, plants and seeds free. 

Tropical productions like those of the Philippines, gunpowder and 

arrack prohibited. 

Opium is received in deposit, and sold by permission of government 

to the Chinese settlers alone. Swords, fire-arms, muskets, pistols, 

and all kinds of weapons (except cannon and side-arms), cannot be 

imported for consumption without special permission, but may be 



Singapore. Malacca. Ptnang. Coins in use, ff'eiglUs. 

Section 12. 

The chief coins throughout Ultra-gangetic India are the rupee and 
dollar. The only native coin that we know of among the Malay 
states is one made of tin, somewhat larger than the Chinese cash. 
Foreign moneys have therefore free access into these states, especial- 
ly Republican dollars, and the Dutch coins in use at Batavia. In 
places under the British government, the rupee, with its subdivision- 
al annas and pice, have been introduced, but they have not become 
the commercial currency, except at Penang. 

At Singapore, the government accounts are kept in rupees of 16 
annas and 192 pice. Commercial accounts are kept in dollars and 
cents. The current copper money is a mixture of Dutch doits, pice 
of the Company's coinage, and coin of private manufacture, of equal 
value with the doit ; all which pass under the name of pice. Ten 
pice make Ifanam; and from 31 to 32 fanams make 1 ringit ox 

Malacca has the same currency as Singapore, with the addition 
of a few old Dutch moneys, viz., the rix dollar and guilder, and their 
subdivisional parts. The rix dollar is a nominal coin in which ac- 
counts are kept, of from 19 to 20 fanams, or about 192 doits; gooda 
are bought and sold in Dutch dollars. The guilder or rupee has the 
value of 12 fanams; half rupees and schillings are also met with. 
The copper coins are the cent, half cent, and quarter cent, and a 
variety of others of different countries. The following is the rela- 
tive value of some of the coins at Malacca. 

18 TangeeB or Bchillings,") fl Dutch dollar; 

•20 Do. * * ' M ^P'^i'sh dollar ; 

4 Doits, - • I I 1 Stiver ; 

6 Stivers - . - i "I Schilling; 

8 Schillings, - • | make j 1 Rix dollar ; 

13 do. - • • I M Ducatoon ; 

ID do. • • I I I English crown ; 

4 do. • - -J 1. 1 Madras or Arcot rupee. 

At Penang, the currency is less mixed than at Singapore and 
Malacca. Accounts are kept for the most part in rupees, annas, 
and pice, and copangs, which is a nominal money of the value of 
ten pice. Dollars always pass current. Gold coins, other than 
English sovereigns, are rarely met with in the Straits. 

The same denominations of money, weights and measures prevail, 
with various degrees of relative distinction, throughout most of the 
native Malay states. 

Weights. The commercial weights in use, among Europeans and 
natives, are the Chinese pecul, catty, and tael.* A little discrepancy 

* The word pecul is Malayan and means a load or burden ; mace and tael are 
derived, through the Malay, from the Hindoo masha and tolak. 


Mtasures among the Malays. JVb coins in Bwmah. Burmese ff'eifrhts. 

exists in the weight of the pccul and catty in some places; and 
sometimes there is a distinction made between the Chinese and 
Malay pecul ; the latter is equal, at Penang, to I42§ lbs. avoirdupois. 
This discrepancy arises from the use of the bakr, which yaries con- 
siderably in weight, and is divided into 3 Malay peculs; the bakr is 
equal at Penang to 421 catties. By the Malay pecul, goods are 
purchased from native vessels ; but they are re-sold by the Chinese 
pecul. By the coyang of 40 Chinese peculs, grain and salt are sold. 
The coyang at Penang is a measure ; 45 peculs of ric*, or 43 of salt, 
make a measurement coyang. Gold thread qt Penang is sold by the 
catty of ^'S6 weight, or 31 oz. 4 dwts. The Chinese dotchin (szema) 
is commonly met with ; but among merchants, English weights and 
scales are generally used. Gold dust is weighed by the bunkal, equal 
to 82, or 832 grs. troy, which is divided into 16 maims, each maim 
containing 12 sagas; a catty of gold is lf|^ of the common catty. 
Pulse, dholl, and rice from Bengal are sold by the bag of 2 bazar 
maunds, or 164J /6s. Piece goods are sold by the corge of 20 pieces, 
and Java tobacco by the corge of 40 baskets. At Malacca, the pecul 
weighs 135 lbs. av. ; and 3 peculs or a bahr is 428 lbs. 

Measures. The measures of length frequently used by the Malays 
and other natives is the hasta or cubit, equal to 18 English inches ; 
but among Chinese, as well as Europeans, the English yard is al- 
ways used. The following are the terms employed in land measures. 

4 Hastas ^ C\ Depa ; = 2 yards English. 

2 Depas > make < 1 Jumba; = 4 — — 
20 Jumbas ) ( 1 Orlong. =80 — — or 1 -j-^ acre. 

The chief measure of capacity is the gantang, divided into 4 
chupahs, each about 2^ lbs. av. ; the gantang is equal to 271.65 cubic 
inches, or 1 J gallon ; \0 gantang make 1 parah, and 20 make a 
pecul ; QdQ gantang are counted to a coyang, about 2 tons of 7 cwt. 

Sectfon 12. 

There is no coinage in this country ; silver and lead pass in frag- 
ments, and are cut up and weighed, the former of various degrees 
of purity, and of every size from a round cake weighing 2 or 3 ticals, 
to small bits. Lead is usually reckoned at 500 to 1 of pure silver ; 
but sometimes 15 viss of lead are given for a tical, and in cities 
only 7 or 8 viss. The rupee generally circulates as a tical, and the 
Indian currency is more and more extending throughout Burraah. 

Burman weights are exhibited in the following table, and are used 
both for goods and money. 

2 Small Ruays equal 1 Large Ruay, or 1 pice. 

4 Large Ruays 1 Bai or Ruay,. . . 1 anna. 

2 Bais ' 1 Moo, 2 annaB. 


Burmese Measures of Length and Capacity. Coins in India. Rupee. 

2 ,Moo8 1 Mat, 4 annas, ((>2i grains troy.) 

4 Mats 1 Kyat, I tical, (25'.i grains troy) 

100 Kyats 1 Piakthah or viss (3 6 5 lbs. avoirdupois ) 

The small ruay is the little scarlet bean (Abrus prccatorius) with 
a black spot upon it, called in America, crab's eye. The large ruay 
is the black oblong bean of the Adenanthera yavonina. The other 
weights are of brass, handsomely cast, and polished. 
Measures of Length. 

8 Thits (fingers' breadth) equal 1 Maik, (breadth of the hand with thumb 

l^ Maiks 1 Twah (span ) [axtended.) 

2 Twahs 1 Toung (cubit.) 

4 ToungB 1 Lan (fathom.) 

7 do 1 Tah (bamboo or rod.) 

140 do. or 20 Tabs 1 Oke-tha-pah. 

7000 do. or jnoo Tabs 1 Taing (2 miles, 581 ft. H in.) 

6i?- Taings or Baiiigs, or 6400 ) 1 Uzena, or about 12.72 miles, (in little 
"* Tabs, or 320 Okethapas, 5 "se except in the sacred books.) 

Measures of Capacity. 

2 Lamyets arc equal to 1 Lamay . 

2 Lamays I Salay (about I pint.) 

4 Salay 8 1 Pyee (two quarts.) 

2 Pyees 1 Sah (a gallon.) 

2 Sahs 1 Saik(apeck.) 

2 Saiks 1 Kwai. 

2 Kwais 1 Ten. 

100 Tens I Coyan. 

The ten is what Europeans in the country call a basket, from the 
basket measure of that capacity. This full of clean rice is a com- 
mon allowance to a laborer for one month. It is deemed to weigh 
58| /6s. av. or sixteen viss, or forty Penang catties. 

iSectfon 13 

The old moneys of India, though consisting of but a few denomi- 
nations, were extremelj various in their intrinsic value. While the 
Mogul emperors were sole sovereigns of Hindostan, there was 
throughout their dominion?, but one kind of silver coin, denomi- 
nated the Sicca Rupee, as being of the weight called sicca, which 
was the unit of size for all other weights. The sicca weight an- 
swered to 1793 grains English, and was also divided into 16 annas, 
each anna subdivided mto 12 pie ; it was also divided into tnashas, 
but the relative value of the rupee and masha appears to have varied. 
The gold mohur was of the same weight as the sicca rupee, and 
both were of extreme finenes.s. When the native princes estnbii.shed 
mmts in their several states, they in course of lime, varied from the 


Moneys, weiohts, and measures. 

Indian coins and Iheir Proportions. Rates of various Rupees. Cowries. 

original standard, particularly in the purity of their coins. Hence 
the mutiplied variety of rupees throughout India. 

Since the establishment of British power, a more uniform curren- 
cy has been established throughout India and its dependencies. 
The following table exhibits the scheme of the British-Indian mone- 
tary system, as at present established. 


Co. Rupee. 




Weight in 


Calcutta 1 






£1. Vis.Bd. 

Madras & 
Bombay 1 






£1. 9s. 3d. 






Is. Hid. 






The gold coins current (which can only be coined at Calcutta) 
are the old Calcutta mohur and the new standard mohur, and the 
Madras gold rupee, with half and quarter mohurs of proportionate 
weight. The silver coins are the rupee, halves, quarters, and two 
annas ; of copper, there are half annas, pice or pysa (equal to three 
pie), and small coin of the value of one pie. 

The standard of Bengal money is silver ; the sicca rupee is a very 
common coin. It retains the